A healthy dietary pattern with a low inflammatory potential reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

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Pajunen , L , Korkalo , L , Koivuniemi , E , Houttu , N , Pellonpera , O , Mokkala , K , Shivappa , N , Hebert , J R , Vahlberg , T , Tertti , K & Laitinen , K 2022 , ' A healthy dietary pattern with a low inflammatory potential reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus ' , European Journal of Nutrition , vol. 61 , no. 3 , pp. 1477-1490 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02749-z

Title: A healthy dietary pattern with a low inflammatory potential reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus
Author: Pajunen, Lotta; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivuniemi, Ella; Houttu, Noora; Pellonpera, Outi; Mokkala, Kati; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R.; Vahlberg, Tero; Tertti, Kristiina; Laitinen, Kirsi
Contributor organization: Department of Food and Nutrition
Date: 2022-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: European Journal of Nutrition
ISSN: 1436-6207
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02749-z
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/346054
Abstract: Purpose An optimal diet for lowering the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still to be defined, but may comprise of nutrient intakes, dietary patterns, diet quality, and eating frequency. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of diet in developing GDM in a comprehensive way. Methods The dietary intake of overweight or obese women, a risk group for GDM (n = 351), was assessed using 3-day food diaries and diet quality questionnaires in early pregnancy. Eating frequency and nutrient intakes were calculated, and dietary patterns identified using principal component analysis. The inflammatory potential of the diet was determined by calculating the dietary inflammatory index (DII(R)) and energy-adjusted DII (E-DII (TM)). GDM was diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 gestational weeks. Results Higher adherence to 'healthier dietary pattern' characterized by consumptions of vegetables and rye bread associated with a reduced risk of GDM (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.70). Higher E-DII score, indicating pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with a 27% higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.49) for each E-DII point. In the evaluation of nutrient intakes, total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and trans fatty acids were higher and fiber lower in women developing GDM compared to women not developing GDM (all p < 0.05). Intakes of total fat, SFAs, and trans fatty acids were also significant predictors for GDM (all p < 0.05). Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of an overall healthy diet and limitation of foods with SFAs, and other nutrients with a high inflammatory potential in reducing the risk of GDM.
Subject: Gestational diabetes mellitus
Dietary pattern
Dietary inflammatory index
Saturated fatty acid
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
PREGNANCY
ASSOCIATION
FETAL
INDEX
3143 Nutrition
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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