Dynamics of Salivary Adenosine Deaminase, Haptoglobin, and Cortisol in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Growing Pigs

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dc.contributor.author Sali, Virpi
dc.contributor.author Veit, Christina
dc.contributor.author Valros, Anna
dc.contributor.author Junnikkala, Sami
dc.contributor.author Heinonen, Mari
dc.contributor.author Nordgreen, Janicke
dc.date.accessioned 2021-11-18T14:03:05Z
dc.date.available 2021-11-18T14:03:05Z
dc.date.issued 2021-10-14
dc.identifier.citation Sali , V , Veit , C , Valros , A , Junnikkala , S , Heinonen , M & Nordgreen , J 2021 , ' Dynamics of Salivary Adenosine Deaminase, Haptoglobin, and Cortisol in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Growing Pigs ' , Frontiers in Veterinary Science , vol. 8 , 698628 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.698628
dc.identifier.other PURE: 170421329
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 47413ac7-0988-490a-8d45-094f13665ae2
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000716080000001
dc.identifier.other ORCID: /0000-0002-5732-0692/work/103423291
dc.identifier.other ORCID: /0000-0001-5173-7940/work/103424157
dc.identifier.other ORCID: /0000-0002-4431-3346/work/103424728
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/336512
dc.description.abstract Infectious and inflammatory conditions are common especially in growing pigs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important antigenic structure of Gram-negative bacteria and can be used to induce inflammation experimentally. As pigs are usually group-housed in commercial conditions, it is difficult to detect sick individuals, particularly at an early stage of illness. Acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin (Hp) are known indicators of an activated innate immune system whereas adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a relatively novel inflammatory biomarker in pigs. Both parameters can be measured in saliva and could be used as indicators of inflammation. Compared with blood sampling, saliva sampling is a less stressful procedure that is rapid, non-invasive and easy to perform both at group and at individual level. In this blinded randomized clinical trial, 32 female pigs at their post-weaning phase were allocated to one of four treatments comprising two injections of the following substance combinations: saline-saline (SS), ketoprofen-saline (KS), saline-LPS (SL), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). First, ketoprofen or saline was administered intramuscularly on average 1 h before either LPS or saline was given through an ear vein catheter. In all groups, saliva was collected prior to injections (baseline) and at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection for determination of ADA, Hp, and cortisol concentrations. A multivariate model was applied to describe the dynamics of each biomarker. Pairwise relationships between ADA, Hp, and cortisol responses from baseline to 4 h post-injection within the SL group were studied with Spearman correlations. A significant increase in the SL group was seen in all biomarkers 4 h post-injection compared to baseline and other time points (pairwise comparisons, p < 0.01 for all) and ketoprofen alleviated the LPS effect. We found a significant positive correlation between ADA and Hp within the SL group (r = 0.86, p < 0.05). The primary and novel findings of the present study are the response of ADA to LPS, its time course and alleviation by ketoprofen. Our results support the evidence that ADA and Hp can be used as inflammatory biomarkers in pigs. We suggest further studies to be conducted in commercial settings with larger sample sizes. en
dc.format.extent 7
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Frontiers in Veterinary Science
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject pig
dc.subject LPS
dc.subject ADA
dc.subject haptoglobin
dc.subject cortisol
dc.subject saliva
dc.subject experimental
dc.subject STRESS
dc.subject KETOPROFEN
dc.subject PATTERN
dc.subject MARKERS
dc.subject GENDER
dc.subject 413 Veterinary science
dc.title Dynamics of Salivary Adenosine Deaminase, Haptoglobin, and Cortisol in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Growing Pigs en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization Production Animal Medicine
dc.contributor.organization Helsinki One Health (HOH)
dc.contributor.organization Research Centre for Animal Welfare
dc.contributor.organization Laura Hänninen / Principal Investigator
dc.contributor.organization Veterinary Microbiology and Epidemiology
dc.contributor.organization Veterinary Biosciences
dc.contributor.organization Airi Palva / Principal Investigator
dc.contributor.organization Mari Heinonen / Principal Investigator
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.698628
dc.relation.issn 2297-1769
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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