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  • Järvinen, Onni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Antarctica is a major component in the climate system of the earth, acting as a large heat sink in the energy balance. The climatic conditions of Antarctica maintain the snow and ice cover that blankets almost completely the surface area of the continent. Physical properties of snow readily respond to changing environmental conditions and remote sensing signals are sensitive to these properties. The annual changes in the physical properties of the snow cover, especially in the coastal area, must be taken into account when snow cover and climate models are produced. In situ observations are needed for calibration and validation of these models. The aim of the present study was to examine the annual cycle of the active 10-m surface layer in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The data were collected along a 300-km-long transect from the coast to the edge of the high plateau during the field campaigns in austral summers 2004-2005, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 as a part of the Finnish Antarctic Research Programme (FINNARP). The studies were focused on the uppermost part of the ice sheet covering the most recent annual accumulation in the coastal area. The results showed that the present study lakes froze completely during winter and showed similar evolution but the exact timing depended on the location. In January, the general structure of lake Suvivesi was following: two layers, each about 1 m thick, an upper layer with a thin ice layer on top and main body of liquid water, and a lower layer containing slush and hard ice sub-layers. The formation and the depth scale of the present study lakes are determined by the light extinction distance and thermal diffusion coefficient, limiting the growth to less than ~1.5 m in one summer. In Antarctica, the mean spectral diffuse extinction coefficient varied between 0.04 and 0.31 cm-1 (10-20-cm snow layer) and varied only slightly between locations when the grain type was the same. The theoretically calculated average depth where broadband irradiance (400-700-nm band) was 1 % of the downwelling irradiance at the surface, was 50 cm. On the continental ice sheet, the compaction rate of the snowpack was 0.0201 ± 0.02 y-1 and the power spectra revealed a daily cycle, synoptic scale variability (~10 days), and variability in a low-frequency band of 60-120 days at a depth of 54 cm. The investigations of snow patches in Basen nunatak revealed that much more snow was lost in summer 2010-2011 (6.3 mm d-1 water equivalent (w.e.)) than in 2004-2005 (4 mm d-1 w.e.).
  • Wang, Caixin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Earth s ice shelves are mainly located in Antarctica. They cover about 44% of the Antarctic coastline and are a salient feature of the continent. Antarctic ice shelf melting (AISM) removes heat from and inputs freshwater into the adjacent Southern Ocean. Although playing an important role in the global climate, AISM is one of the most important components currently absent in the IPCC climate model. In this study, AISM is introduced into a global sea ice-ocean climate model ORCA2-LIM, following the approach of Beckmann and Goosse (2003; BG03) for the thermodynamic interaction between the ice shelf and ocean. This forms the model ORCA2-LIM-ISP (ISP: ice shelf parameterization), in which not only all the major Antarctic ice shelves but also a number of minor ice shelves are included. Using these two models, ORCA2-LIM and ORCA2-LIM-ISP, the impact of addition of AISM and increasing AISM have been investigated. Using the ORCA2-LIM model, numerical experiments are performed to investigate the sensitivity of the polar sea ice cover and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport through Drake Passage (DP) to the variations of three sea ice parameters, namely the thickness of newly formed ice in leads (h0), the compressive strength of ice (P*), and the turning angle in the oceanic boundary layer beneath sea ice (θ). It is found that the magnitudes of h0 and P* have little impact on the seasonal sea ice extent, but lead to large changes in the seasonal sea ice volume. The variation in turning angle has little impact on the sea