Articles

Recent Submissions

  • Steel, Tytti; Koskinen-Koivisto, Eerika (Ethnos ry, 2019)
    Ethnos-toimite, Scripta Aboensia
  • Lammenranta, Markus (The Finnish Society for Aesthetics, 2019)
    In “How Art Teaches: A Lesson from Goodman”, Markus Lammenranta inquires if and how artworks can convey propositional knowledge about the world. Lammenranta argues that the cognitive role of art can be explained by revising Nelson Goodman’s theory of symbols. According to Lammenranta, the problem of Goodman’s theory is that, despite providing an account of art’s symbolic function, it denies art the possibility of mediating propositional knowledge. Lammenranta claims that Goodman’s theory can be augmented by enlarging it with an account of direct reference developed by Bertrand Russell and contemporary philosophy of language. On this basis, an expanded version of Goodman’s theory can explain how artworks can express propositions even without being linguistic, representational, or non-fictive. Lammenranta explicates his theory by explaining how abstract paintings and literary fictions can mediate propositional claims about the actual, everyday world.
  • Tapia Navarro, Nadia (2019)
    In this article, I focus on the work of the Movement of Victims of State Crimes (Movice) in Colombia. The work of Movice, I suggest, is an example of how the category of “victim” from international law discourse is adopted and used from below by victims of mass atrocities. I show that, through this category, Movice attempts to introduce an alternative narrative of the internal armed conflict in which the state is a perpetrator of violence against civilian population as part of a practice of elimination of political opposition through violent means. To do this, I focus on three political opportunities in which Movice deployed the category of victim between 2005 and 2016. I suggest that Movice is an example of how a movement of victims can adopt categories of international law to frame their struggles and, in doing so, infuse them with new contents.
  • Niskanen, Samu Kristian (Brepols, 2019)
    This is a textual and literary discussion on the four surviving versions of a history of the First Crusade, composed within a few years of the Christian capture of Jerusalem in 1099. The best-known of those four texts is Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum, today one of the most widely read medieval histories. In contrast, one of the versions, Peregrinatio Antiochie per Vrbanum papam facta, has never been published in print. This paper attends to the question of priority in transmission, a challenging conundrum as none of our four texts is identifiable as patently authorial. Rather than seeking to propose precisely how the four texts are related to one another, I attempt to identify editorial strategies that may account for divergence between them. What follows is, then, a methodological essay on textual criticism and a case study of how medieval readerships engaged with historical writings.
  • Rautalahti, Heidi (2019)
    In the following article, I explore YouTube videos and forum discussions on Reddit with content related to the theme or titled “How video games changed my life”, focusing especially on the mainstream video game The Last of Us (Naughty Dog 2013/2014). My aim is to understand how players use and follow an emerging and shared narrative describing a positive life-change. Through communal sharing online, the narratives afford a testimonial format or model. I see that the life-change narratives – or, in other words, transformational speeches – serve both as individual identity reflections, affirmations, and testimonies. Furthermore, through the act of public sharing on video platforms or through forum discussion, they can bring together an emerging community. Following Tuija Hovi’s (2007, 2016) conceptualisations of religious narrative, the article shows how the argued testimonial tone underlines a unified and newly formed The Last of Us fan community. In addition, it presents a case study of how meaningful connections are built through shared narratives in today’s online spaces. The article joins the scholarly conversations examining active meaning-making in popular culture.
  • Azpiroz, Adrian B.; Cortes Capano, Gonzalo (Dirección Nacional de Medio Ambiente, Uruguay, 2017)
  • Silva, José Filipe (2018)
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2018)
    This paper argues for an embodied approach to the scientist’s persona, using ‘experience’ as its focal point. Rather than noting that embodied experiences influenced scientists’ practices and identities amidst (or despite) ideals of objectivity, I want to draw attention to the ways in which personal, embodied experiences were celebrated in nineteenth century science, and presented as primordial for the practice of competent research. I am focusing on those scientists involved in the study of the voice in order to do so. Because the physical workings of the voice are largely hidden inside the body, fields such as laryngology and phoniatry developed a number of touch-based, experiential scientific practices before and alongside tools of visual observation. These non-visual practices were very closely connected to researchers’ sensations of their own bodies, and connected to their identity (as a middle-class amateur singer, a hoarse professor, a stammerer, e.g). As scientific disciplines studying the voice developed over the century, personal ‘experience’ (understood both as particular practices and notions of personal background and identity) was increasingly brought forward as a unique source of understanding and expertise. This resulted in a highly diverse field of experts on the voice, in which otherwise non-elite researchers could participate and even rise to fame. They did so because, and not despite, their physical and social impediments. Studying the experiential practices and memories brought forward by this network of experts allows me to look at the construction of their scientific personae from an intersectional perspective. A focus on the nineteenth century notion of ‘experience’ and its inclusion in scientific discourse allows us an insight into the various constituent elements of a ‘persona’ built within the context of a particular field, and drawing liberally on aspects of identification that do not always fit the classic categories of gender, class, age, health, etc.
