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  • Ranki, Jenni Susanna; Wiberg, Maria (2019)
    Liver lobe torsion in rabbits – Three case reports and a review
  • Tolonen, Hanna M; Airaksinen, Marja; Ruokoniemi, Päivi; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Shermock, Kenneth M; Kurki, Pekka (2019)
  • Tuomola, Kati; Mäki-Kihniä, Nina; Kujala-Wirth, Minna; Mykkänen, Anna; Valros, Anna (2019)
  • Gutmann, Theresia; Schäfer, Ingmar B.; Poojari, Chetan; Brankatschk, Beate; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Strauss, Mike; Coskun, Ünal (2019)
  • Ponce-de-Leon, Hernan; Furbach, Florian; Heljanko, Keijo; Meyer, Roland (IEEE, 2018)
    This paper reports progress in verification tool engineering for weak memory models. We present two bounded model checking tools for concurrent programs. Their distinguishing feature is modularity: Besides a program, they expect as input a module describing the hardware architecture for which the program should be verified. DARTAGNAN verifies state reachability under the given memory model using a novel SMT encoding. PORTHOS checks state equivalence under two given memory models using a guided search strategy. We have performed experiments to compare our tools against other memory model-aware verifiers and find them very competitive, despite the modularity offered by our approach.
  • Van Remortel, N.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Wang, Y.; Raidal, M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Bloch, D.; Schroeder, M.; Weber, M.; Czellar, S.; Kaur, S.; Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, S.; Das, P.; Rossi, A.; Rossi, A.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. H.; Ahmad, A.; Orsini, L.; Taylor, D.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, F.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Wagner, S. R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Wang, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Moeller, A.; Shin, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Lee, Y-J; Rankin, D.; Wang, T. W.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Li, W.; Smith, G.; Wolf, M.; Han, J.; Li, H.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Karimäki, V.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    Studies of on-shell and off-shell Higgs boson production in the four-lepton final state are presented, using data from the CMS experiment at the LHC that correspond to an integrated luminosity of 80.2 fb(-1) at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Joint constraints are set on the Higgs boson total width and parameters that express its anomalous couplings to two electroweak vector bosons. These results are combined with those obtained from the data collected at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7 fb(-1), respectively. Kinematic information from the decay particles and the associated jets are combined using matrix element techniques to identify the production mechanism and to increase sensitivity to the Higgs boson couplings in both production and decay. The constraints on anomalous HVV couplings are found to be consistent with the standard model expectation in both the on-shell and off-shell regions. Under the assumption of a coupling structure similar to that in the standard model, the Higgs boson width is constrained to be 3.2(-2.2)(+2.8)MeV while the expected constraint based on simulation is 4.1(-4.0)(+5.0) MeV. The constraints on the width remain similar with the inclusion of the tested anomalous HVV interactions.
  • Poom, Age (Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2019)
    Knowledge on the spatiotemporal dynamics of people is important for public governance, policy-making, research and development. The Era of Big Data has provided unprecedented possibilities to track human mobility, and has also raised new risks and challenges. The Mobility Lab at the University of Tartu has 15 years of experience in making use of passive and active mobile positioning datasets in a wide variety of research directions. As a more recent spatiotemporal data type for the lab, the longitudinal GPS-tracking dataset has opened up new frontiers in studying human dynamics since 2013. The smart phone application MobilityLab, developed jointly by the Mobility Lab and Cambridge Computer Laboratory, collects various locational and behavioural data on a voluntary basis. MobilityLog surveys are complemented by qualitative interviews held both at the beginning and end of the automated data collection period. The interviews cover the semantics of visited places, travel behaviour, use of information and communication technology, main social contacts, and social characteristics of sample. The Mobility Lab has just started new GPS-based longitudinal surveys in the field of segregation, environmental exposure, and transnationality.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Hemminki, Akseli; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2018)