ice extent and volume in the Arctic but tends to reduce them in the Antarctica when ignored. The magnitude of P* has the least impact on the DP transport, while the other two parameters have much larger influences. Numerical results from ORCA2-LIM and ORCA2-LIM-ISP are analyzed to investigate how the inclusion of AISM affects the representation of the Southern Ocean hydrography. Comparisons with data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) show that the addition of AISM significantly improves the simulated hydrography. It not only warms and freshens the originally too cold and too saline bottom water (AABW), but also warms and enriches the salinity of the originally too cold and too fresh warm deep water (WDW). Addition of AISM also improves the simulated stratification. The close agreement between the simulation with AISM and the observations suggests that the applied parameterization is an adequate way to include the effect of AISM in a global sea ice-ocean climate model. We also investigate the models capability to represent the sea ice-ocean system in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic regions. Our study shows both models (with and without AISM) can successfully reproduce the main features of the sea ice-ocean system. However, both tend to overestimate the ice flux through the Nares Strait, produce a lower temperature and salinity in the Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, and miss the deep convection in the Labrador Sea. These deficiencies are mainly attributed to the artificial enlargement of the Nares Strait in the model. In this study, the impact of increasing AISM on the global sea ice-ocean system is thoroughly investigated. This provides a first idea regarding changes induced by increasing AISM. It is shown that the impact of increasing AISM is global and most significant in the Southern Ocean. There, increasing AISM tends to freshen the surface water, to warm the intermediate and deep waters, and to freshen and warm the bottom water. In addition, increasing AISM also leads to changes in the mixed layer depths (MLD) in the deep convection sites in the Southern Ocean, deepening in the Antarctic continental shelf while shoaling in the ACC region. Furthermore, increasing AISM influences the current system in the Southern Ocean. It tends to weaken the ACC, and strengthen the Antarctic coastal current (ACoC) as well as the Weddell Gyre and the Ross Gyre. In addition to the ocean system, increasing AISM also has a notable impact on the Antarctic sea ice cover. Due to the cooling of seawater, sea ice concentration and thickness generally become higher. In austral winter, noticeable increases in sea ice concentration mainly take place near the ice edge. In regards with sea ice thickness, large increases are mainly found along the coast of the Weddell Sea, the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas, and the Ross Sea. The overall thickening of sea ice leads to a larger volume of sea ice in Antarctica. In the North Atlantic, increasing AISM leads to remarkable changes in temperature, salinity and density. The water generally becomes warmer, more saline and denser. The most significant warming occurs in the subsurface layer. In contrast, the maximum salinity increase is found at the surface. In addition, the MLD becomes larger along the Greenland-Scotland-Iceland ridge. Global teleconnections due to AISM are studied. The AISM signal is transported with the surface current: the additional freshwater from AISM tends to enhance the northward spreading of the surface water. As a result, more warm and saline water is transported from the tropical region to the North Atlantic Ocean, resulting in warming and salt enrichment there. It would take about 30 40 years to establish a systematic noticeable change in temperature, salinity and MLD in the North Atlantic Ocean according to this study. The changes in hydrography due to increasing AISM are compared with observations. Consistency suggests that increasing AISM is highly likely a major contributor to the recent observed changes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, the AISM might contribute to the salinity contrast between the North Atlantic and North Pacific, which is important for the global thermohaline circulation.
