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  • Mattinen, Miika; Wree, Jan-Lucas; Stegmann, Niklas; Ciftyurek, Engin; El Achhab, Mhamed; King, Peter J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Schierbaum, Klaus D.; Devi, Anjana; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Heteroleptic bis(tert-butylimido)bis(N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinato) compounds of molybdenum and tungsten are introduced as precursors for atomic layer deposition of tungsten and molybdenum oxide thin films using ozone as the oxygen source. Both precursors have similar thermal properties but exhibit different growth behaviors. With the molybdenum precursor, high growth rates up to 2 angstrom/cycle at 300 degrees C and extremely uniform films are obtained, although the surface reactions are not completely saturative. The corresponding tungsten precursor enables saturative film growth with a lower growth rate of 0.45 angstrom/cycle at 300 degrees C. Highly pure films of both metal oxides are deposited, and their phase as well as stoichiometry can be tuned by changing the deposition conditions. The WO films the crystallize as gamma-WO3 at 300 degrees C and above, whereas films deposited at lower temperatures are amorphous. Molybdenum oxide can be deposited as either amorphous (= 325 degrees C) films. MoOr films are further characterized by synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy and temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. A suboxide MoOx film deposited at 275 degrees C is demonstrated to serve as an efficient hydrogen gas sensor at a low operating temperature of 120 degrees C.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Hakkinen, Margareeta; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2018)
    Sublingual buprenorphine is used in opioid maintenance treatment but buprenorphine is also widely abused and causes fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was to investigate buprenorphine-positive fatalities in order to gain novel information on the magnitude and nature of buprenorphine abuse. All post-mortem toxicology cases positive for urinary buprenorphine, including fatal poisonings caused by buprenorphine and fatalities in which the cause of death was unrelated to buprenorphine, in the five year period of 2010-2014 in Finland were characterized according to urine buprenorphine and naloxone concentrations (n = 775). Urine concentrations were used to assess which buprenorphine preparation had been used; mono-buprenorphine or a buprenorphine-naloxone combination, and whether they had been administered parenterally. In at least 28.8% of the buprenorphine-positive cases the drug had been administered parenterally. The majority of the parenteral users (68.6%) had taken mono-buprenorphine. Fatal poisoning was significantly more common among the identified parenteral users (65.5%) than among other users of buprenorphine products (45.3%). The proportion of buprenorphine-related poisoning was similar in identified parenteral users of mono-buprenorphine (68.6%) and buprenorphine-naloxone (64.1%). In nearly all of the fatal poisoningss the deceased had used other drugs and/or alcohol along with buprenorphine (98.7%). The median age of the deceased increased significantly over the study period, from 32 to 38 years. Our results show that there is ongoing parenteral abuse of both mono-buprenorphine and buprenorphine-naloxone combination. Parenteral users of buprenorphine put themselves into a great risk of fatal poisoning or other accidental injury death which is further exacerbated by the frequent polydrug use. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salem, Abdelhakim; Sievilaeinen, Meri; Sundquist, Elias; Almangush, Alhadi; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Paavonen, Timo; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2018)
    Background Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is characterized by early metastasis and poor prognosis. Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) plays a protective role in many tumors. However, IL-17F expression in oral tongue SCC tissue has not been investigated. MethodsResultsImmunostaining of 83 oral tongue SCC specimens and blinded-scoring were used to map IL-17F expression, location, and distribution. Survival curves were constructed according to Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Mast cells are the major source of IL-17F in oral tongue SCC. In multivariate analysis, only the extracellular mast cell-derived IL-17F at the tumor invasion front was associated with better disease-specific survival in patients with all-stages and early-stages of oral tongue SCC. ConclusionExtracellular mast cell-derived IL-17F is antitumorigenic in oral tongue SCC. It separates patients with early-stage disease who are at high risk from patients who are at low risk. Furthermore, when analyzing tentative prognostic molecules, we conclude that in addition to the staining intensity, attention must be paid to the cellular source, distribution, and location of the molecule.
