Association between a history of clinical depression and dementia, and the role of sociodemographic factors: population-based cohort study

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Korhonen , K , Tarkiainen , L , Leinonen , T , Einiö , E & Martikainen , P 2022 , ' Association between a history of clinical depression and dementia, and the role of sociodemographic factors: population-based cohort study ' , British Journal of Psychiatry , vol. 221 , no. 1 , 0007125021002178 , pp. 410-416 . https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2021.217

Title: Association between a history of clinical depression and dementia, and the role of sociodemographic factors: population-based cohort study
Author: Korhonen, Kaarina; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Leinonen, Taina; Einiö, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka
Contributor organization: Demography
Center for Population, Health and Society
Population Research Unit (PRU)
Sociology
Date: 2022-01-19
Language: eng
Number of pages: 7
Belongs to series: British Journal of Psychiatry
ISSN: 0007-1250
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2021.217
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/345763
Abstract: Background Depression is associated with an increased dementia risk, but the nature of the association in the long-term remains unresolved, and the role of sociodemographic factors mainly unexplored. Aims To assess whether a history of clinical depression is associated with dementia in later life, controlling for observed sociodemographic factors and unobserved factors shared by siblings, and to test whether gender, educational level and marital status modify the association. Method We conducted a national cohort study of 1 616 321 individuals aged 65 years or older between 2001 and 2018 using administrative healthcare data. A history of depression was ascertained from the national hospital register in the period 15-30 years prior to dementia follow-up. We used conventional and sibling fixed-effects Cox regression models to analyse the association between a history of depression, sociodemographic factors and dementia. Results A history of depression was related to an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.23-1.31) for dementia in the conventional Cox model and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.09-2.20) in the sibling fixed-effects model. Depression was related to an elevated dementia risk similarly across all levels of education (test for interaction, P = 0.84), but the association was weaker for the widowed than for the married (P = 0.003), and stronger for men than women (P = 0.006). The excess risk among men attenuated following covariate adjustment (P = 0.10). Discussion This study shows that a history of depression is consistently associated with later-life dementia risk. The results support the hypothesis that depression is an aetiological risk factor for dementia.
Subject: ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
COMMUNITY
DISORDER
Dementia
HEALTH
PREVALENCE
RISK-FACTOR
SYMPTOMS
depressive disorders
epidemiology
life course
socioeconomic status
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
5141 Sociology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by_nc_nd
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion


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