Articles

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  • Kröger, Antti Markus; Lalander, Rickard (Routledge, 2016)
    In recent times a growing number of Latin American rural groups have achieved extended ethno-territorial rights, and large territories have been protected by progressive constitutions. These were the outcomes of extended cycles of national and transnational contentious politics and of social movement struggle, including collective South–South cooperation. However, the continent has simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Frequently the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or Indigenous territories. Consequently economic interests collide with the protection and recognition of constitutional rights. Through a review of selected demonstrative cases across Latin America, this article analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice.
  • Lilley, Thomas Mikael; Johnson, Joseph Samuel; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Rogers, Elisabeth Jeannine; Wilson, Cali Ann; Schell, Spencer Mead; Field, Kenneth Alan; Reeder, DeeAnn Marie (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2016)
    Background: White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated bat populations in North America, with millions of bats dead. WNS is associated with physiological changes in hibernating bats, leading to increased arousals from hibernation and premature consumption of fat reserves. However, there is evidence of surviving populations of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) close to where the fungus was first detected nearly ten years ago. Results: We examined the hibernation patterns of a surviving population of little brown myotis and compared them to patterns in populations before the arrival of WNS and populations at the peak of WNS mortality. Despite infection with Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative fungal agent, the remnant population displayed less frequent arousals from torpor and lower torpid body temperatures than bats that died from WNS during the peak of mortality. The hibernation patterns of the remnant population resembled pre-WNS patterns with some modifications. Conclusions: These data show that remnant populations of little brown myotis do not experience the increase in periodic arousals from hibernation typified by bats dying from WNS, despite the presence of the fungal pathogen on their skin. These patterns may reflect the use of colder hibernacula microclimates by WNS survivors, and/or may reflect differences in how these bats respond to the disease.
  • Mykkänen, Juri (Talouspolitiikan arviointineuvosto, 2016)
  • Kasteenpohja, Teija; Marttunen, Mauri; Aalto-Setala, Terhi; Perälä, Jonna; Saarni, Samuli I.; Suvisaari, Jaana (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2016)
    Background: Anxiety disorders are common in early adulthood, but general population studies concerning the treatment adequacy of anxiety disorders taking into account appropriate pharmacological and psychological treatment are scarce. The aims of this study were to examine treatments received for anxiety disorders in a Finnish general population sample of young adults, and to define factors associated with receiving minimally adequate treatment and with dropping out from treatment. Methods: A questionnaire containing several mental health screens was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1894 Finns aged 19 to 34 years. All screen positives and a random sample of screen negatives were invited to a mental health assessment including a SCID interview. For the final diagnostic assessment, case records from mental health treatments for the same sample were obtained. This article investigates treatment received, treatment adequacy and dropouts from treatment of 79 participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder (excluding those with a single specific phobia). Based on all available information, receiving antidepressant or buspirone medication for at least 2 months with at least four visits with any type of physician or at least eight sessions of psychotherapy within 12 months or at least 4 days of hospitalization were regarded as minimally adequate treatment for anxiety disorders. Treatment dropout was rated if the patient discontinued the visits by his own decision despite having an adequate treatment strategy according to the case records. Results: Of participants with anxiety disorders (excluding those with a single specific phobia), 41.8 % had received minimally adequate treatment. In the multivariate analysis, comorbid substance use disorder was associated with antidepressant or buspirone medication lasting at least 2 months. Those who were currently married or cohabiting had lower odds of having at least four visits with a physician a year. None of these factors were associated with the final outcome of minimally adequate treatment or treatment dropout. Participants with comorbid personality disorders received and misused benzodiazepines more often than others. Conclusions: More efforts are needed to provide adequate treatment for young adults with anxiety disorders. Attention should be paid to benzodiazepine prescribing to individuals with personality disorders.
  • Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; van Teijlingen, Nienke H.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Douillard, Francois P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Messing, Marcel; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Vanderleyden, Jos; Dufrene, Yves F.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; de Vos, Willem M.; Lebeer, Sarah (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2016)
    Mapping of the microbial molecules underlying microbiota-host interactions is key to understand how microbiota preserve mucosal homeostasis. A pivotal family of such bacterial molecules are pili. Pili are proteinaceous cell wall appendages with a well-documented role in adhesion, whilst their role in immune interaction with the host is less established. Gram-positive pili are often posttranslationally modified by sortase-specific cleavage reactions and the formation of intramolecular peptide bonds. Here we report glycosylation as a new level of posttranslational modification of sortase-dependent pili of a beneficial microbiota species and its role in immune modulation. We focused on the SpaCBA pili of the model probiotic and beneficial human gut microbiota isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. A unique combination of molecular techniques, nanoscale mechanical and immunological approaches led to the identification of mannose and fucose residues on the SpaCBA pili. These glycans on the pili are recognized by human dendritic cells via the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN, a key carbohydrate-dependent immune tailoring pattern recognition receptor. This specific lectin-sugar interaction is moreover of functional importance and modulated the cytokine response of dendritic cells. This provides insight into the direct role bacterial glycoproteins can play in the immunomodulation of the host. Modification of the complex heterotrimeric pili of a model probiotic and microbiota isolate with mannose and fucose is of importance for the functional interaction with the host immune lectin receptor DC-SIGN on human dendritic cells. Our findings shed light on the yet underappreciated role of glycoconjugates in bacteria-host interactions.
  • Lal, Dennis; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Dejanovici, Borislav; May, Patrick; Thiele, Holger; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Schwarz, Gunter; Riesch, Erik; Ikram, M. Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Steinboeck, Hannelore; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Neophytou, Birgit; Zara, Federico; Hahn, Andreas; Gormley, Padhraig; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne G.; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Krause, Roland; Zimprich, Fritz; Lemke, Johannes R.; Nuernberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Lerche, Holger; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Genetic Comm Italian League Agains; EuroEPINOMICS CoGIE Consortium (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2016)
    Objective The SCN1A gene, coding for the voltage-gated Na+ channel alpha subunit NaV1.1, is the clinically most relevant epilepsy gene. With the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing, clinical laboratories are generating an ever-increasing catalogue of SCN1A variants. Variants are more likely to be classified as pathogenic if they have already been identified previously in a patient with epilepsy. Here, we critically re-evaluate the pathogenicity of this class of variants in a cohort of patients with common epilepsy syndromes and subsequently ask whether a significant fraction of benign variants have been misclassified as pathogenic. Methods We screened a discovery cohort of 448 patients with a broad range of common genetic epilepsies and 734 controls for previously reported SCN1A mutations that were assumed to be disease causing. We re-evaluated the evidence for pathogenicity of the identified variants using in silico predictions, segregation, original reports, available functional data and assessment of allele frequencies in healthy individuals as well as in a follow up cohort of 777 patients. Results and Interpretation We identified 8 known missense mutations, previously reported as pathogenic, in a total of 17 unrelated epilepsy patients (17/448; 3.80%). Our re-evaluation indicates that 7 out of these 8 variants (p.R27T; p.R28C; p.R542Q; p.R604H; p.T1250M; p.E1308D; p.R1928G; NP_001159435.1) are not pathogenic. Only the p. T1174S mutation may be considered as a genetic risk factor for epilepsy of small effect size based on the enrichment in patients (P = 6.60 x 10(-4); OR = 0.32, fishers exact test), previous functional studies but incomplete penetrance. Thus, incorporation of previous studies in genetic counseling of SCN1A sequencing results is challenging and may produce incorrect conclusions.