  • Taneera, Jalal; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Dhaiban, Sarah; Mohammed, Abdul Khader; Haataja, Leena; Aryan, Peter; Hamad, Mawieh; Groop, Leif; Wollheim, Claes B. (2018)
    Expression of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) in human islets is inversely correlated with HbA(1c). However, their impact on insulin secretion is still ambiguous. Here in, we investigated the role of FTO and ARL15 using GRINCH (Glucose-Responsive Insulin-secreting C-peptide-modified Human proinsulin) clonal rat beta-cells. GRINCH cells have inserted GFP into the human C-peptide insulin gene. Hence, secreted CpepGFP served to monitor insulin secretion. mRNA silencing of FTO in GRINCH cells showed a significant reduction in glucose but not depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas ARL15 silencing had no effect. A significant down-regulation of insulin mRNA was observed in FTO knockdown cells. Type-2 Diabetic islets revealed a reduced expression of FTO mRNA. In conclusion, our data suggest that fluorescent CpepGFP released from GRINCH cells may serve as a convenient marker for insulin secretion. Silencing of FTO expression, but not ARL15, inhibits insulin secretion by affecting metabolic signaling.
  • Westberg, Anna P.; Salonen, Minna K.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2018)
  • Kirwan, Jennifer A.; Brennan, Lorraine; Broadhurst, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Cascante, Marta; Dunn, Warwick B.; Schmidt, Michael A.; Velagapudi, Vidya (2018)
    BACKGROUND: The metabolome of any given biological system contains a diverse range of low molecular weight molecules (metabolites), whose abundances can be affected by the timing and method of sample collection, storage, and handling. Thus, it is necessary to consider the requirements for preanalytical processes and biobanking in metabolomics research. Poor practice can create bias and have deleterious effects on the robustness and reproducibility of acquired data. CONTENT: This review presents both current practice and latest evidence on preanalytical processes and biobanking of samples intended for metabolomics measurement of common biofluids and tissues. It highlights areas requiring more validation and research and provides some evidence-based guidelines on best practices. SUMMARY: Although many researchers and biobanking personnel are familiar with the necessity of standardizing sample collection procedures at the axiomatic level (e.g., fasting status, time of day, "time to freezer," sample volume), other less obvious factors can also negatively affect the validity of a study, such as vial size, material and batch, centrifuge speeds, storage temperature, time and conditions, and even environmental changes in the collection room. Any biobank or research study should establish and follow a well-defined and validated protocol for the collection of samples for metabolomics research. This protocol should be fully documented in any resulting study and should involve all stakeholders in its design. The use of samples that have been collected using standardized and validated protocols is a prerequisite to enable robust biological interpretation unhindered by unnecessary preanalytical factors that may complicate data analysis and interpretation. (C) 2018 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, M.; Mina, Theresia H.; Riha, Renata L.; Raikkonen, K.; Pesonen, A. K.; Drake, A. J.; Denison, Fiona C.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Background The prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women is over 50%, and daytime sleepiness is among the most common sleep problems. Previous studies have associated antenatal sleep problems with adverse maternal health and neonatal outcomes, but the consequences of antenatal sleep problems and particularly daytime sleepiness on child psychological development have not been assessed prospectively. Methods In this prospective cohort study including 111 mother-child dyads, we examined the associations of maternal daytime sleepiness during pregnancy, assessed at 17 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with child neuropsychiatric problems and neuropsychological development, assessed with mother-rated questionnaires and individually administered neuropsychological tests, at child age 2.6-5.7 years (mean = 4.3 years). Results Independently of sociodemographic and perinatal covariates and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during and/or after pregnancy, maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness was associated with increased total [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = 0.25 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.48] and internalizing (B = 0.25 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.01-0.49) psychiatric problems and ADHD symptoms (B = 0.27 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.04-0.50) in children, and with poorer executive function, particularly in the areas of attention, working memory and inhibitory control (B = -0.39 s.d.s: 95% CI -0.69 to -0.10). Conclusions Maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness carries adverse consequences for offspring psychological development. The assessment of sleep problems may be an important addition to standard antenatal care.
