Cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to smoking : a cohort study

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Kunutsor , S K , Jae , S Y , Mäkikallio , T H & Laukkanen , J A 2022 , ' Cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to smoking : a cohort study ' , European Journal of Epidemiology , vol. 37 , no. 4 , pp. 423-428 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00835-4

Title: Cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to smoking : a cohort study
Author: Kunutsor, Setor K.; Jae, Sae Young; Mäkikallio, Timo H.; Laukkanen, Jari A.
Contributor organization: Department of Medicine
South Carelia Social and Health care District Eksote
HYKS erva
Date: 2022-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 6
Belongs to series: European Journal of Epidemiology
ISSN: 0393-2990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00835-4
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/346071
Abstract: Though evidence suggests that higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels can offset the adverse effects of other risk factors, it is unknown if CRF offsets the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to smoking. We aimed to evaluate the combined effects of smoking status and CRF on incident COPD risk using a prospective cohort of 2295 middle-aged and older Finnish men. Peak oxygen uptake, assessed with a respiratory gas exchange analyzer, was used as a measure of CRF. Smoking status was self-reported. CRF was categorised as low and high based on median cutoffs, whereas smoking status was classified into smokers and non-smokers. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios with confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. During 26 years median follow-up, 119 COPD cases were recorded. Smoking increased COPD risk 10.59 (95% CI 6.64-16.88), and high CRF levels decreased COPD risk 0.43 (95% CI 0.25-0.73). Compared with non-smoker-low CRF, smoker-low CRF was associated with an increased COPD risk in multivariable analysis 9.79 (95% CI 5.61-17.08), with attenuated but persisting evidence of an association for smoker-high CRF and COPD risk 6.10 (95% CI 3.22-11.57). An additive interaction was found between smoking status and CRF (RERI = 6.99). Except for CRF and COPD risk, all associations persisted on accounting for mortality as a competing risk event. Despite a wealth of evidence on the ability of high CRF to offset the adverse effects of other risk factors, it appears high CRF levels have only modest attenuating effects on the very strong association between smoking and COPD risk.
Subject: Smoking
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Cohort study
PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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