  • Koistinen, Esa (2007)
    Report series in Geophysics 54
  • Bućko, Michał (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Road traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic particles, heavy metals and others compounds generated by traffic can greatly affect ambient air quality and have direct implications for human health. The general aim of this research was to identify and characterize magnetic vehicle-derived particulates using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods. A combination of three different methods was used to discriminate sources of particular anthropogenic particles. Special emphasis was placed on the application of various collectors (roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags) to monitor spatial and temporal distribution of traffic pollution on roadsides. The spatial distribution of magnetic parameters of road dust accumulated in roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags indicates that the highest concentration of magnetic particles is in the sampling points situated closest to the road edge. The concentration of magnetic particles decreases with increasing distance from the road indicating vehicle traffic as a major source of emission. Significant differences in horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility were observed between soil and snow. Magnetic particles derived from road traffic deposit on soil within a few meters from the road, but on snow up to 60 m from the road. The values of magnetic susceptibility of road dust deposited near busy urban motorway are significantly higher than in the case of low traffic road. These differences are attributed to traffic volume, which is 30 times higher on motorway than on local road. Moss bags placed at the edge of urban parks situated near major roads show higher values of magnetic susceptibility than moss bags from parks located near minor routes. Enhanced concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) were observed in the studied samples. This may be associated with specific sources of vehicle emissions (e.g. exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) and/or grain size of the accumulated particles (large active surface of ultrafine particles). Significant correlations were found between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of selected heavy metals in the case of moss bags exposed to road traffic. Low-coercivity magnetite was identified as a major magnetic phase in all studied roadside collectors (soil, snow, moss bags and lichens). However, magnetic minerals such as titanomagnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite were also observed in the studied samples. The identified magnetite particles are mostly pseudo-single-domain (PSD) with a predominant MD fraction (>10 μm). The ultrafine iron oxides (>10 nm) were found in road dust extracted from roadside snow. Large magnetic particles mostly originate from non-exhaust emissions, while ultrafine particles originate from exhaust emissions. The examined road dust contains two types of anthropogenic particles: (1) angular/aggregate particles composed of various elements (diameter ~1-300 µm); (2) spherules (~1-100 µm) mostly composed of iron. The first type of particles originates from non-exhaust emissions such as the abrasion of vehicle components, road surface and winter road maintenance. The spherule-shaped particles are products of combustion processes e.g. combustion of coal in nearby power plants and/or fuel in vehicle engines. This thesis demonstrates that snow is an efficient collector of anthropogenic particles, since it can accumulate and preserve the pollutants for several months (until the late stages of melting). Furthermore, it provides more information about spatial and temporal distribution of traffic-generated magnetic particles than soil. Since the interpretation of data obtained from magnetic measurements of soil is problematic (due to its complexity), this suggests the application of alternative collectors of anthropogenic magnetic particulates (e.g. snow and moss bags). Moss bags and lichens are well suited for magnetic biomonitoring studies, since they effectively accumulate atmospheric pollution and can thus be applied to monitor the spatio-temporal distribution of pollution effects.
  • Elo, Aija-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    To a large extent, lakes can be described with a one-dimensional approach, as their main features can be characterized by the vertical temperature profile of the water. The development of the profiles during the year follows the seasonal climate variations. Depending on conditions, lakes become stratified during the warm summer. After cooling, overturn occurs, water cools and an ice cover forms. Typically, water is inversely stratified under the ice, and another overturn occurs in spring after the ice has melted. Features of this circulation have been used in studies to distinguish between lakes in different areas, as basis for observation systems and even as climate indicators. Numerical models can be used to calculate temperature in the lake, on the basis of the meteorological input at the surface. The simple form is to solve the surface temperature. The depth of the lake affects heat transfer, together with other morphological features, the shape and size of the lake. Also the surrounding landscape affects the formation of the meteorological fields over the lake and the energy input. For small lakes the shading by the shores affects both over the lake and inside the water body bringing limitations for the one-dimensional approach. A two-layer model gives an approximation for the basic stratification in the lake. A turbulence model can simulate vertical temperature profile in a more detailed way. If the shape of the temperature profile is very abrupt, vertical transfer is hindered, having many important consequences for lake biology. One-dimensional modelling approach was successfully studied comparing a one-layer model, a two-layer model and a turbulence model. The turbulence model was applied to lakes with different sizes, shapes and locations. Lake models need data from the lakes for model adjustment. The use of the meteorological input data on different scales was analysed, ranging from momentary turbulent changes over the lake to the use of the synoptical data with three hour intervals. Data over about 100 past years were used on the mesoscale at the range of about 100 km and climate change scenarios for future changes. Increasing air temperature typically increases water temperature in epilimnion and decreases ice cover. Lake ice data were used for modelling different kinds of lakes. They were also analyzed statistically in global context. The results were also compared with results of a hydrological watershed model and data from very small lakes for seasonal development.