  • Pernaa, Johannes; Rautiainen, Iisa; Aksela, Maija (2019)
  • Pernaa, Johannes (2018)
  • Nilsson, Sofia; Henschel, Henning; Scotti, Gianmario; Haapala, Markus; Kiriazis, Alexandros; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Kotiaho, Tapio; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari (2019)
  • Leskelä, Markku; Mattinen, Miika; Ritala, Mikko (2019)
  • Patomaki, Heikki (2019)
    Amin's Leninist-Maoist vision is unlikely to be persuasive to twenty-first century citizens. Nonetheless, there is a rational kernel in Amin's call for a new worldwide political organization. Some structures, mechanisms and tendencies of the capitalist world economy are relatively enduring and some patterns recurrent, although the world economy is also fluid, constantly changing and evolving. Although waves of globalization have radically transformed human societies and their economic activities during the past 500 years also in many positive ways, the expansion of the international society and world economy has often been characterized by violence, imperial subjection and colonial expropriation and exclusion. There is a rational kernel also within Amin's analysis of the current world-political situation. Command over space and time by investors and megacorporations is power. Emancipation aims at freedom from domination. The decline of the World Social Forum indicates that progressive politics must move 'beyond the concept of a discussion forum'. My argument is that emancipation from unnecessary, unneeded and unwanted sources of determination requires global transformative agency and planetary visions about alternatives.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (2019)
    In this article I examine how Mengen working on and living near to a newly established oil palm plantation use the distinct categories of ‘village’ and ‘plantation’ to refer to different sets of relations and historical processes associated with the places. For the Mengen workers the plantation is simultaneously a place of hard and controlled labor, a site of earning sorely needed monetary income, and a place to momentarily escape relations in the village. The vast majority of Mengen workers are oriented towards village life and channel substantial amounts of their income back to the village. By examining the circulation of things and people between the plantation and surrounding villages, I look at how the two places, and the larger orders they represent, are in a direct, unequal, and complex relation with one another. While the surrounding villages subsidize the plantation and provide cheap labor, for the Mengen workers, the plantation is a place for reproducing village life and a generative place of forming new social relations. As both an oppressive and generative place, it is for the Mengen highly ambiguous, as are the larger orders it materializes and stands for.
  • Hämäläinen, Mika; Alnajjar, Khalid (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019)
  • Gills, Barry; Chase-Dunn, Christopher (2019)
    This essay is an introduction to a Special Forum by critical scholar-activists responding to the late Samir Amin's call for the establishment of a new political vehicle that would be capable of uniting diverse progressive and revolutionary movements consisting of the workers and peoples of the whole world. The purpose of this vehicle would be to confront and radically transform a global capitalist order in deep crisis. The authors of these essays tend to agree that Amin was a profound contributor to the global justice movement, and to the reformulation of Marxism to address the evolution of global capitalism and imperialism that took place in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. However, some are critical of Amin's stance. The essayists differ about whether they see Samir Amin's proposal for the establishment of a global party as a good or bad idea. Among those who think it is a good idea there are differences regarding the organizational nature and issue focus of the proposed organization. There are also different attitudes toward the institution of the nation-state and regarding the sources of progressive revolutionary political forces in the contemporary world. We briefly review the main issues under contention.
  • Pylväläinen, Juho; Talala, Kirsi; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Raitanen, Jani; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Auvinen, Anssi (2019)
    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) calculated using hospitalization and medication reimbursement databases in predicting mortality. Patients and methods: Information on hospitalizations was obtained from the national Care Register for Health Care (HILMO) and on medication reimbursements and entitlements for special reimbursements for medications from the Social Insurance Institution for 77,440 men aged 56-71 years at baseline. The subjects were followed up for mortality via Statistics Finland with 20,562 deaths during a 13-year follow-up. Results: Compared to a CCI score of 0, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality associated with HILMO-based CCI scores of 1, 2 and 3 or more were 2.39 (95% CI 2.29-2.49), 2.96 (95% CI 2.81-3.13) and 6.42 (95% CI 5.95-6.93) at 13 years. The C-statistic was 0.72 at 1, 0.68 at 5 and 0.66 at 13 years, with only minor improvement over age alone (0.10, 0.06 and 0.04 accordingly). Addition of medication data did not improve predictive abilities and medication-based CCI performed poorly on its own. Conclusion: The hospitalization-based CCI, as well as that based on both databases, predicts relative mortality adequately, but its discriminative ability diminishes over time. Conditions related to hospitalizations affect survival more than medications.
