Educational attainment of same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins : An individual-level pooled study of 19 twin cohorts

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Silventoinen , K , Bogl , L H , Jelenkovic , A , Vuoksimaa , E , Latvala , A , Li , W , Tan , Q , Zhang , D , Pang , Z , Ordoñana , J R , Sánchez-Romera , J F , Colodro-Conde , L , Willemsen , G , Bartels , M , van Beijsterveldt , C E M , Rebato , E , Corley , R P , Huibregtse , B M , Hopper , J L , Tyler , J , Duncan , G E , Buchwald , D , Silberg , J L , Maes , H H , Kandler , C , Cozen , W , Hwang , A E , Mack , T M , Nelson , T L , Whitfield , K E , Medda , E , Nisticò , L , Toccaceli , V , Krueger , R F , McGue , M , Pahlen , S , Martin , N G , Medland , S E , Montgomery , G W , Heikkilä , K , Derom , C A , Vlietinck , R F , Loos , R J F , Magnusson , P K E , Pedersen , N L , Dahl Aslan , A K , Hotopf , M , Sumathipala , A , Rijsdijk , F , Siribaddana , S H , Rose , R J , Sørensen , T I A , Boomsma , D I & Kaprio , J 2021 , ' Educational attainment of same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins : An individual-level pooled study of 19 twin cohorts ' , Hormones and Behavior , vol. 136 , 105054 .

Title: Educational attainment of same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins : An individual-level pooled study of 19 twin cohorts
Author: Silventoinen, Karri; Bogl, Leonie H.; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Latvala, Antti; Li, Weilong; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.M.; Rebato, Esther; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Hopper, John L.; Tyler, Jessica; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine H.; Kandler, Christian; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Rose, Richard J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko
Contributor organization: Helsinki Inequality Initiative (INEQ)
Population Research Unit (PRU)
Center for Population, Health and Society
Department of Social Research (2010-2017)
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland
Department of Physiology
Department of Public Health
Cognitive and Brain Aging
Faculty Common Matters (Faculty of Medicine)
Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy
Faculty Common Matters (Faculty of Education)
Technology Centre
Date: 2021-11
Language: eng
Belongs to series: Hormones and Behavior
ISSN: 0018-506X
Abstract: Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (β = −0.05 educational years, 95% CI −0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (β = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.
Subject: Education
Testosterone exposure
Twin testosterone transfer hypothesis
1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
5141 Sociology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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