  • Järvinen, Onni; Leppäranta, Matti; Vehviläinen, Juho (University of Helsinki, Division of Geophysics and Astronomy, 2012)
    Report series in Geophysics No 71
    Field programme on the surface layer of the ice sheet in the Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica has been performed in 2009-2011. The objectives were to examine the annual accumulation and sublimation history, snow melting, chemistry of snow impurities, and life history of supraglacial and epiglacial lakes in blue ice regions. Fieldwork was done during FINNARP 2009 and 2010 expeditions. The sites were at the Finnish research station Aboa (73 02.5'S, 013 24.4'W), a snow line from Rampen at the edge of the ice shelf pass Aboa to the station Svea, and blue ice at Basen and neighboring nunataks. Snow measurements were made using classical snow pit method, ice and snow sampling, and with automatic observation stations (surface radiation balance, penetration of sunlight into snow and ice, and temperature within the surface layer of snow and ice). Life history, physics, and ecological state of lakes were mapped. This document is the data report including a brief project introduction, descriptions of the experiments, and the data obtained.
  • Donadini, Fabio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The geomagnetic field is one of the most fundamental geophysical properties of the Earth and has significantly contributed to our understanding of the internal structure of the Earth and its evolution. Paleomagnetic and paleointensity data have been crucial in shaping concepts like continental drift, magnetic reversals, as well as estimating the time when the Earth's core and associated geodynamo processes begun. The work of this dissertation is based on reliable Proterozoic and Holocene geomagnetic field intensity data obtained from rocks and archeological artifacts. New archeomagnetic field intensity results are presented for Finland, Estonia, Bulgaria, Italy and Switzerland. The data were obtained using sophisticated laboratory setups as well as various reliability checks and corrections. Inter-laboratory comparisons between three laboratories (Helsinki, Sofia and Liverpool) were performed in order to check the reliability of different paleointensity methods. The new intensity results fill up considerable gaps in the master curves for each region investigated. In order to interpret the paleointensity data of the Holocene period, a novel and user-friendly database (GEOMAGIA50) was constructed. This provided a new tool to independently test the reliability of various techniques and materials used in paleointensity determinations. The results show that archeological artifacts, if well fired, are the most suitable materials. Also lavas yield reliable paleointensity results, although they appear more scattered. This study also shows that reliable estimates are obtained using the Thellier methodology (and its modifications) with reliability checks. Global paleointensity curves during Paleozoic and Proterozoic have several time gaps with few or no intensity data. To define the global intensity behavior of the Earth's magnetic field during these times new rock types (meteorite impact rocks) were investigated. Two case histories are presented. The Ilyinets (Ukraine) impact melt rocks yielded a reliable paleointensity value at 440 Ma (Silurian), whereas the results from Jänisjärvi impact melts (Russian Karelia, ca. 700 Ma) might be biased towards high intensity values because of non-ideal magnetic mineralogy. The features of the geomagnetic field at 1.1 Ga are not well defined due to problems related to reversal asymmetries observed in Keweenawan data of the Lake Superior region. In this work new paleomagnetic, paleosecular variation and paleointensity results are reported from coeval diabases from Central Arizona and help understanding the asymmetry. The results confirm the earlier preliminary observations that the asymmetry is larger in Arizona than in Lake Superior area. Two of the mechanisms proposed to explain the asymmetry remain plausible: the plate motion and the non-dipole influence.