    Background: Malignant melanoma (MM) patients are at increasing risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs). We assessed mortality and risk of SPCs in MM patients with siblings or parents affected with same cancer compared with that of the general population. Methods: We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to assess relative risks (RRs) and causes of death in SPCs until 2015 in patients with a MM diagnosis between 1958 and 2015. We identified 35 451patients with MM among whom 3212 received a subsequent diagnosis of SPC. RRs of SPCs after MM diagnosis were calculated stratifying over concordant family history of cancer in first-degree relatives. Results: Familial RRs were increased for second melanoma (RR = 19.28, 95% CI = 16.71 to 22.25), squamous cell skin cancer (RR = 7.58, 95% CI = 5.57 to 10.29), leukemia (RR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.96 to 10.94), bladder (RR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.50 to 6.89), ovarian (RR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.46 to 10.37), kidney cancer (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.57 to 9.06), cancer of unknown primary (RR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.16), nervous system (RR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.20 to 6.93), breast (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.92 to 2.84), lung (RR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.50 to 3.35), and prostate cancer (RR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.89 to 2.61) with statistical significance. For all cancers, familial RR was in excess (2.09, 95% CI = 2.02 to 2.16 vs 1.78, 95% CI = 1.69 to 1.87; P-trend <.0001). Cause of death in MM patients with SPC is shown to be dependent on the cancer site though SPCs contributed to majority of deaths. Conclusions: SPCs appear higher with prior family history of cancer and contribute to mortality. SPC was the most common cause of death in patients with SPC and is almost uniformly the major contributing cause of death for all cancer sites. For improved survival in MM patients, prevention and early detection of SPCs would be important.
  • Mononen, Niina; Airaksinen, Marja; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Helakorpi, Satu; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika (2019)
  • Konrad, Enrico D. H.; Nardini, Niels; Caliebe, Almuth; Nagel, Inga; Young, Dana; Horvath, Gabriella; Santoro, Stephanie L.; Shuss, Christine; Ziegler, Alban; Bonneau, Dominique; Kempers, Marlies; Pfundt, Rolph; Legius, Eric; Bouman, Arjan; Stuurman, Kyra E.; Ounap, Katrin; Pajusalu, Sander; Wojcik, Monica H.; Vasileiou, Georgia; Le Guyader, Gwenael; Schnelle, Hege M.; Berland, Siren; Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Evelien; Kersten, Simone; Gupta, Aditi; Blackburn, Patrick R.; Ellingson, Marissa S.; Ferber, Matthew J.; Dhamija, Radhika; Klee, Eric W.; McEntagart, Meriel; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Kenney, Amy; Vergano, Samantha A.; Abou Jamra, Rami; Platzer, Konrad; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Khattar, Divya; Hopkin, Robert J.; Martin, Richard J.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C. J.; Chang, Vivian Y.; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A.; Kuismin, Outi; Kurki, Mitja I.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Palotie, Aarno; Maarup, Timothy J.; Johnson, Diana S.; Pedersen, Katja Venborg (2019)
    Purpose: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). Methods: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. Results: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. Conclusion: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum of CTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.
  • Pyyry, Noora (2019)
    This collective editorial on the neoliberal university follows eight days of strike action at sixty UK universities called by the University and College Union (UCU) in two separate legal disputes, one on pensions and one on pay and working conditions. Anticipating the recent labor strike after previous industrial disputes in 2018 at UK universities, the work included here emanates from two dialogues at the Nordic Geographers Meeting (NGM) in summer 2019, a public meeting called Protest Pub and a conference session on the neoliberal subject and the neoliberal academy. After an opening statement by the editors, this collective endeavor begins with the urgent collaborative action of graduate students and early-career academics and is followed by reflections on life in the neoliberal academy from those involved in the dialogues at the NGM 2019 in Trondheim. Additionally, the editorial introduces the content of the present issue.
