När vuxna möter pojkar i skolan : insyn, inflytande och sociala relationer

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-5588-84-2
Title: När vuxna möter pojkar i skolan : insyn, inflytande och sociala relationer
Author: Lunabba, Harry Torsten
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies
Publisher: Ab Det finlandssvenska kompetenscentret inom det sociala området
Date: 2013-09-21
Belongs to series: Mathilda Wrede-institutets forskningsserie 1/2013
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-5588-84-2
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/40359
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Abstract: The aim of this thesis, is to realistically describe how the need for help and support among boys are expressed and recognized, as well as to show how relationships between boys and adults condition the way boys are approached in school. The analysis draws upon an ethnographic study that was conducted in two upper level-secondary schools in Helsinki. The field work took place from 1. September 2008 to 29. May 2009. The theoretical framework is based on Roy Bhaskar s and Margaret S.Archer's work on critical realism. In the analysis I have also employed Derek Layder s domain theory and Thomas J. Scheff's theory on social bonds. The study approaches two questions: (1.) How are boys' problems and need of support recognized in the everyday life activities in classrooms? (2.) How do relationships between adults and boys condition adults ability to recognize boys' problems in school and how do relationships condition the encounters between adults and boys in school? The first research question focuses on how boys' need for support are recognized in everyday practice in the classrooms. The offset is that supportive practices in schools derive from teachers observations of a problem within the everyday life setting in class. The second research question focuses on relationships between adults and boys in school, and on social encounters between boys and adults. The premise is that problems in schools can be defined as relational and that relationships condition everyday life encounters between adults and pupils in schools. The ethnographic description begins with an analysis of how boys' problems and need for support manifest themselves in the classroom. Observations from within the classroom walls help to make descriptions of everyday school-problems concrete. However, since classrooms are primarily social contexts constituted by individuals and relations between them and each classroom have its own social "setting," descriptions of problems that arise within a classroom, and the discussion of these descriptions, must be seen as "situated". That a given problem that arises in one classroom is concrete,does not mean that this problem exists - at least not in the same shape - outside this particular classroom. There are problems in classrooms that are more clearly linked to boys than to girls. Boys tend to show more problems regarding school motivation and have more problems with disturbing behavior. This does not mean that all problems regarding boys on classrooms are gender specific. Boys, just like girls, have various kinds of problems in class, and "boys" must be understood as a heterogenic category when it comes to problems in school. From a social relationship perspective, problems with boys in schools can be understood in terms of un-attuned or unsecure social bonds. An insecure relationship can be defined as constituted by either too tight or too loose bonds. Too loose bonds often manifest themselves in terms of indifference in the child - in particular towards school or towards adults in school. Another way in which "loose bonds" manifest themselves is by the pupil becoming invisible in class and lack social influence within social interplay in school. Adults' ability to recognize different pupils vary and some pupils are more commonly left unnoticed than others. Too tight bonds can be defined as conflicted relationships or as strained relationships. The conclusion of the relationally oriented study is that the quality of social bonds between students and adults effects adults' ability to recognize boys and encounter boys needs and desires. How boys experience welfare workers is also conditioned by the quality of social bonds between boys and welfare professionals. The study shows that there are three types of adult-boy relationships in school that do not enable constructive encounters between adults and boys. Boys' that are not taken seriously is a category of boys whose problems are not recognized as "real" problems. Motivational problems and boys reluctant attitudes towards schoolwork can be often viewed as a natural boy feature, and not as a real problem. Boys' who don't evoke feelings is another category of boys whose problems are unnoticed in school. The study suggests that the typical boy, who is neither particularly loud nor overly quiet, is often left unnoticed. Boys who do well do not evoke emotions within the everyday life in classrooms. The typical boy is easily regarded as someone who is doing just fine, in reference to the noisy and loud boys' and the silent poor boys. Boys who evoke negative emotions is a category of boys whose problems are mainly regarded as a problem for the class environment and not as a problem for the individual. Behavioral problems are often recognized in class, but it is common that interventions target the problem with the classroom environment and not the problem with the individual. The study concludes with a model that can be used to identify different qualities in social bonds between adults and pupils in school. The foundational thought of the model is that adults in schools can evaluate their relationships to pupils by reflecting on three elements in social relations. (1.) The level of insight: the extent to which the adult know about the individual life career of a pupil. (2.) The level of influence: the extent to which the adults' initiatives are recognized by the pupil. (3.) Emotional atmosphere: the quality of emotions that derives from the interplay between and an adult and a pupil.I avhandlingen framställs en realistisk beskrivning av hur pojkars behov av hjälp och stöd kommer till uttryck i skolans vardag samt hur relationer mellan vuxna och pojkar präglar bemötandet av pojkar i skolan. Studien bygger på etnografiska fältstudier som gjordes i två högstadieskolor i Helsingfors under tiden 1.9.2008 - 29.5.2009. Studien ämnar besvara två frågeställningar: (1.) Hur uppmärksammas pojkars problem och behov av stöd i skolans vardag? (2.) Hur präglas uppmärksammandet av pojkars stödbehov samt bemötandet av pojkar av relationer mellan vuxna och pojkar i skolan? Det finns vissa tendenser eller en dominerande problematik som kan sammankopplas med pojkar då en viss typ av problem i klassrum förekommer i större utsträckning bland pojkar än bland flickor. Dylika problem är svårigheter med studieprestationer, motivationsproblematik och störande beteende. Samtidigt förekommer också problematik i klassrum med anknytning till pojkar som inte faller inom ramen för vad kan betecknas som typiskt för pojkar eller som pojktendenser. Pojkproblematiken analyseras i avhandlingen också utgående från ett relationsperspektiv. I studien beskrivs vad kännetecknar en trygg relation mellan pojkar och vuxna samt redogörs för olika typer av relationsproblem mellan vuxna och pojkar i skolan. För lösa relationer kännetecknas av relationer där en elev har ett likgiltigt förhållningssätt till skolan eller av hur vissa elever förblir osynliga i det vardagliga samspelet i skolan. De spända relationernas problematik handlar om ansträngda eller konfliktfyllda relationer. Relationsanalysens syfte är dessutom att visa hur relationer utgör ett villkor som präglar uppmärksammandet och bemötandet av pojkar.I studien identifieras tre kategorier av relationer till pojkar som inte möjliggör konstruktivt bemötande. Pojkar som man inte tar på allvar utgör den typen av relationer till pojkar där problem kommer till uttryck som auditiva och visuella handlingar, men problematiken betecknas eller tolkas inte som ett "egentligt" problem. Det finns t.ex. en tendens att uppfatta pojkars motivationsproblematik som något som är typiskt pojkaktigt, men uppfattas inte som en problematik som förutsätter stödåtgärder. Pojkar som inte väcker känslor utgör den kategori av pojkar vars problematik förblir osynligt eller ouppmärksammat i skolan. Denna grupp omfattas i regel av en mellankategori pojkar, som varken sticker ut som stökiga och utåtriktade eller framstår som påtagligt tysta och tillbakadragna. Det är i regel den vanliga medverkande pojken som inte väcker känslor och lätt förblir osynlig i skolan. Pojkar som väcker negativa känslor utgör den kategori av pojkar vars problematik betecknas i första hand som problem för omgivningen. Beteendeproblem, störande beteende eller motivationssvårigheter kan ge upphov till dylika relationer där problemet tolkas i första hand som ett problem för omgivningen och inte som ett problem för individen. I studien presenteras en modell för identifikation av olika typer av relationer mellan elever och vuxna i skolan.
Subject: socialt arbete
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