  • Lehikoinen, Annukka; Hukkinen, Janne; Janasik, Nina; Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Kuikka, Sakari (2019)
    To ensure their collective optimality and acceptability, environmental management strategies should be evidence-based, having sound and objective scientific grounds. However, decision-making problems aiming for sustainability are typically complex and wicked, i.e. without a clear optimal solution. Thus different scientific disciplines and approaches can provide very different – though still scientifically valid – formally optimal solutions. On top of this, lately, environmental research literature has presented vast amounts of case studies on divergent participatory processes, suggesting stakeholders and assessment end-users should be involved in each step of the impact and scenario assessments. Researchers from different fields of science, as well as stakeholder parties, each tend to frame differently the social-environmental systems to be analyzed to answer the same assessment questions. Consequently, the key variables and even their interpretation of causalities in the system analyzed may vary remarkably. Above all, the framing of the assessment question per se may come from the end-user of the assessment results, potentially being the orderer and financer of the study. We discuss the impact of question and system framing on the assessment results from the perspective of decision analysis. We explore whether and when there is a risk that models end up producing policy-based evidence instead of the originally targeted evidence-based policy.
  • Hokkanen, Henri; Andalibi, Vafa; Vanni, Simo (2019)
    Recently, Markram et al. (2015) presented a model of the rat somatosensory microcircuit (Markram model). Their model is high in anatomical and physiological detail, and its simulation requires supercomputers. The lack of neuroinformatics and computing power is an obstacle for using a similar approach to build models of other cortical areas or larger cortical systems. Simplified neuron models offer an attractive alternative to high-fidelity Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron models, but their validity in modeling cortical circuits is unclear. We simplified the Markram model to a network of exponential integrate-and-fire (EIF) neurons that runs on a single CPU core in reasonable time. We analyzed the electrophysiology and the morphology of the Markram model neurons with eFel and NeuroM tools, provided by the Blue Brain Project. We then constructed neurons with few compartments and averaged parameters from the reference model. We used the CxSystem simulation framework to explore the role of short-term plasticity and GABAB and NMDA synaptic conductances in replicating oscillatory phenomena in the Markram model. We show that having a slow inhibitory synaptic conductance (GABAB) allows replication of oscillatory behavior in the high-calcium state. Furthermore, we show that qualitatively similar dynamics are seen even with a reduced number of cell types (from 55 to 17 types). This reduction halved the computation time. Our results suggest that qualitative dynamics of cortical microcircuits can be studied using limited neuroinformatics and computing resources supporting parameter exploration and simulation of cortical systems. The simplification procedure can easily be adapted to studying other microcircuits for which sparse electrophysiological and morphological data are available.
  • Andalibi, Vafa; Hokkanen, Henri; Vanni, Simo (2019)
    Simulation of the cerebral cortex requires a combination of extensive domain-specific knowledge and efficient software. However, when the complexity of the biological system is combined with that of the software, the likelihood of coding errors increases, which slows model adjustments. Moreover, few life scientists are familiar with software engineering and would benefit from simplicity in form of a high-level abstraction of the biological model. Our primary aim was to build a scalable cortical simulation framework for personal computers. We isolated an adjustable part of the domain-specific knowledge from the software. Next, we designed a framework that reads the model parameters from comma-separated value files and creates the necessary code for Brian2 model simulation. This separation allows rapid exploration of complex cortical circuits while decreasing the likelihood of coding errors and automatically using efficient hardware devices. Next, we tested the system on a simplified version of the neocortical microcircuit proposed by Markram and colleagues (2015). Our results indicate that the framework can efficiently perform simulations using Python, C++, and GPU devices. The most efficient device varied with computer hardware and the duration and scale of the simulated system. The speed of Brian2 was retained despite an overlying layer of software. However, the Python and C++ devices inherited the single core limitation of Brian2. The CxSystem framework supports exploration of complex models on personal computers and thus has the potential to facilitate research on cortical networks and systems.
