Advances in Nematode Identification: A Journey from Fundamentals to Evolutionary Aspects

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Bhat, K.A.; Mir, R.A.; Farooq, A.; Manzoor, M.; Hami, A.; Allie, K.A.; Wani, S.M.; Khan, M.N.; Sayyed, R.Z.; Poczai, P.; Almalki, W.H.; Zargar, S.M.; Shah, A.A. Advances in Nematode Identification: A Journey from Fundamentals to Evolutionary Aspects. Diversity 2022, 14, 536.

Title: Advances in Nematode Identification: A Journey from Fundamentals to Evolutionary Aspects
Author: Bhat, Kaisar Ahmad; Mir, Rakeeb Ahmad; Farooq, Asmat; Manzoor, Madhiya; Hami, Ammarah; Allie, Kaisar Ahmad; Wani, Shaheen Majeed; Khan, M. N.; Sayyed, R. Z.; Poczai, Peter; Almalki, Waleed Hassan; Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Shah, Ali Asghar
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2022-07-01
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/346025
Abstract: Nematodes are non-segmented roundworms evenly distributed with various habitats ranging to approximately every ecological extremity. These are the least studied organisms despite being the most diversified group. Nematodes are the most critical equilibrium-maintaining factors, having implications on the yield and health of plants as well as well-being of animals. However, taxonomic knowledge about nematodes is scarce. As a result of the lack of precise taxonomic features, nematode taxonomy remains uncertain. Morphology-based identification has proved inefficacious in identifying and exploring the diversity of nematodes, as there are insufficient morphological variations. Different molecular and new evolving methodologies have been employed to augment morphology-based approaches and bypass these difficulties with varying effectiveness. These identification techniques vary from molecular-based targeting DNA or protein-based targeting amino acid sequences to methods for image processing. High-throughput approaches such as next-generation sequencing have also been added to this league. These alternative approaches have helped to classify nematodes and enhanced the base for increased diversity and phylogeny of nematodes, thus helping to formulate increasingly more nematode bases for use as model organisms to study different hot topics about human well-being. Here, we discuss all the methods of nematode identification as an essential shift from classical morphometric studies to the most important modern-day and molecular approaches for their identification. Classification varies from DNA/protein-based methods to the use of new emerging methods. However, the priority of the method relies on the quality, quantity, and availability of nematode resources and down-streaming applications. This paper reviews all currently offered methods for the detection of nematodes and known/unknown and cryptic or sibling species, emphasizing modern-day methods and budding molecular techniques.


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