  • Katajamäki, Sakari; Honkela, Timo; Kohonen, Oskar (2005)
  • Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Erkkilä, Maria; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan H; Manninen, Outi (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), a cool-season hexaploid perennial, is the most important forage grass species in Nordic countries. Earlier analyses of genetic diversity in a collection of 96 genebank accessions of timothy with SSR markers demonstrated high levels of diversity but could not resolve population structure. Therefore, we examined a subset of 51 accessions with REMAP markers, which are based on retrotransposons, and compared the diversity results with those obtained with SSR markers. Results Using four primer combinations, 533 REMAP markers were analyzed, compared with 464 polymorphic alleles in the 13 SSR loci previously. The average marker index, which describes information obtained per experiment (per primer combination or locus) was over six times higher with REMAPs. Most of the variation found was within accessions, with somewhat less, 89 %, for REMAPs, than for SSR, with 93 %. Conclusions SSRs revealed differences in the level of diversity slightly better than REMAPs but neither marker type could reveal any clear clustering of accessions based on countries, vegetation zones, or different cultivar types. In our study, reliable evaluation of SSR allele dosages was not possible, so each allele had to be handled as a dominant marker. SSR and REMAP, which report from different mechanisms of generating genetic diversity and from different genomic regions, together indicate a lack of population structure. Taken together, this likely reflects the outcrossing and hexaploid nature of timothy rather than failures of either marker system.
  • Pulkkinen, Lea; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J. (Cambridge University Press, 2016)
  • Biancari, Fausto; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Mariani, Silvia; Saari, Petri; Satta, Jari; Juvonen, Tatu (SAGE, 2016)
    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for degenerative aneurysm involving only the descending thoracic aorta (DTAA). Methods: An English-language literature review was performed through PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify any study evaluating the outcomes of TEVAR for DTAA. The main endpoints of this analysis were all-cause 30-day and late postoperative mortality. Secondary outcome measures were procedure success, vascular access complications, paraplegia, stroke, early endoleaks during the index hospitalization, aneurysm-related death, reinterventions, and conversion to open repair. To control for the anticipated heterogeneity among small observational studies, absolute values and means were pooled using random effects models; the results are expressed as pooled proportions, means, or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Eleven studies reporting on 673 patients (mean age 72.6 years, mean aneurysm diameter 62.9 cm) with DTAA were selected for the analysis. Technical success was reported in 91.0% of patients, and vascular access complications requiring repair were encountered in 9.7% of cases. Pooled overall 30-day, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 96.0%, 80.3%, 77.3%, and 74.0%, respectively. Five studies compared the results of TEVAR after elective (n=151) and urgent/emergent procedure (n=77); the latter was a predictor of 30-day mortality (17.1% vs 1.8%, RR 3.83, 95% CI 1.18 to 12.40, p=0.025). Paraplegia occurred in 3.2% of patients and was permanent in 1.4% of patients. The stroke rate was 2.7%. Early type I endoleak was observed in 7.3%, type II endoleak in 2.0%, and type III in 1.2% of patients. The mean follow-up of 9 studies was 22.3 months. At 3 years, freedom from reintervention was 90.3%. Death secondary to aneurysm rupture and/or fistula was reported in 3.2% of patients. Conclusion: Current results indicate that TEVAR for DTAA can be performed with rather high technical success, low postoperative morbidity, and good 3-year survival.
  • Olin, Mikko Johannes; Tiainen, Joni Matias; Kurkilahti, Mika; Rask, Martti; Lehtonen, Hannu Väinö Tapani (Elsevier B. V., 2016)
    Gillnets are commonly used for monitoring fish communities and assessing the ecological quality inEuropean lakes. However, the relationship between gillnet CPUE and fish abundance is not linear anddepends on several factors affecting the catchability of gillnets. We investigated the effects of high watercolour, naturally anoxic hypolimnion, water temperature and sex ratio on the catchability of perch Percafluviatilis in gillnets. Data were collected during 10 years in nine forest lakes in southern Finland. Suchlakes are very common in Finland. The density and size structure of perch populations were estimatedby mark and recapture method during spring and standard gillnet fishing (CEN, 2005. Water qualitySampling of Fish with Multimesh Gillnets. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels (EN 14757))in late summer. Perch CPUE was positively but non-linearly dependent on the perch density. Catchabilityincreased with water colour, water temperature, and the volume of the anoxic hypolimnion. The sex ratiowas also important because late summer gillnetting overestimates the proportion of female perch. If thefactors that affect the catchability of perch in gillnets are taken into account, gillnet CPUE using standardmethods can be used as rough index of fish density in small forest lakes.