  • Väyrynen, Katja; Vihervaara, Anton; Hatanpää, Timo; Mattinen, Miika; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Raisanen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2019)
    This work presents preparation of nickel germanide (Ni2Ge) thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films were grown using NiCl2(tmpda) (tmpda = N,N,N',N',-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine) and tributylgermanium hydride serving as a new, efficient reducing agent. This is the first time ALD NixGey films are prepared directly upon the combination of two precursors and without any annealing treatment. NixGey is an important contact material for enabling Ge-based transistors and thus circumventing the scaling issues related to current microelectronics. The Ni2Ge process was examined at low temperatures of 160-200 degrees C. Self-limiting, saturative growth with a high growth rate of 0.91 angstrom/cycle was observed at 180 degrees C. The films were thoroughly analyzed in terms of morphology, crystallinity, composition, and resistivity. The Ni2Ge films were pure, with the sum of contaminants being less than 1 at. %. Owing to their high purity, the films exhibited low resistivity, suggesting suitability for contact applications.
  • Niemi, Reetta (2019)
    Background: The new core curriculum for basic education in Finland emphasises the interrelation between learners’ participation and multidisciplinary learning. Each learner must be provided with an opportunity to join at least one multidisciplinary learning module each year. Hence, student teachers also implement a multidisciplinary learning module as part of their teaching practice at the University of Helsinki. Aim: In this article, I describe how two multidisciplinary learning modules were implemented by four third-year student teachers in a teacher training school and how they were educated to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. Setting: The research question of this article is as follows: How do different teaching practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules support learners’ participation? Methods: The data of this study consist of two documentation forms: two semi-structured group interviews and a field note diary. Results: The results showed that most of the practices used in multidisciplinary learning modules supported an active joining form of participation and a collaborative form of participation. In the multidisciplinary learning modules, a child-oriented form of participation was supported through practices that related to creating artistic learning outcomes; however, no practices supported a child-led form of participation. Conclusion: In this study, the student teachers learned to analyse the different forms of participation in their teaching. Nevertheless, more data about the workability of the mentoring method in other contexts are needed.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Resendiz-Nieves, Julio; Colasanti, Roberto; Collan, Juhani; Hernesniemi, Juha (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Vascular pineal malformations are rare and technically demanding lesions. Because the locations of these lesions, endovascular techniques and radiosurgery have been increasingly used in the recent decades to accomplish safe occlusion. Nevertheless, microsurgical treatment may be required sometimes. METHODS: We present a retrospective review of the vascular pineal malformations operated by the senior author. Moreover, we report illustrative cases for the various types of vascular lesions with a careful analysis of the different microsurgical stages. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with pineal vascular lesions were operated on between 1980 and 2015: 6 patients had vein of Galen malformations, 5 plexiform arteriovenous malformations, 6 cavernous malformations, and 1 patient had a ruptured medial posterior choroidal artery aneurysm. A complete resection and occlusion was possible in all vascular malformations. CONCLUSIONS: The pineal region is an infrequent but challenging location for vascular lesions. A careful and step-wise operative strategy for the different types of vascular lesion is paramount to accomplish an effective and safe microsurgical treatment when other alternatives fail or are not available.
  • Lammi, Panu; Cantell, Hannele (2019)
    The new Finnish national curriculum emphasizes the use of topical news media in geography education. As geography explores natural features and requires a knowledge of place names, the subject might be used as a tool for students to develop their worldview and place-naming skills. In this study we examined Finnish lower and upper secondary school students’ (n = 274) knowledge of current news topics and their locations with a questionnaire and a mapping exercise in late autumn 2016. The results show that both the most familiar news topics and the best-known places are primarily located in Western industrialized countries. The students’ knowledge of place names improves when they get older and there is a vast improvement after completing a 7th grade geography course in lower secondary school. The further analyses with generalized boosted regression models (GBM) and linear regression models indicate active news reading and mentions of place names in lessons being major contributors on knowledge of the place names in news topics.
