Strong selective environments determine evolutionary outcome in time-dependent fitness seascapes

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Cairns , J , Borse , F , Mononen , T , Hiltunen , T & Mustonen , V 2022 , ' Strong selective environments determine evolutionary outcome in time-dependent fitness seascapes ' , Evolution Letters , vol. 6 , no. 3 , pp. 266-279 .

Title: Strong selective environments determine evolutionary outcome in time-dependent fitness seascapes
Author: Cairns, Johannes; Borse, Florian; Mononen, Tommi; Hiltunen, Teppo; Mustonen, Ville
Contributor organization: Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki
Department of Microbiology
Faculty Common Matters
Institute of Biotechnology
Helsinki Institute for Information Technology
Date: 2022-06
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: Evolution Letters
ISSN: 2056-3744
Abstract: The impact of fitness landscape features on evolutionary outcomes has attracted considerable interest in recent decades. However, evolution often occurs under time-dependent selection in so-called fitness seascapes where the landscape is under flux. Fitness seascapes are an inherent feature of natural environments, where the landscape changes owing both to the intrinsic fitness consequences of previous adaptations and extrinsic changes in selected traits caused by new environments. The complexity of such seascapes may curb the predictability of evolution. However, empirical efforts to test this question using a comprehensive set of regimes are lacking. Here, we employed an in vitro microbial model system to investigate differences in evolutionary outcomes between time-invariant and time-dependent environments, including all possible temporal permutations, with three subinhibitory antimicrobials and a viral parasite (phage) as selective agents. Expectedly, time-invariant environments caused stronger directional selection for resistances compared to time-dependent environments. Intriguingly, however, multidrug resistance outcomes in both cases were largely driven by two strong selective agents (rifampicin and phage) out of four agents in total. These agents either caused cross-resistance or obscured the phenotypic effect of other resistance mutations, modulating the evolutionary outcome overall in time-invariant environments and as a function of exposure epoch in time-dependent environments. This suggests that identifying strong selective agents and their pleiotropic effects is critical for predicting evolution in fitness seascapes, with ramifications for evolutionarily informed strategies to mitigate drug resistance evolution.
Subject: Antibiotic resistance
Escherichia coli
experimental evolution
fitness seascape
fluctuating selection
microbial evolution
phage resistance
time-dependent selection
11832 Microbiology and virology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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