Iron in boreal river catchments: Biogeochemical, ecological and management implications

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dc.contributor.author Heikkinen, Kaisa
dc.contributor.author Saari, Markus
dc.contributor.author Heino, Jani
dc.contributor.author Ronkanen , Anna-Kaisa
dc.contributor.author Kortelainen, Pirkko
dc.contributor.author Joensuu, Samuli
dc.contributor.author Vilmi, Annika
dc.contributor.author Karjalainen, Satu Maaria
dc.contributor.author Hellsten, Seppo
dc.contributor.author Visuri, Mika
dc.contributor.author Marttila, Hannu
dc.date.accessioned 2022-05-04T17:35:57Z
dc.date.available 2022-05-04T17:35:57Z
dc.date.issued 2022
dc.identifier.citation K. Heikkinen, M. Saari, J. Heino, A.-K. Ronkanen, P. Kortelainen, S. Joensuu, A. Vilmi, S.-M. Karjalainen, S. Hellsten, M. Visuri, H. Marttila. Iron in boreal river catchments: Biogeochemical, ecological and management implications. Science of The Total Environment 805 (2022), 150256, ISSN 0048-9697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150256
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/343317
dc.description Highlights • Fe has a key role in biogeochemical and ecological contexts in boreal catchments. • Fe has many harmful impacts on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. • Drivers of Fe transport should be better known in water management. • Catchment-scale approaches are required to create effective management of Fe.
dc.description.abstract Iron (Fe) is an important element in aquatic ecosystems worldwide because it is intimately tied with multiple abiotic and biotic phenomena. Here, we give a survey of manifold influences of Fe, and the key factors affecting it in the boreal catchments and their waters. It includes the perspectives of biogeochemistry, hydrology, ecology, and river basin management. We emphasize views on the dynamics and impacts of different forms of Fe in riverine environments, including organic colloids and particles, as well as inorganic fractions. We also provide perspectives for land use management in boreal catchments and suggest guidelines for decision making and water management. Based on our survey, the main emphases of water protection and management programs should be (i) prevention of Fe mobilization from soil layers by avoiding unnecessary land-use activities and minimizing soil disturbance in high-risk areas; (ii) disconnecting Fe-rich ground water discharge from directly reaching watercourses; and (iii) decreasing transport of Fe to watercourses by applying efficient water pollution control approaches. These approaches may require specific methods that should be given attention depending on catchment conditions in different areas. Finally, we highlight issues requiring additional research on boreal catchments. A key issue is to increase our understanding of the role of Fe in the utilization of DOM in riverine food webs, which are typically highly heterotrophic. More knowledge is needed on the metabolic and behavioral resistance mechanisms that aquatic organisms, such as algae, invertebrates, and fish, have developed to counter the harmful impacts of Fe in rivers with naturally high Fe and DOM concentrations. It is also emphasized that to fulfil the needs presented above, as well as to develop effective methods for decreasing the harmful impacts of Fe in water management, the biogeochemical processes contributing to Fe transport from catchments via rivers to estuaries should be better understood.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.relation.ispartofseries Science of the Total Environment
dc.rights CC BY 4.0
dc.subject biogeokemia
dc.subject ekologia
dc.subject rauta
dc.subject aineiden kierto
dc.subject ekosysteemit
dc.subject toiminta
dc.subject turvemaat
dc.subject suot
dc.subject maankäyttö
dc.subject valuma-alueet
dc.subject joet
dc.subject boreaalinen vyöhyke
dc.title Iron in boreal river catchments: Biogeochemical, ecological and management implications
dc.format.volume 805
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi-fe2022050432741
dc.subject.yso iron
dc.subject.yso boreal rivers
dc.subject.yso land use management
dc.subject.yso ecosystem function
dc.subject.yso peatlands
dc.contributor.organization Suomen ympäristökeskus fi
dc.contributor.organization The Finnish Environment Institute en
dc.format.pagerange 150256
dc.relation.doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150256
dc.relation.issn 0048-9697
dc.relation.issn 1879-1026
dc.type.okm A2 Katsausartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.type.okm A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review en

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