Quantification of different microplastic fibres discharged from textiles in machine wash and tumble drying

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Kärkkäinen, N., Sillanpää, M. Quantification of different microplastic fibres discharged from textiles in machine wash and tumble drying. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 16253–16263 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11988-2

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Title: Quantification of different microplastic fibres discharged from textiles in machine wash and tumble drying
Author: Kärkkäinen, Niina; Sillanpää, Markus
Publisher: Springer
Date: 2021
Language: en
Belongs to series: Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 16253–16263 (2021)
ISSN: 0944-1344
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/336702
Abstract: Microplastic fibres released in synthetic cloth washing have been shown to be a source of microplastics into the environment. The annual emission of polyester fibres from household washing machines has earlier been estimated to be 150,000 kg in a country with a population of 5.5 × 106 (Finland). The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the emissions of synthetic textile fibres discharged from five sequential machine washes (fibre number and length) and tumble dryings (fibre mass) and (2) to determine the collection efficiency of two commercial fibre traps. The synthetic fabrics were five types of polyester textiles, one polyamide and one polyacryl. The number of fibres released from the test fabrics in the first wash varied in the range from 1.0 × 105 to 6.3 × 106 kg−1. The fibre lengths showed that the fleece fabrics released, on average, longer fibres than the technical sports t-shirts. The mass of fibres ranged from 10 to 1700 mg/kg w/w in the first drying. Fibre emissions showed a decreasing trend both in sequential washes and dryings. The ratio of the fibre emissions in machine wash to tumble drying varied between the fabrics: the ratio was larger than one to polyester and polyamide technical t-shirts whereas it was much lower to the other tested textiles. GuppyFriend washing bag and Cora Ball trapped 39% and 10% of the polyester fibres discharged in washings, respectively.
Subject: microplastic
polyester
polyamide
polyacryl
washing machine
tumble drier
household
emission
Subject (ysa): ympäristönsuojelu
ympäristötekniikka
kotitaloudet
tekstiilit
päästöt
ympäristökuormitus
muovi
polyamidi
mikrokuidut
pesukoneet
akryyli
polyesteri
pyykinpesukoneet
kuivausrummut
Rights: Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.


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