  • Ojala, K.; Vironen, J. H.; Mattila, K.; Eklund, A. M.; Leidenius, M. H. K.; Meretoja, T. J. (SAGE, 2016)
    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze feasibility of day surgery in breast cancer patients with breast conserving surgery and sentinel node biopsy. Material and Methods: The study was a randomized controlled trial comparing day surgery with one night hospital stay in breast cancer patients with breast conserving surgery and sentinel node biopsy. A total of 40 patients with 3-cm tumor and clinically N0 were randomized to one night stay group and 38 patients to day surgery group. Within discharge, patients and their relatives were given questionnaires in order to evaluate their experience regarding the duration of hospital stay. Results: Randomized groups were similar regarding patient age and tumor stage. A total of 18 (47%) day surgery group patients were discharged the same day. The most common reason for overnight hospital stay was axillary clearance, 9 (24%). None of the patients in the day surgery group, but 2 patients in the overnight hospital stay group had re-operation due to complications. Perception and preference results were analyzed both according to randomization and actual treatment groups. Patients in both groups had rather similar experiences on the first postoperative day. Also, spouse's or relative's perception after discharge was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Day surgery was well received by the patients and their relatives. Day surgery appears as feasible in patients with breast conservation and sentinel node biopsy.
  • Ropponen, J.; Vainikka, T.; Sinisalo, J.; Rapola, J.; Laine, M.; Ihlberg, L. (SAGE, 2016)
    Background and Aims: In this report, we present our experience with the transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the SAPIEN valve. The procedural success, 30-day outcome, and survival up to 2years are compared with the transapical access performed in patients in our institution. Material and Methods: Of a total of 282 transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients, 100 consecutive patients had a non-transfemoral approach. The transaortic and transapical access routes were used in 36 and 64 patients, respectively. The transaortic group had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE (32.6 vs 25.2, p=0.021) and more patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% (33.3% vs 14.1%, p=0.023). Results: The respective technical success rates for the transaortic and transapical groups were 100% and 95.2% (p=NS). There were significantly more perioperative hemodynamic problems necessitating cardiopulmonary resuscitation or mechanical circulatory support in the transapical group (18.8% vs 2.8%, p=0.023). The transaortic group had a slightly shorter hospital stay (7 vs 8days, p=0.018). The 30-day mortality was 8.6% and 10.9% in the transaortic and transapical group, respectively (p=NS). Combined safety outcome was similar in both groups at 30days. The respective 1-year survival rates for the transaortic and transapical groups were 71.5% and 68.3%, respectively (p=NS). Conclusion: The trans transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a considerable choice to transapical approach. Despite a higher risk patient cohort, the clinical outcome is at least comparable to the transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and it can be utilized as a second choice for patients with prohibitive iliac-femoral anatomy for transfemoral access.
  • Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016)
    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in beta-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.
  • Rasilainen, S. K.; Mentula, P. J.; Leppaniemi, A. K. (SAGE, 2016)
    Background and aims: The goal after open abdomen treatment is to reach primary fascial closure. Modern negative pressure wound therapy systems are sometimes inefficient for this purpose. This retrospective chart analysis describes the use of the components separation' method in facilitating primary fascial closure after open abdomen. Material and methods: A total of 16 consecutive critically ill surgical patients treated with components separation during open abdomen management were analyzed. No patients were excluded. Results: Primary fascial closure was achieved in 75% (12/16). Components separation was performed during ongoing open abdomen treatment in 7 patients and at the time of delayed primary fascial closure in 9 patients. Of the former, 3/7 (43%) patients reached primary fascial closure, whereas all 9 patients in the latter group had successful fascial closure without major complications (p=0.019). Conclusion: Components separation is a useful method in contributing to successful primary fascial closure in patients treated for open abdomen. Best results were obtained when components separation was performed simultaneously with primary fascial closure at the end of the open abdomen treatment.