Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils

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dc.contributor.author Radi, Fatima Zahrae
dc.contributor.author Bouhrim, Mohamed
dc.contributor.author Mechchate, Hamza
dc.contributor.author Al-zahrani, Mohammed
dc.contributor.author Qurtam, Ashraf Ahmed
dc.contributor.author Aleissa, Abdulmalik M.
dc.contributor.author Drioiche, Aziz
dc.contributor.author Handaq, Nadia
dc.contributor.author Zair, Touriya
dc.date.accessioned 2022-02-17T04:01:10Z
dc.date.available 2022-02-17T04:01:10Z
dc.date.issued 2022-01
dc.identifier.citation Radi , F Z , Bouhrim , M , Mechchate , H , Al-zahrani , M , Qurtam , A A , Aleissa , A M , Drioiche , A , Handaq , N & Zair , T 2022 , ' Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils ' , Plants (Basel) , vol. 11 , no. 1 , 15 . https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010015
dc.identifier.other PURE: 174221849
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: a9ef8bca-6407-436f-bda5-313abb80056f
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000751304500001
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/340492
dc.description.abstract Essential oils (EOs) are chemical products produced by odoriferous glands from a variety of plants. These essential oils have many health benefits: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. So due to these medicinal properties, the present study was designed to analyze essential oils of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. for their chemical composition and biological activities. These two thyme species were collected from the region of Ifrane, Middle Atlas of Morocco. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were 5.25% for T. zygis and 3.00% for T. willdenowii. The chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the results showed that T. zygis EO is dominated by carvacrol (52.5%), o-cymene (23.14%), and thymol (9.68%), while the EO of T. willdenowii contains germacrene D (16.51%), carvacrol (16.19%), and geranyl acetate (8.35%) as major compounds. The antioxidant activity assessed by Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that both EOs have excellent antioxidant activities; by DPPH it resulted in IC50 = 6.13 +/- 0.11 for T. zygis and 6.78 +/- 0.3 mu g/mL for T. willdenowii, while the one by FRAP yielded EC50 = 2.46 +/- 0.01 (T. zygis) and 5.17 +/- 0.2 (T. willdenowii) mu g/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the two essential oils was evaluated against six bacterial strains and five fungal strains by the disk diffusion method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). The EOs revealed variable antimicrobial activities against the different tested microbial strains and showed strong antimicrobial activities, even against strains known as multi-resistant to antibiotics (Acinetobacter baumannii) at low concentrations (2 mu L/mL). T. zygis EO showed the most powerful activity against all the studied bacteria, while that of T. willdenowii recorded moderate activity when tested against Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella Typhi. With inhibition diameters that vary between 75 mm and 84 mm for concentrations of 2 mu L/mL up to 12 mu L/mL, S. aureus was shown to be the most sensitive to T. zygis EO. For the antifungal activity test, T. zygis EO showed the best inhibition diameters compared to T. willdenowii EO. These results showed that T. zygis EO has more powerful antioxidant and antimicrobial activities than T. willdenowii EO, therefore, we deduce that thyme EOs are excellent antioxidants, they have strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent new sources of natural antiseptics that can be used in pharmaceutical and food industry. en
dc.format.extent 21
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Plants (Basel)
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Thymus zygis L
dc.subject Thymus willdenowii Boiss
dc.subject volatile compounds
dc.subject GC-MS analysis
dc.subject bacteria
dc.subject fungi
dc.subject molds
dc.subject multi-resistant bacteria
dc.subject IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT
dc.subject VULGARIS L.
dc.subject ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
dc.subject CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION
dc.subject SEASONAL-VARIATION
dc.subject VARIABILITY
dc.subject GRACILIS
dc.subject QUALITY
dc.subject AGENTS
dc.subject PLANTS
dc.subject 116 Chemical sciences
dc.title Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Thymus zygis L. and Thymus willdenowii Boiss. Essential Oils en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization Department of Chemistry
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010015
dc.relation.issn 2223-7747
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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