The dynamism of transposon methylation for plant development and stress adaptation

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Ramakrishnan , M , Satish , L , Kalendar , R , Mathiyazhagan , N , Sabariswaran , K , Sharma , A , Emamverdian , A , Wei , Q & Zhou , M 2021 , ' The dynamism of transposon methylation for plant development and stress adaptation ' , International Journal of Molecular Sciences , vol. 22 , no. 21 , 11387 .

Title: The dynamism of transposon methylation for plant development and stress adaptation
Author: Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy; Satish, Lakkakula; Kalendar, Ruslan; Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Sabariswaran, Kandasamy; Sharma, Anket; Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Mingbing
Contributor organization: Institute of Biotechnology
Crop Science Research Group
Department of Agricultural Sciences
Date: 2021-11
Language: eng
Number of pages: 40
Belongs to series: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN: 1422-0067
Abstract: Plant development processes are regulated by epigenetic alterations that shape nuclear structure, gene expression, and phenotypic plasticity; these alterations can provide the plant with protection from environmental stresses. During plant growth and development, these processes play a significant role in regulating gene expression to remodel chromatin structure. These epigenetic alterations are mainly regulated by transposable elements (TEs) whose abundance in plant genomes results in their interaction with genomes. Thus, TEs are the main source of epigenetic changes and form a substantial part of the plant genome. Furthermore, TEs can be activated under stress conditions, and activated elements cause mutagenic effects and substantial genetic variability. This introduces novel gene functions and structural variation in the insertion sites and primarily contributes to epigenetic modifications. Altogether, these modifications indirectly or directly provide the ability to withstand environmental stresses. In recent years, many studies have shown that TE methylation plays a major role in the evolution of the plant genome through epigenetic process that regulate gene imprinting, thereby upholding genome stability. The induced genetic rearrangements and insertions of mobile genetic elements in regions of active euchromatin contribute to genome alteration, leading to genomic stress. These TE-mediated epigenetic modifications lead to phenotypic diversity, genetic variation, and environmental stress tolerance. Thus, TE methylation is essential for plant evolution and stress adaptation, and TEs hold a relevant military position in the plant genome. High-throughput techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of TE-mediated gene expression and its associations with genome methylation and suggest that controlled mobilization of TEs could be used for crop breeding. However, development application in this area has been limited, and an integrated view of TE function and subsequent processes is lacking. In this review, we explore the enormous diversity and likely functions of the TE repertoire in adaptive evolution and discuss some recent examples of how TEs impact gene expression in plant development and stress adaptation.
Description: Correction: Ramakrishnan et al. The Dynamism of Transposon Methylation for Plant Development and Stress Adaptation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11387
Subject: 11831 Plant biology
transposable elements
gene regulation
TE methylation
measurement of TEs
TE machine learning tool
plant stress tolerance
non-coding RNAs
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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