Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/340492

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Radi , F Z , Bouhrim , M , Mechchate , H , Al-zahrani , M , Qurtam , A A , Aleissa , A M , Drioiche , A , Handaq , N & Zair , T 2022 , ' Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils ' , Plants (Basel) , vol. 11 , no. 1 , 15 . https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010015

Julkaisun nimi: Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils
Tekijä: Radi, Fatima Zahrae; Bouhrim, Mohamed; Mechchate, Hamza; Al-zahrani, Mohammed; Qurtam, Ashraf Ahmed; Aleissa, Abdulmalik M.; Drioiche, Aziz; Handaq, Nadia; Zair, Touriya
Tekijän organisaatio: Department of Chemistry
Päiväys: 2022-01
Kieli: eng
Sivumäärä: 21
Kuuluu julkaisusarjaan: Plants (Basel)
ISSN: 2223-7747
DOI-tunniste: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/340492
Tiivistelmä: Essential oils (EOs) are chemical products produced by odoriferous glands from a variety of plants. These essential oils have many health benefits: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. So due to these medicinal properties, the present study was designed to analyze essential oils of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. for their chemical composition and biological activities. These two thyme species were collected from the region of Ifrane, Middle Atlas of Morocco. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were 5.25% for T. zygis and 3.00% for T. willdenowii. The chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the results showed that T. zygis EO is dominated by carvacrol (52.5%), o-cymene (23.14%), and thymol (9.68%), while the EO of T. willdenowii contains germacrene D (16.51%), carvacrol (16.19%), and geranyl acetate (8.35%) as major compounds. The antioxidant activity assessed by Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that both EOs have excellent antioxidant activities; by DPPH it resulted in IC50 = 6.13 +/- 0.11 for T. zygis and 6.78 +/- 0.3 mu g/mL for T. willdenowii, while the one by FRAP yielded EC50 = 2.46 +/- 0.01 (T. zygis) and 5.17 +/- 0.2 (T. willdenowii) mu g/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the two essential oils was evaluated against six bacterial strains and five fungal strains by the disk diffusion method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). The EOs revealed variable antimicrobial activities against the different tested microbial strains and showed strong antimicrobial activities, even against strains known as multi-resistant to antibiotics (Acinetobacter baumannii) at low concentrations (2 mu L/mL). T. zygis EO showed the most powerful activity against all the studied bacteria, while that of T. willdenowii recorded moderate activity when tested against Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella Typhi. With inhibition diameters that vary between 75 mm and 84 mm for concentrations of 2 mu L/mL up to 12 mu L/mL, S. aureus was shown to be the most sensitive to T. zygis EO. For the antifungal activity test, T. zygis EO showed the best inhibition diameters compared to T. willdenowii EO. These results showed that T. zygis EO has more powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial activities than T. willdenowii EO, therefore, we deduce that thyme EOs are excellent antioxidants, they have strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent new sources of natural antiseptics that can be used in pharmaceutical and food industry.
Avainsanat: Thymus zygis L
Thymus willdenowii Boiss
volatile compounds
GC-MS analysis
bacteria
fungi
molds
multi-resistant bacteria
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT
VULGARIS L.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION
SEASONAL-VARIATION
VARIABILITY
GRACILIS
QUALITY
AGENTS
PLANTS
116 Chemical sciences
Vertaisarvioitu: Kyllä
Tekijänoikeustiedot: cc_by
Pääsyrajoitteet: openAccess
Rinnakkaistallennettu versio: publishedVersion


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