  • Raiskila, Selen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Meteorite impact cratering has played a key role in Earth's geological past and has left a dramatic effect on biological and geological records forming large volumes of igneous rocks and important mineral deposits. By studying terrestrial impact craters we can have valuable information of impact generated changes in rocks and minerals. Integrated geophysical study in this dissertation combines different methods to distinguish the meteorite impact related features from features caused by endogenic processes. Optical microscopy provides diagnostic evidence of shock produced deformations in minerals.Shocked and un-shocked rocks have contrasts in petrophysical properties, which cause anomalies to regional magnetic and gravity fields over meteorite impact structures.Magnetic minerals may re-magnetize during impact and thus provide information of the past geomagnetic field and the ancient paleoposition of impact site. This dissertation focuses to the Finnish impact structure, Keurusselkä, which was discovered in 2003. The structure is situated in central Finland (62°08 N, 24°37 E) within the Central Finland Granitoid Complex, which formed 1890 1860 million years ago during the Svecofennian orogeny. Keurusselkä is deeply eroded remain of a complex crater, named after the Lake Keurusselkä, which is the dominant present day feature of the crater area. For this study rock and drill core samples were collected from Keurusselkä region. The samples were chosen according to a sampling strategy, where samples were taken in and outside the impact region to investigate the impact related features and their radial distance from the centre of the impact. The main focus was to prove or disprove the impact origin of Keurusselkä. First indication of impact was shatter cones, which are conical features in rocks formed by an impact shock and pressure. Shatter cones were found in a circular area interpreted as the central uplift of the original crater. In this dissertation petrographic analysis of thin sections was done to find evidence of deformational features in minerals. Diagnostic evidence for Keurusselkä was achieved when planar deformation features(PDFs) were found from quartz grains in shatter cones indicating impact pressures up to 20 GPa. Samples from 3 shallow drillings in southwest part of the Keurusselkä structure were also studied. Impact like monomictic breccia was found from one of the drill cores. Petrographic analysis revealed clay minerals (illite, smectite-group), which most likely have altered from impact glass. Magnetic minerals were obtained for paleomagnetic purposes, i.e. to examine the ancient position and drift of Baltica. Paleomagnetic directions obtained from shatter cones indicate re-magnetization. The virtual geomagnetic pole implies that the impact event took place ~1120 million years ago during the formation of Rodinia supercontinent. Petrophysical properties (density, susceptibility) of rocks were measured for differences between shocked and un-shocked rocks. The exposed bedrock in Keurusselkä was noticed to be fractured and damaged, which causes anomalies to the regional magnetic and gravity field. The geophysical signals were modelled along two profiles using measured physical properties of Keurusselkä rocks. The highly magnetized centre of the structure forms an eroded circular central uplift with diameter of 6 km. Based on the gravity minimum around the structure an area of ~16 km in diameter and depth of ~1200 meters was modelled to explain the observed anomalies. The original size of the crater is estimated to be 24-27 km in diameter.
  • Haapala, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Mäkiranta, Eeva (2009)
    Report series in Geophysics 58
  • Zhang, Zhanhai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Uusikivi, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Sea ice has been recognized as one of the key elements of polar and sub-polar seas, including Baltic Sea. The existence of sea ice cover and its properties have influence to many aspects of marine biology, climate and seafaring. This thesis is concentrated on describing physical and optical properties of landfast ice, and also pack ice, in the Baltic Sea. The aim of the thesis is to use measurements to study the interactions between optical and physical properties of sea ice and how these can affect the biology in sea ice. Decade long observations of ice properties were used to construct a statistical model of properties of landfast ice. Temperature was found to be the most important factor determining ice thickness and contribution of snow ice to the ice thickness was determined by the amount of winter time precipitation. Stratigraphy of ice and growth history had influence to the vertical distribution of organisms in the ice cover as snow ice layers and columnar ice layers were found to favor different types of organisms. Thickness of meteoric ice layer, including snow ice and superimposed ice, controlled the albedo of ice cover when no snow cover was on the ice. Based on the observations of fast ice conditions and albedo, the effects of snow thickness and meteoric ice thickness to the albedo of sea ice were formulated as albedo parameterization equations. The optical properties of sea ice with spectral resolution were studied on the landfast sea ice. Emphasis in these studies was given to optical properties in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Organic matter, dissolved and particulate, was the most important factor determining the ultraviolet properties of sea ice cover. The optical properties in the ultraviolet were also actively modified by the living organisms in the ice cover by producing mycosporine like amino acids (MAAs) in relatively high amounts. MAAs are a family of photoprotective compounds that absorb UV radiation efficiently. At the visible part of spectrum the ice by itself and the thickness of meteoric ice layer were the most important determinants. Salinity and the initial salt entrapment during ice growth in the Baltic Sea were measured to be less than in the oceans with equal ice growth rates. The turbulent fluxes of heat and salinity under the landfast sea ice were measured to be small.