  • Teivainen, Teivo (2019)
    Based on conversations with and publications of Samir Amin, the article explores connections between his ideas on global political strategy and sexual self-determination. One of the questions is about struggles related to homosexuality in Africa. To what extent did he believe that some of the demands for sexual self-determination, including certain forms of feminism and LGBT rights, were so overly embedded in Eurocentrism that they were not fully suitable for popular struggles in many parts of the Global South? The question is framed in the context of state-centric conceptions of the political. Even if some of the analysis includes a critical tone toward his strategical options, it also highlights the continuing importance of Samir Amin as a point of reference for future struggles to create transnational and global instruments for democratic transformations.
  • Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Levy, Jerrold H.; Mazer, C. David; Schramko, Alexey; Klein, Andrew A.; Brat, Radim; Okita, Yutaka; Ueda, Yuichi; Schmidt, Dirk Steffen; Gill, Ravi (2019)
    OBJECTIVES: In a multicentre, randomized-controlled, phase III trial in complex cardiovascular surgery (Randomized Evaluation of Fibrinogen vs Placebo in Complex Cardiovascular Surgery: REPLACE), single-dose human fibrinogen concentrate (FCH) was associated with the transfusion of increased allogeneic blood products (ABPs) versus placebo. Post hoc analyses were performed to identify possible reasons for this result. METHODS: We stratified REPLACE results by adherence to the transfusion algorithm, pretreatment fibrinogen level (2g/l) and whether patients were among the first 3 treated at their centre. RESULTS: Patients whose treatment was adherent with the transfusion algorithm [FCH, n=47 (60.3%); placebo, n=57 (77.0%); P=0.036] received smaller quantities of ABPs than those with non-adherent treatment (P2g/l and fewer patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. CONCLUSIONS: None of the patient stratifications provided a clear explanation for the lack of efficacy seen for FCH in the REPLACE trial versus the positive phase II outcomes. However, together, the 3 factors demonstrated trends favouring FCH. Less familiarity with the protocol and procedures and unavoidable differences in the study populations may explain the differences seen between the phase II study and REPLACE.
  • Liu, Lei; Xu, Zongwei; Tian, Dongyu; Hartmaier, Alexander; Luo, Xichun; Zhang, Junjie; Nordlund, Kai; Fang, Fengzhou (2019)
    Purpose This paper aims to reveal the mechanism for improving ductile machinability of 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) and associated cutting mechanism in stress-assisted nanometric cutting. Design/methodology/approach Molecular dynamics simulation of nano-cutting 3C-SiC is carried out in this paper. The following two scenarios are considered: normal nanometric cutting of 3C-SiC; and stress-assisted nanometric cutting of 3C-SiC for comparison. Chip formation, phase transformation, dislocation activities and shear strain during nanometric cutting are analyzed. Findings Negative rake angle can produce necessary hydrostatic stress to achieve ductile removal by the extrusion in ductile regime machining. In ductile-brittle transition, deformation mechanism of 3C-SiC is combination of plastic deformation dominated by dislocation activities and localization of shear deformation. When cutting depth is greater than 10 nm, material removal is mainly achieved by shear. Stress-assisted machining can lead to better quality of machined surface. However, there is a threshold for the applied stress to fully gain advantages offered by stress-assisted machining. Stress-assisted machining further enhances plastic deformation ability through the active dislocations' movements. Originality/value This work describes a stress-assisted machining method for improving the surface quality, which could improve 3C-SiC ductile machining ability.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019)
    Transition-based parsing of natural language uses transition systems to build directed annotation graphs (digraphs) for sentences. In this paper, we define, for an arbitrary ordered digraph, a unique decomposition and a corresponding linear encoding that are associated bijectively with each other via a new transition system. These results give us an efficient and succinct representation for digraphs and sets of digraphs. Based on the system and our analysis of its syntactic properties, we give structural bounds under which the set of encoded digraphs is restricted and becomes a context-free or a regular string language. The context-free restriction is essentially a superset of the encodings used previously to characterize properties of noncrossing digraphs and to solve maximal subgraphs problems. The regular restriction with a tight bound is shown to capture the Universal Dependencies v2.4 treebanks in linguistics.

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