Population Structure Limits Parallel Evolution in Sticklebacks

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Fang , B , Kemppainen , P , Momigliano , P & Merila , J 2021 , ' Population Structure Limits Parallel Evolution in Sticklebacks ' , Molecular Biology and Evolution , vol. 38 , no. 10 , pp. 4205-4221 . https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab144

Title: Population Structure Limits Parallel Evolution in Sticklebacks
Author: Fang, Bohao; Kemppainen, Petri; Momigliano, Paolo; Merila, Juha
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
University of Helsinki, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
University of Helsinki, Ecological Genetics Research Unit
University of Helsinki, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme

Date: 2021-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 17
Belongs to series: Molecular Biology and Evolution
ISSN: 0737-4038
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab144
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/336515
Abstract: Population genetic theory predicts that small effective population sizes (N-e) and restricted gene flow limit the potential for local adaptation. In particular, the probability of evolving similar phenotypes based on shared genetic mechanisms (i.e., parallel evolution), is expected to be reduced. We tested these predictions in a comparative genomic study of two ecologically similar and geographically codistributed stickleback species (viz. Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pungitius pungitius). We found that P. pungitius harbors less genetic diversity and exhibits higher levels of genetic differentiation and isolation-by-distance than G. aculeatus. Conversely, G. aculeatus exhibits a stronger degree of genetic parallelism across freshwater populations than P. pungitius: 2,996 versus 379 single nucleotide polymorphisms located within 26 versus 9 genomic regions show evidence of selection in multiple freshwater populations of G. aculeatus and P. pungitius, respectively. Most regions involved in parallel evolution in G. aculeatus showed increased levels of divergence, suggestive of selection on ancient haplotypes. In contrast, haplotypes involved in freshwater adaptation in P. pungitius were younger. In accordance with theory, the results suggest that connectivity and genetic drift play crucial roles in determining the levels and geographic distribution of standing genetic variation, providing evidence that population subdivision limits local adaptation and therefore also the likelihood of parallel evolution.
Subject: adaptation
genetic diversity
isolation by distance
population differentiation
parallel evolution
stickleback
PUNGITIUS-PUNGITIUS
GASTEROSTEUS-ACULEATUS
FRESH-WATER
GENETIC DIVERSITY
LOCAL ADAPTATION
GENOMIC BASIS
MODEL
MARINE
SPECIATION
DETERMINANTS
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
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