  • Wang, Keguang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Pack ice is an aggregate of ice floes drifting on the sea surface. The forces controlling the motion and deformation of pack ice are air and water drag forces, sea surface tilt, Coriolis force and the internal force due to the interaction between ice floes. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of compacted pack ice is investigated using theoretical and numerical methods, focusing on the three basic material properties: compressive strength, yield curve and flow rule. A high-resolution three-category sea ice model is applied to investigate the sea ice dynamics in two small basins, the whole Gulf Riga and the inside Pärnu Bay, focusing on the calibration of the compressive strength for thin ice. These two basins are on the scales of 100 km and 20 km, respectively, with typical ice thickness of 10-30 cm. The model is found capable of capturing the main characteristics of the ice dynamics. The compressive strength is calibrated to be about 30 kPa, consistent with the values from most large-scale sea ice dynamic studies. In addition, the numerical study in Pärnu Bay suggests that the shear strength drops significantly when the ice-floe size markedly decreases. A characteristic inversion method is developed to probe the yield curve of compacted pack ice. The basis of this method is the relationship between the intersection angle of linear kinematic features (LKFs) in sea ice and the slope of the yield curve. A summary of the observed LKFs shows that they can be basically divided into three groups: intersecting leads, uniaxial opening leads and uniaxial pressure ridges. Based on the available observed angles, the yield curve is determined to be a curved diamond. Comparisons of this yield curve with those from other methods show that it possesses almost all the advantages identified by the other methods. A new constitutive law is proposed, where the yield curve is a diamond and the flow rule is a combination of the normal and co-axial flow rule. The non-normal co-axial flow rule is necessary for the Coulombic yield constraint. This constitutive law not only captures the main features of forming LKFs but also takes the advantage of avoiding overestimating divergence during shear deformation. Moreover, this study provides a method for observing the flow rule for pack ice during deformation.
  • Rasmus, Kai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The Antarctic system comprises of the continent itself, Antarctica, and the ocean surrounding it, the Southern Ocean. The system has an important part in the global climate due to its size, its high latitude location and the negative radiation balance of its large ice sheets. Antarctica has also been in focus for several decades due to increased ultraviolet (UV) levels caused by stratospheric ozone depletion, and the disintegration of its ice shelves. In this study, measurements were made during three Austral summers to study the optical properties of the Antarctic system and to produce radiation information for additional modeling studies. These are related to specific phenomena found in the system. During the summer of 1997-1998, measurements of beam absorption and beam attenuation coefficients, and downwelling and upwelling irradiance were made in the Southern Ocean along a S-N transect at 6°E. The attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was calculated and used together with hydrographic measurements to judge whether the phytoplankton in the investigated areas of the Southern Ocean are light limited. By using the Kirk formula the diffuse attenuation coefficient was linked to the absorption and scattering coefficients. The diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kpar) for PAR were found to vary between 0.03 and 0.09 1/m. Using the values for KPAR and the definition of the Sverdrup critical depth, the studied Southern Ocean plankton systems were found not to be light limited. Variabilities in the spectral and total albedo of snow were studied in the Queen Maud Land region of Antarctica during the summers of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. The measurement areas were the vicinity of the South African Antarctic research station SANAE 4, and a traverse near the Finnish Antarctic research station Aboa. The midday mean total albedos for snow were between 0.83, for clear skies, and 0.86, for overcast skies, at Aboa and between 0.81 and 0.83 for SANAE 4. The mean spectral albedo levels at Aboa and SANAE 4 were very close to each other. The variations in the spectral albedos were due more to differences in ambient conditions than variations in snow properties. A Monte-Carlo model was developed to study the spectral albedo and to develop a novel nondestructive method to measure the diffuse attenuation coefficient of snow. The method was based on the decay of upwelling radiation moving horizontally away from a source of downwelling light. This was assumed to have a relation to the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In the model, the attenuation coefficient obtained from the upwelling irradiance was higher than that obtained using vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The model results were compared to field measurements made on dry snow in Finnish Lapland and they correlated reasonably well. Low-elevation (below 1000 m) blue-ice areas may experience substantial melt-freeze cycles due to absorbed solar radiation and the small heat conductivity in the ice. A two-dimensional (x-z) model has been developed to simulate the formation and water circulation in the subsurface ponds. The model results show that for a physically reasonable parameter set the formation of liquid water within the ice can be reproduced. The results however are sensitive to the chosen parameter values, and their exact values are not well known. Vertical convection and a weak overturning circulation is generated stratifying the fluid and transporting warmer water downward, thereby causing additional melting at the base of the pond. In a 50-year integration, a global warming scenario mimicked by a decadal scale increase of 3 degrees per 100 years in air temperature, leads to a general increase in subsurface water volume. The ice did not disintegrate due to the air temperature increase after the 50 year integration.
