Effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties of amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine

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Title: Effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties of amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine
Author: Sundarrajan, Lakshminarasimhan
Other contributor: Helsingin yliopisto, Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta, Elintarvike- ja ympäristötieteiden laitos
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences
Helsingfors universitet, Agrikultur- och forstvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för livsmedels- och miljövetenskaper
Publisher: Helsingfors universitet
Date: 2014
Language: eng
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:hulib-201507212175
Thesis level: master's thesis
Discipline: Food Science
Food Science (Food Bioprocessing)
Food Science
Abstract: Amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine are good sources of protein, fat, dietary fibre and bioactive compounds. The literature review deals with the nutritional properties and the stability of bioactive compounds and the effect of extrusion cooking on amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine. The main aim of this study was to (1) chemically characterize amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine, and (2) to determine the effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties and the stability of bioactive compounds. Extrudates were processed using twin screw extruder at two different extrusion temperatures (140 and 160 °C) containing two different contents of tested flour mixtures (20 and 50%). The raw materials and the extrudates were stored at -18 °C and chemically characterized to determine fatty acid composition, tocopherol composition and total phenolic acid content. Fatty acid composition was determined using GC while tocopherol composition was detected using HPLC. The total phenolic acid content was analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The protein and dietary fibre content in lupine accounted for 29 and 50 g/100 g d.m., respectively. The extrudates containing 50% lupine and processed at 140 °C possessed higher content of oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. At higher content of tested flours, extrusion cooking at 160 °C resulted in better retention of unsaturated fatty acids in the extrudates of amaranth, kañiwa and quinoa. Higher extrusion temperatures resulted in lower retention of tocopherols in all the extrudates. The total phenolic acid resulted in higher contents in the extrudates of kañiwa when compared to other extrudates. At higher seed contents of tested flours (%), higher retention of total phenolic acid was achieved during extrusion cooking at 140 °C in the extrudates of amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa. This study showed that extrusion conditions could be optimized in order to obtain lesser effects on the nutritional properties and better retention of bioactive compounds. The research study provides supportive information for obtaining gluten-free cereal snack products with lower glycemic index.
Subject: amaranth
nutritional properties
bioactive compounds

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