Browsing Asiantuntijatarkastetut julkaisut - Refereed publications by Author "Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka"

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  • Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Baklanov, Alexander; Bartzis, John; Coll, Isabelle; Finardi, Sandro; Friedrich, Rainer; Geels, Camilla; Grönholm, Tiia; Halenka, Tomas; Ketzel, Matthias; Maragkidou, Androniki; Matthias, Volker; Moldanova, Jana; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Schäfer, Klaus; Suppan, Peter; Tsegas, George; Carmichael, Greg; Franco, Vicente; Hanna, Steve; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Velders, Guus J. M.; Kukkonen, Jaakko (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    This review provides a community’s perspective on air quality research focusing mainly on developments over the past decade. The article provides perspectives on current and future challenges as well as research needs for selected key topics. While this paper is not an exhaustive review of all research areas in the field of air quality, we have selected key topics that we feel are important from air quality research and policy perspectives. After providing a short historical overview, this review focuses on improvements in characterizing sources and emissions of air pollution, new air quality observations and instrumentation, advances in air quality prediction and forecasting, understanding interactions of air quality with meteorology and climate, exposure and health assessment, and air quality management and policy. In conducting the review, specific objectives were (i) to address current developments that push the boundaries of air quality research forward, (ii) to highlight the emerging prominent gaps of knowledge in air quality research, and (iii) to make recommendations to guide the direction for future research within the wider community. This review also identifies areas of particular importance for air quality policy. The original concept of this review was borne at the International Conference on Air Quality 2020 (held online due to the COVID 19 restrictions during 18–26 May 2020), but the article incorporates a wider landscape of research literature within the field of air quality science. On air pollution emissions the review highlights, in particular, the need to reduce uncertainties in emissions from diffuse sources, particulate matter chemical components, shipping emissions, and the importance of considering both indoor and outdoor sources. There is a growing need to have integrated air pollution and related observations from both ground-based and remote sensing instruments, including in particular those on satellites. The research should also capitalize on the growing area of low-cost sensors, while ensuring a quality of the measurements which are regulated by guidelines. Connecting various physical scales in air quality modelling is still a continual issue, with cities being affected by air pollution gradients at local scales and by long-range transport. At the same time, one should allow for the impacts from climate change on a longer timescale. Earth system modelling offers considerable potential by providing a consistent framework for treating scales and processes, especially where there are significant feedbacks, such as those related to aerosols, chemistry, and meteorology. Assessment of exposure to air pollution should consider the impacts of both indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as application of more sophisticated, dynamic modelling approaches to predict concentrations of air pollutants in both environments. With particulate matter being one of the most important pollutants for health, research is indicating the urgent need to understand, in particular, the role of particle number and chemical components in terms of health impact, which in turn requires improved emission inventories and models for predicting high-resolution distributions of these metrics over cities. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to the abovementioned new challenges and briefly considers the implications from the COVID-19 pandemic for air quality. Finally, we provide recommendations for air quality research and support for policy.
  • Kuenen, Jeroen; Dellaert, Stijn; Visschedijk, Antoon; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Super, Ingrid; Denier van der Gon, Hugo (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Earth System Science Data
    This paper presents a state-of-the-art anthropogenic emission inventory developed for the European domain for an 18-year time series (2000–2017) at a 0.05◦ × 0.1◦ grid resolution, specifically designed to support air quality modelling. The main air pollutants are included: NOx , SO2, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), NH3, CO, PM10 and PM2.5, and also CH4. To stay as close as possible to the emissions as officially reported and used in policy assessment, the inventory uses the officially reported emission data by European countries to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive as the basis where possible. Where deemed necessary because of errors, incompleteness or inconsistencies, these are replaced with or complemented by other emission data, most notably the estimates included in the Greenhouse gas Air pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Emissions are collected at the high sectoral level, distinguishing around 250 different sector–fuel combinations, whereafter a consistent spatial distribution is applied for Europe. A specific proxy is selected for each of the sector–fuel combinations, pollutants and years. Point source emissions are largely based on reported facility-level emissions, complemented by other sources of point source data for power plants. For specific sources, the resulting emission data were replaced with other datasets. Emissions from shipping (both inland and at sea) are based on the results from a separate shipping emission model where emissions are based on actual ship movement data, and agricultural waste burning emissions are based on satellite observations. The resulting spatially distributed emissions are evaluated against earlier versions of the dataset as well as against alternative emission estimates, which reveals specific discrepancies in some cases. Along with the resulting annual emission maps, profiles for splitting particulate matter (PM) and NMVOCs into individual components are provided, as well as information on the height profile by sector and temporal disaggregation down to the hourly level to support modelling activities. Annual grid maps are available in csv and NetCDF format