  • Teikari, Jonna; Vicentini Popin, Rafael; Hou, Shengwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Sivonen, Kaarina (2019)
    The Baltic Sea is a shallow basin of brackish water in which the spatial salinity gradient is one of the most important factors contributing to species distribution. The Baltic Sea is infamous for its annual cyanobacterial blooms comprised of Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon spp., and Dolichospermum spp. that cause harm, especially for recreational users. To broaden our knowledge of the cyanobacterial adaptation strategies for brackish water environments, we sequenced the entire genome of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315, a species occurring not only in freshwater environments but also in brackish water. Comparative genomics analyses revealed a close association with Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0090 isolated from a lake in Finland. The genome closure of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315 unraveled a mixture of two subtypes in the original culture, and subtypes exhibited distinct buoyancy phenotypes. Salinity less than 3 g L−1 NaCl enabled proper growth of Dolichospermum sp. UHCC 0315, whereas growth was arrested at moderate salinity (6 g L−1 NaCl). The concentrations of toxins, microcystins, increased at moderate salinity, whereas RNA sequencing data implied that Dolichospermum remodeled its primary metabolism in unfavorable high salinity. Based on our results, the predicted salinity decrease in the Baltic Sea may favor toxic blooms of Dolichospermum spp.
  • Oikkonen, Jaana; Zhang, Kaiyang; Salminen, Liina; Schulman, Ingrid; Lavikka, Kari; Andersson, Noora; Ojanperä, Erika; Hietanen, Sakari; Grénman, Seija; Lehtonen, Rainer; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Carpén, Olli; Hynninen, Johanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (2019)
    PURPOSECirculating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection is a minimally invasive technique that offers dynamic molecular snapshots of genomic alterations in cancer. Although ctDNA markers can be used for early detection of cancers or for monitoring treatment efficacy, the value of ctDNA in guiding treatment decisions in solid cancers is controversial. Here, we monitored ctDNA to detect clinically actionable alterations during treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, the most common and aggressive form of epithelial ovarian cancer with a 5-year survival rate of 43%.PATIENTS AND METHODSWe implemented a clinical ctDNA workflow to detect clinically actionable alterations in more than 500 cancer-related genes. We applied the workflow to a prospective cohort consisting of 78 ctDNA samples from 12 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer before, during, and after treatment. These longitudinal data sets were analyzed using our open-access ctDNA-tailored bioinformatics analysis pipeline and in-house Translational Oncology Knowledgebase to detect clinically actionable genomic alterations. The alterations were ranked according to the European Society for Medical Oncology scale for clinical actionability of molecular targets.RESULTSOur results show good concordance of mutations and copy number alterations in ctDNA and tumor samples, and alterations associated with clinically available drugs were detected in seven patients (58%). Treatment of one chemoresistant patient was changed on the basis of detection of ERBB2 amplification, and this ctDNA-guided decision was followed by significant tumor shrinkage and complete normalization of the cancer antigen 125 tumor marker.CONCLUSIONOur results demonstrate a proof of concept for using ctDNA to guide clinical decisions. Furthermore, our results show that longitudinal ctDNA samples can be used to identify poor-responding patients after first cycles of chemotherapy. We provide what we believe to be the first comprehensive, open-source ctDNA workflow for detecting clinically actionable alterations in solid cancers.
  • Lettenmeier, Michael; Akenji, Lewis; Toivio, Viivi; Koide, Ryu; Amellina, Aryanie (Sitra, 2019)
    Sitran selvityksiä
  • Van Remortel, N.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Raidal, M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Bloch, D.; Schroeder, M.; Weber, M.; Czellar, S.; Kaur, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, S.; Das, P.; Rossi, A.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. H.; Ahmad, A.; Orsini, L.; Taylor, D.; Zhang, F.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Wagner, S. R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Wang, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Shin, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Lee, Y-J; Wang, T. W.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Li, W.; Smith, G.; Wolf, M.; Han, J.; Li, H.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H. (2019)
    A measurement of WZ electroweak (EW) vector boson scattering is presented. The measurement is performed in the leptonic decay modes WZ -> l nu l'l', where l, l' = e, mu. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV at the LHC collected with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) . The WZ plus two jet production cross section is measured in fiducial regions with enhanced contributions from EW production and found to be consistent with standard model predictions. The EW WZ production in association with two jets is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 2.2 (2.5) standard deviations. Constraints on charged Higgs boson production and on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in terms of dimension-eight effective field theory operators are also presented. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

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