Dog colour patterns explained by modular promoters of ancient canid origin

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Bannasch , D L , Kaelin , C B , Letko , A , Loechel , R , Hug , P , Jagannathan , V , Henkel , J , Roosje , P , Hytönen , M K , Lohi , H , Arumilli , M , Minor , K M , Mickelson , J R , Drogemuller , C , Barsh , G S & Leeb , T 2021 , ' Dog colour patterns explained by modular promoters of ancient canid origin ' , Nature Ecology & Evolution , vol. 5 , no. 10 , pp. 1415–1423 .

Title: Dog colour patterns explained by modular promoters of ancient canid origin
Author: Bannasch, Danika L.; Kaelin, Christopher B.; Letko, Anna; Loechel, Robert; Hug, Petra; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Henkel, Jan; Roosje, Petra; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Arumilli, Meharji; Minor, Katie M.; Mickelson, James R.; Drogemuller, Cord; Barsh, Gregory S.; Leeb, Tosso
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Haartman Institute (-2014)
University of Helsinki, Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics

Date: 2021-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 18
Belongs to series: Nature Ecology & Evolution
ISSN: 2397-334X
Abstract: Distinctive colour patterns in dogs are an integral component of canine diversity. Colour pattern differences are thought to have arisen from mutation and artificial selection during and after domestication from wolves but important gaps remain in understanding how these patterns evolved and are genetically controlled. In other mammals, variation at the ASIP gene controls both the temporal and spatial distribution of yellow and black pigments. Here, we identify independent regulatory modules for ventral and hair cycle ASIP expression, and we characterize their action and evolutionary origin. Structural variants define multiple alleles for each regulatory module and are combined in different ways to explain five distinctive dog colour patterns. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the haplotype combination for one of these patterns is shared with Arctic white wolves and that its hair cycle-specific module probably originated from an extinct canid that diverged from grey wolves more than 2 million years ago. Natural selection for a lighter coat during the Pleistocene provided the genetic framework for widespread colour variation in dogs and wolves. Dogs exhibit remarkable variation in colour patterns. Here, the authors identify structural variants of independent regulatory modules for ventral and hair cycle expression of the ASIP gene that explain five distinctive dog colour patterns and trace back the origin of one colour pattern to an extinct canid.
413 Veterinary science

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