  • Salminen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The importance of supercontinents in our understanding of the geological evolution of the planet Earth has been recently emphasized. The role of paleomagnetism in reconstructing lithospheric blocks in their ancient paleopositions is vital. Paleomagnetism is the only quantitative tool for providing ancient latitudes and azimuthal orientations of continents. It also yields information of content of the geomagnetic field in the past. In order to obtain a continuous record on the positions of continents, dated intrusive rocks are required in temporal progression. This is not always possible due to pulse-like occurrences of dykes. In this work we demonstrate that studies of meteorite impact-related rocks may fill some gaps in the paleomagnetic record. This dissertation is based on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data obtained from samples of the Jänisjärvi impact structure (Russian Karelia, most recent 40Ar-39Ar age of 682 Ma), the Salla diabase dyke (North Finland, U-Pb 1122 Ma), the Valaam monzodioritic sill (Russian Karelia, U-Pb 1458 Ma), and the Vredefort impact structure (South Africa, 2023 Ma). The paleomagnetic study of Jänisjärvi samples was made in order to obtain a pole for Baltica, which lacks paleomagnetic data from 750 to ca. 600 Ma. The position of Baltica at ca. 700 Ma is relevant in order to verify whether the supercontinent Rodinia was already fragmented. The paleomagnetic study of the Salla dyke was conducted to examine the position of Baltica at the onset of supercontinent Rodinia's formation. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) from Salla dyke provides hints that the Mesoproterozoic Baltica - Laurentia unity in the Hudsonland (Columbia, Nuna) supercontinent assembly may have lasted until 1.12 Ga. Moreover, the new VGP of Salla dyke provides new constraint on the timing of the rotation of Baltica relative to Laurentia (e.g. Gower et al., 1990). A paleomagnetic study of the Valaam sill was carried out in order to shed light into the question of existence of Baltica-Laurentia unity in the supercontinent Hudsonland. Combined with results from dyke complex of the Lake Ladoga region (Schehrbakova et al., 2008) a new robust paleomagnetic pole for Baltica is obtained. This pole places Baltica on a latitude of 10°. This low latitude location is supported also by Mesoproterozoic 1.5 1.3 Ga red-bed sedimentation (for example the Satakunta sandstone). The Vredefort impactite samples provide a well dated (2.02 Ga) pole for the Kaapvaal Craton. Rock magnetic data reveal unusually high Koenigsberger ratios (Q values) in all studied lithologies of the Vredefort dome. The high Q values are now first time also seen in samples from the Johannesburg Dome (ca. 120 km away) where there is no impact evidence. Thus, a direct causative link of high Q values to the Vredefort impact event can be ruled out.