  • Guevara, Marc; Petetin, Hervé; Jorba, Oriol; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Kuenen, Jeroen; Super, Ingrid; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Majamäki, Elisa; Johansson, Lasse; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos (Copernicus Publications, 2022)
    Earth system science data
    We present a European dataset of daily sector-, pollutant- and country-dependent emission adjustment factors associated with the COVID-19 mobility restrictions for the year 2020.We considered metrics traditionally used to estimate emissions, such as energy statistics or traffic counts, as well as information derived from new mobility indicators and machine learning techniques. The resulting dataset covers a total of nine emission sectors, including road transport, the energy industry, the manufacturing industry, residential and commercial combustion, aviation, shipping, off-road transport, use of solvents, and fugitive emissions from transportation and distribution of fossil fuels. The dataset was produced to be combined with the Copernicus CAMS-REG_v5.1 2020 business-as-usual (BAU) inventory, which provides high-resolution (0:1 x 0:05) emission estimates for 2020 omitting the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions. The combination of both datasets allows quantifying spatially and temporally resolved reductions in primary emissions from both criteria pollutants (NOx , SO2, nonmethane volatile organic compounds – NMVOCs, NH3, CO, PM10 and PM2:5) and greenhouse gases (CO2 fossil fuel, CO2 biofuel and CH4), as well as assessing the contribution of each emission sector and European country to the overall emission changes. Estimated overall emission changes in 2020 relative to BAU emissions were as follows: -10.5% for NOx (-602 kt), -7.8% (-260.2 Mt) for CO2 from fossil fuels, -4.7% (-808.5 kt) for CO, -4.6% (-80 kt) for SO2, -3.3% (-19.1 Mt) for CO2 from biofuels, -3.0% (-56.3 kt) for PM10, -2.5% (-173.3 kt) for NMVOCs, -2.1% (-24.3 kt) for PM2:5, -0.9% (-156.1 kt) for CH4 and -0.2% (-8.6 kt) for NH3. The most pronounced drop in emissions occurred in April (up to -32.8% on average for NOx ) when mobility restrictions were at their maxima. The emission reductions during the second epidemic wave between October and December were 3 to 4 times lower than those occurred during the spring lockdown, as mobility restrictions were generally softer (e.g. curfews, limited social gatherings). Italy, France, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany were, together, the largest contributors to the total EU27 + UK (27 member states of the European Union and the UK) absolute emission decreases. At the sectoral level, the largest emission declines were found for aviation (-51% to -56 %), followed by road transport (-15.5% to -18.8 %), the latter being the main driver of the estimated reductions for the majority of pollutants. The collection of COVID-19 emission adjustment factors (https://doi.org/10.24380/k966-3957, Guevara et al., 2022) and the CAMS-REG_v5.1 2020 BAU gridded inventory (https://doi.org/10.24380/eptm-kn40, Kuenen et al., 2022b) have been produced in support of air quality modelling studies.
  • Reckermann, Marcus; Omstedt, Anders; Soomere, Tarmo; Aigars, Juris; Akhtar, Naveed; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Cronin, Tom; Czub, Michał; Eero, Margit; Hyytiäinen, Kari Petri; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Kiessling, Anders; Kjellström, Erik; Kuliński, Karol; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; McCrackin, Michelle; Meier, H. E. Markus; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Parnell, Kevin; Pons-Seres de Brauwer, Cristian; Poska, Anneli; Saarinen, Jarkko; Szymczycha, Beata; Undeman, Emma; Wörman, Anders; Zorita, Eduardo (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Earth System Dynamics
    Coastal environments, in particular heavily populated semi-enclosed marginal seas and coasts like the Baltic Sea region, are strongly affected by human activities. A multitude of human impacts, including climate change, affect the different compartments of the environment, and these effects interact with each other. As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region, and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities (i.e. climate change, coastal processes, hypoxia, acidification, submarine groundwater discharges, marine ecosystems, non-indigenous species, land use and land cover), some are completely human-induced (i.e. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, river regulations, offshore wind farms, shipping, chemical contamination, dumped warfare agents, marine litter and microplastics, tourism, and coastal management), and they are all interrelated to different degrees. We present a general description and analysis of the state of knowledge on these interrelations. Our main insight is that climate change has an overarching, integrating impact on all of the other factors and can be interpreted as a background effect, which has different implications for the other factors. Impacts on the environment and the human sphere can be roughly allocated to anthropogenic drivers such as food production, energy production, transport, industry and economy. The findings from this inventory of available information and analysis of the different factors and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.