Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer : An Unexplored Territory

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Amatya , S B , Salmi , S , Kainulainen , V , Karihtala , P & Reunanen , J 2021 , ' Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer : An Unexplored Territory ' , Cancers , vol. 13 , no. 21 , 5450 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215450

Title: Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer : An Unexplored Territory
Author: Amatya, Sajeen Bahadur; Salmi, Sonja; Kainulainen, Veera; Karihtala, Peeter; Reunanen, Justus
Contributor organization: HUMI - Human Microbiome Research
Medicum
Department of Oncology
HUS Comprehensive Cancer Center
Date: 2021-11
Language: eng
Number of pages: 26
Belongs to series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215450
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/337457
Abstract: Simple Summary:& nbsp;Microbial dysbiosis has been credited as one of the contributing factors to the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract cancer. The altered microbiota influences carcinogenesis through the induction of instability and damage to genetic material, modulation of host metabolic and inflammatory pathways, production of carcinogenic metabolites, and suppression of host antitumor response. These microbes secrete extracellular vesicles that are possibly carrying carcinogenic bioactive metabolites within their cargo. Studies have illustrated the ability of bacterial extracellular vesicles to cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and selectively accumulate near intestinal tumor cells. The purpose of this systemic review was to highlight the possible role of gut bacterial vesicles in the development, progression, and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract cancer and their possible involvement in the modulation of the tumor microenvironment. An infinitesimal amount of research has been carried out on the impact of bacterial extracellular vesicles on oncogenesis and tumor progression. This review aimed to encourage more investigations on this subject.Bacterial extracellular vesicles are membrane-enclosed, lipid bi-layer nanostructures that carry different classes of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and diverse types of small molecular metabolites, as their cargo. Almost all of the bacteria in the gut secrete extracellular vesicles to assist them in competition, survival, material exchange, host immune modulation, infection, and invasion. The role of gut microbiota in the development, progression, and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer has been well documented. However, the possible involvement of bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) in GIT cancer pathophysiology has not been given due attention. Studies have illustrated the ability of bEVs to cross physiological barriers, selectively accumulate near tumor cells, and possibly alter the tumor microenvironment (TME). A systematic search of original published works related to bacterial extracellular vesicles on gastrointestinal cancer was performed for this review. The current systemic review outlines the possible impact of gut microbiota derived bEVs in GIT cancer in light of present-day understanding. The necessity of using advanced sequencing technologies, such as genetic, proteomic, and metabolomic investigation methodologies, to facilitate an understanding of the interrelationship between cancer-associated bacterial vesicles and gastrointestinal cancer is also emphasized. We further discuss the clinical and pharmaceutical potential of bEVs, along with future efforts needed to understand the mechanism of interaction of bEVs in GIT cancer pathogenesis.
Subject: gastrointestinal tract
microbiota
extracellular vesicles
cancer
OUTER-MEMBRANE-VESICLES
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
ESCHERICHIA-COLI
FUSOBACTERIUM-NUCLEATUM
PORPHYROMONAS-GINGIVALIS
PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA
COLORECTAL-CANCER
GUT MICROBIOTA
PERIPLASMIC PROTEINS
HELICOBACTER-PYLORI
3122 Cancers
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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