Clinical characteristics and evaluation of the incidence of cryptococcosis in Finland 2004-2018

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Toivonen , A , Eriksson , M , Friberg , N , Hautala , T , Kääriäinen , S , Leppaaho-Lakka , J , Mikkola , J , Nieminen , T , Oksi , J , Salonen , J H , Suomalainen , P , Vanttinen , M , Jarva , H & Jääskeläinen , A J 2021 , ' Clinical characteristics and evaluation of the incidence of cryptococcosis in Finland 2004-2018 ' , Infectious Diseases , vol. 53 , no. 9 , pp. 684-690 .

Title: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of the incidence of cryptococcosis in Finland 2004-2018
Author: Toivonen, Anne; Eriksson, Mari; Friberg, Nathalie; Hautala, Timo; Kääriäinen, Sohvi; Leppaaho-Lakka, Jaana; Mikkola, Janne; Nieminen, Tuomas; Oksi, Jarmo; Salonen, Juha H.; Suomalainen, Pekka; Vanttinen, Markku; Jarva, Hanna; Jääskeläinen, Annemarjut J.
Contributor organization: HUSLAB
HUS Diagnostic Center
University of Helsinki
Helsinki University Hospital Area
HUS Internal Medicine and Rehabilitation
Department of Medicine
HUS Inflammation Center
Infektiosairauksien yksikkö
Research Programs Unit
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology
TRIMM - Translational Immunology Research Program
Viral Zoonosis Research Unit
Department of Virology
Date: 2021-09-02
Language: eng
Number of pages: 7
Belongs to series: Infectious Diseases
ISSN: 2374-4235
Abstract: Background Cryptococcosis is one of the major causes of mortality among HIV patients worldwide. Though most often associated with late stage HIV infection/AIDS, a significant number of cases occur in other immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant recipients and patients with hematological malignancies. Immunocompromised patients are a heterogeneous group and their number increases constantly. Since little is known about the incidence and the clinical features of cryptococcosis in Northern Europe, our aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis patients in Finland. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the laboratory confirmed cryptococcosis cases in Finland during 2004-2018. Only those who were treated for cryptococcosis were included in the study. Initial laboratory findings and medical records were also collected. Results A total of 22 patients with cryptococcosis were included in our study. The annual incidence of cryptococcosis was 0.03 cases per 100,000 population. Ten patients were HIV-positive and 12 out of 22 were HIV-negative. Hematological malignancy was the most common underlying condition among HIV-negative patients. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study of the clinical presentation and incidence of cryptococcosis in Finland. We demonstrate that invasive cryptococcal infection occurs not only in HIV/AIDS patients or otherwise immunocompromised patients but also in immunocompetent individuals. Even though cryptococcosis is extremely rare in Finland, its recognition is important since the prognosis depends on rapid diagnostics and early antifungal therapy.
Subject: Cryptococcosis
cryptococcal infection
Cryptococcus neoformans
Cryptococcus gattii
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by_nc_nd
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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