Inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluids of pregnant, non-pregnant, and intrauterine device implanted mares on Days 10 and 15 post ovulation

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Alamo , M M R D , Reilas , T , Lukasik , K , Galvão , A , Yeste , M & Katila , T 2021 , ' Inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluids of pregnant, non-pregnant, and intrauterine device implanted mares on Days 10 and 15 post ovulation ' , Animals , vol. 11 , no. 12 , 3493 . https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123493

Title: Inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluids of pregnant, non-pregnant, and intrauterine device implanted mares on Days 10 and 15 post ovulation
Author: Alamo, Maria Montserrat Rivera del; Reilas, Tiina; Lukasik, Karolina; Galvão, Antonio; Yeste, Marc; Katila, Terttu
Contributor organization: Departments of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Date: 2021-12
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Animals
ISSN: 2076-2615
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123493
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/338720
Abstract: Simple Summary While intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used to prevent disturbing oestrous behaviour in sport mares, their mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The presence of an embryo or an IUD prevents cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequently prostaglandin (PG) release and luteolysis. It has been suggested that a plastic sphere would mimic the embryo by mechanotransduction. However, there is some evidence that IUDs also cause endometrial inflammation, which might contribute to luteostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and time course of possible inflammation by evaluating changes in uterine fluid composition. On Day 10 after ovulation, events leading to COX-2 and prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) inhibition start, whereas either luteolysis occurs or the corpus luteum is maintained on Day 15. Therefore, uterine lavage fluid was evaluated at two time points in inseminated mares, either pregnant or not, and in mares inserted with an IUD. On Day 10, PGF(2 alpha) concentration in the fluid was significantly lower in the IUD group than in the pregnant mare one but did not differ from the non-pregnant mare group. On Day 15, the IUD group had significantly higher levels of the modulatory cytokine IL-10 and inhibin A, which could indicate previous inflammation and resolution stage. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used in mares to suppress oestrous behaviour, but the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The presence of an embryo or an IUD prevents cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and, subsequently, prostaglandin (PG) release and luteolysis. However, inflammation may also be involved. Endometrial inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluid were measured on Day 10 (EXP 1, n = 25) and Day 15 (EXP 2, n = 27) after ovulation in inseminated mares, non-pregnant or pregnant, and in mares in which a small plastic sphere had been inserted into the uterus 4 (EXP 1) or 3 days (EXP 2) after ovulation. Uterine lavage fluid samples were analysed for nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) (only EXP 1), prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)), inhibin A and cytokines, and blood samples for progesterone and oestradiol. On Day 10, the concentration of PGF(2 alpha) was lower (p < 0.05) in the IUD group than in pregnant mares. The concentration of the modulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in the IUD group in comparison to non-pregnant mares, and inhibin A was significantly higher in IUD mares than in the pregnant counterparts on Day 15. The results suggest that the presence of IUD causes endometrial inflammation which is at a resolution stage on Day 15.
Subject: ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL CELLS
EQUINE ENDOMETRIUM
EXPRESSION
FERTILITY
IL-10
LUTEAL FUNCTION
MECHANISMS
MESSENGER-RNA
MODULATION
NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE
TROPHOBLAST
cytokines
inflammation
inhibin A
intrauterine device
prostaglandins
413 Veterinary science
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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