Human impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region

Show simple item record Reckermann, Marcus Omstedt, Anders Soomere, Tarmo Aigars, Juris Akhtar, Naveed Bełdowska, Magdalena Bełdowski, Jacek Cronin, Tom Czub, Michał Eero, Margit Hyytiäinen, Kari Petri Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka Kiessling, Anders Kjellström, Erik Kuliński, Karol Larsén, Xiaoli Guo McCrackin, Michelle Meier, H. E. Markus Oberbeckmann, Sonja Parnell, Kevin Pons-Seres de Brauwer, Cristian Poska, Anneli Saarinen, Jarkko Szymczycha, Beata Undeman, Emma Wörman, Anders Zorita, Eduardo 2022-04-01T13:12:15Z 2022-04-01T13:12:15Z 2022
dc.description.abstract Coastal environments, in particular heavily populated semi-enclosed marginal seas and coasts like the Baltic Sea region, are strongly affected by human activities. A multitude of human impacts, including climate change, affect the different compartments of the environment, and these effects interact with each other. As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region, and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities (i.e. climate change, coastal processes, hypoxia, acidification, submarine groundwater discharges, marine ecosystems, non-indigenous species, land use and land cover), some are completely human-induced (i.e. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, river regulations, offshore wind farms, shipping, chemical contamination, dumped warfare agents, marine litter and microplastics, tourism, and coastal management), and they are all interrelated to different degrees. We present a general description and analysis of the state of knowledge on these interrelations. Our main insight is that climate change has an overarching, integrating impact on all of the other factors and can be interpreted as a background effect, which has different implications for the other factors. Impacts on the environment and the human sphere can be roughly allocated to anthropogenic drivers such as food production, energy production, transport, industry and economy. The findings from this inventory of available information and analysis of the different factors and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Copernicus GmbH
dc.relation.ispartofseries Earth System Dynamics
dc.rights CC BY 4.0
dc.subject coastal environment
dc.subject Baltic Sea
dc.subject human impacts
dc.title Human impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region
dc.format.volume 13
dc.format.issue 1
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi-fe2022040126667
dc.contributor.organization Ilmatieteen laitos fi
dc.contributor.organization Finnish Meteorological Institute en
dc.format.pagerange 1-80
dc.relation.doi 10.5194/esd-13-1-2022
dc.relation.issn 2190-4987
dc.type.okm A2 Katsausartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.type.okm A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review en

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