Biogeochemical functioning of the Baltic Sea

Show simple item record Kuliński, Karol Rehder, Gregor Asmala, Eero Bartosova, Alena Carstensen, Jacob Gustafsson, Bo Hall, Per O. J. Humborg, Christoph Jilbert, Tom Jürgens, Klaus Meier, H. E. Markus Müller-Karulis, Bärbel Naumann, Michael Olesen, Jørgen E. Savchuk, Oleg Schramm, Andreas Slomp, Caroline P. Sofiev, Mikhail Sobek, Anna Szymczycha, Beata Undeman, Emma 2022-05-10T08:19:35Z 2022-05-10T08:19:35Z 2022
dc.description.abstract Location, specific topography, and hydrographic setting together with climate change and strong anthropogenic pressure are the main factors shaping the biogeochemical functioning and thus also the ecological status of the Baltic Sea. The recent decades have brought significant changes in the Baltic Sea. First, the rising nutrient loads from land in the second half of the 20th century led to eutrophication and spreading of hypoxic and anoxic areas, for which permanent stratification of the water column and limited ventilation of deep-water layers made favourable conditions. Since the 1980s the nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have been continuously decreasing. This, however, has so far not resulted in significant improvements in oxygen availability in the deep regions, which has revealed a slow response time of the system to the reduction of the land-derived nutrient loads. Responsible for that is the low burial efficiency of phosphorus at anoxic conditions and its remobilization from sediments when conditions change from oxic to anoxic. This results in a stoichiometric excess of phosphorus available for organic-matter production, which promotes the growth of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and in turn supports eutrophication. This assessment reviews the available and published knowledge on the biogeochemical functioning of the Baltic Sea. In its content, the paper covers the aspects related to changes in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, and P) external loads, their transformations in the coastal zone, changes in organic-matter production (eutrophication) and remineralization (oxygen availability), and the role of sediments in burial and turnover of C, N, and P. In addition to that, this paper focuses also on changes in the marine CO2 system, the structure and functioning of the microbial community, and the role of contaminants for biogeochemical processes. This comprehensive assessment allowed also for identifying knowledge gaps and future research needs in the field of marine biogeochemistry in the Baltic Sea.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Copernicus Publ.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Earth system dynamics
dc.rights CC BY 4.0
dc.subject biochemistry
dc.subject Baltic Sea
dc.subject ecology
dc.title Biogeochemical functioning of the Baltic Sea
dc.format.volume 13
dc.format.issue 1
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi-fe2022050533228
dc.contributor.organization Ilmatieteen laitos fi
dc.contributor.organization Finnish Meteorological Institute en
dc.format.pagerange 633-685
dc.relation.doi 10.5194/esd-13-633-2022
dc.relation.issn 2190-4979
dc.relation.issn 2190-4987
dc.type.okm A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä fi
dc.type.okm A1 Journal article (refereed), original research en

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