  • Airo, Meri-Liisa; Kiuru, Risto (University of Helsinki, Division of Geophysics and Astronomy, 2012)
    Report series in Geophysics No 68
  • Elbra, Tiiu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Physical properties provide valuable information about the nature and behavior of rocks and minerals. The changes in rock physical properties generate petrophysical contrasts between various lithologies, for example, between shocked and unshocked rocks in meteorite impact structures or between various lithologies in the crust. These contrasts may cause distinct geophysical anomalies, which are often diagnostic to their primary cause (impact, tectonism, etc). This information is vital to understand the fundamental Earth processes, such as impact cratering and associated crustal deformations. However, most of the present day knowledge of changes in rock physical properties is limited due to a lack of petrophysical data of subsurface samples, especially for meteorite impact structures, since they are often buried under post-impact lithologies or eroded. In order to explore the uppermost crust, deep drillings are required. This dissertation is based on the deep drill core data from three impact structures: (i) the Bosumtwi impact structure (diameter 10.5 km, 1.07 Ma age; Ghana), (ii) the Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km, 35 Ma; Virginia, U.S.A.), and (iii) the Chicxulub impact structure (180 km, 65 Ma; Mexico). These drill cores have yielded all basic lithologies associated with impact craters such as post-impact lithologies, impact rocks including suevites and breccias, as well as fractured and unfractured target rocks. The fourth study case of this dissertation deals with the data of the Paleoproterozoic Outokumpu area (Finland), as a non-impact crustal case, where a deep drilling through an economically important ophiolite complex was carried out. The focus in all four cases was to combine results of basic petrophysical studies of relevant rocks of these crustal structures in order to identify and characterize various lithologies by their physical properties and, in this way, to provide new input data for geophysical modellings. Furthermore, the rock magnetic and paleomagnetic properties of three impact structures, combined with basic petrophysics, were used to acquire insight into the impact generated changes in rocks and their magnetic minerals, in order to better understand the influence of impact. The obtained petrophysical data outline the various lithologies and divide rocks into four domains. Based on target lithology the physical properties of the unshocked target rocks are controlled by mineral composition or fabric, particularly porosity in sedimentary rocks, while sediments result from diverse sedimentation and diagenesis processes. The impact rocks, such as breccias and suevites, strongly reflect the impact formation mechanism and are distinguishable from the other lithologies by their density, porosity and magnetic properties. The numerous shock features resulting from melting, brecciation and fracturing of the target rocks, can be seen in the changes of physical properties. These features include an increase in porosity and subsequent decrease in density in impact derived units, either an increase or a decrease in magnetic properties (depending on a specific case), as well as large heterogeneity in physical properties. In few cases a slight gradual downward decrease in porosity, as a shock-induced fracturing, was observed. Coupled with rock magnetic studies, the impact generated changes in magnetic fraction the shock-induced magnetic grain size reduction, hydrothermal- or melting-related magnetic mineral alteration, shock demagnetization and shock- or temperature-related remagnetization can be seen. The Outokumpu drill core shows varying velocities throughout the drill core depending on the microcracking and sample conditions. This is similar to observations by Kern et al., (2009), who also reported the velocity dependence on anisotropy. The physical properties are also used to explain the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic reflection studies in the Outokumpu area. According to the seismic velocity data, the interfaces between the diopside-tremolite skarn layer and either serpentinite, mica schist or black schist are causing the strong seismic reflectivities.
  • Kohout, Tomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Together with cosmic spherules, interplanetary dust particles and lunar samples returned by Apollo and Luna missions, meteorites are the only source of extraterrestrial material on Earth. The physical properties of meteorites, especially their magnetic susceptibility, bulk and grain density, porosity and paleomagnetic information, have wide applications in planetary research and can reveal information about origin and internal structure of asteroids. Thus, an expanded database of meteorite physical properties was compiled with new measurements done in meteorite collections across Europe using a mobile laboratory facility. However, the scale problem may bring discrepancies in the comparison of asteroid and meteorite properties. Due to inhomogenity, the physical properties of meteorites studied on a centimeter or millimeter scale may differ from those of asteroids determined on kilometer scales. Further difference may arise from shock effects, space and terrestrial weathering and from difference in material properties at various temperatures. Close attention was given to the reliability of the paleomagnetic and paleointensity information in meteorites and the methodology to test for magnetic overprints was prepared and verified.
  • Leppäranta, Matti (1998)