  • Sharma, Puja; Adhikari, Hari; Tripathi, Shankar; Ram, Ashok; Bhattarai, Rajeev (2019)
    Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Nepal are known to have habitats and movement corridors in Parsa National Park (PNP) and its buffer zone (BZ), located east of Chitwan National Park. A study was conducted in this area to assess the suitability of PNP and BZ as elephant use areas, and to determine factors relevant to the presence of elephants in PNP. Field measurements were carried out in 67 plots for vegetation analysis. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis was used to examine the relationship of habitat suitability and variables including topography (slope, aspect, altitude), climate (precipitation, temperature), habitat preference, ground cover and crown cover. The results indicate that elephant habitat suitability is mainly determined by the dominant plant species, temperature, altitude, habitat preference and precipitation. Slope, ground cover, crown cover and substrate have lesser effects. Elephants were recorded up to 400m in the northeast and southeast aspects of the study area. Most suitable habitats were low slope forest dominated by Acacia catechu and Myrsine semicerate that received 300mm annual precipitation. The model emphasizes environmental suitability, and contributes to knowledge for conservation of elephants in PNP and BZ by delineating sites that require specific planning and management.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019)
    NEALT Proceedings Series
    Syvät neuroverkot (DNN) ja lingvistiset säännöt ovat tällä hetkellä luonnollisen kielen käsittelyteknologioiden ääripäitä. Aina viime aikoihin asti on ollut epäselvää kuinka näitä teknologioita voitaisiin yhdistää. Sen vuoksi näitä teknologioita on tutkittu lähes täysin toisistaan erillään olevissa tutkimusyhteisöissä. Muistutan tässä artikkelissa ensimmäiseksi siitä että sekä sekä Rajoitekieliopilla (CG) että tavallisilla rekurrenteilla neuroverkoilla (RNN) on äärellistilaisia ominaisuuksia. Sitten suhteutan CG:n Google Transformer-arkkitehtuuriin (jossa käytetään kahdenlaista attention-mekanismia) sekä argumentoin, että näiden näennäisesti toisistaan riippumattomien arkkitehtuurien välillä on merkittäviä samankaltaisuuksia.
  • Mikola, Emilia; Palomares, Oscar; Turunen, Riitta; Waris, Matti; Ivaska, Lotta E.; Silvoniemi, Antti; Puhakka, Tuomo; Rückert, Beate; Vuorinen, Tytti; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Jartti, Tuomas (2019)
    Background Rhinovirus A and C infections are important contributors to asthma induction and exacerbations. No data exist on the interaction of local immune responses in rhinovirus infection. Therefore, we aimed to determine the tonsillar immune responses according to rhinovirus A, B and C infections. Methods We collected tonsillar samples, nasopharyngeal aspirates and peripheral blood from 42 rhinovirus positive tonsillectomy patients. Fifteen respiratory viruses or their types were investigated from nasopharynx and tonsil tissue, and rhinovirus species were typed. The expression of 10 cytokines and 4 transcription factors (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-beta, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2 and Tbet) were studied from tonsil tissue by quantitative PCR. A standard questionnaire of respiratory symptoms and health was filled by the patient or his/her guardian. The patients were divided into three groups by the determination of rhinovirus species. Results Overall, 16 patients had rhinovirus A, 12 rhinovirus B and 14 rhinovirus C infection. In rhinovirus B positive group there were significantly less men (P = 0.0072), less operated in spring (P = 0.0096) and more operated in fall (P = 0.030) than in rhinovirus A or C groups. Rhinovirus A positive patients had more respiratory symptoms (P = 0.0074) and particularly rhinitis (P = 0.036) on the operation day. There were no significant differences between the groups in virus codetection. In adjusted analysis, rhinovirus C infections were associated with increased IFN-alpha (P = 0.045) and decreased RORC2 expression (P = 0.025). Conclusions Rhinovirus species associated differently with clinical characteristics and tonsillar cytokine responses.
  • Räsänen, Syksy; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Finoguenov, Alexis (2015)
    We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to z(1) and from z(1) to z(2) to the distance from 0 to z(2). If the Universe is described by the FLRWmetric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the Universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be -1.22 <Omega(K0) <0.63, or -0.08 <Omega(K0) <0.97 with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modeling of the lenses is a source of significant systematic uncertainty.
  • Österberg, Ira; Hiltunen, Taneli (2019)
  • Nadathur, Seshadri; Lavinto, Mikko; Hotchkiss, Shaun; Räsänen, Syksy (2014)
  • Riitaoja, Anna-Leena; Helakorpi, Jenni; Holm, Gunilla (2019)
    Although Finnish basic education is based on inclusion, 37% of students receiving special support still study in either separate schools or separate classes in comprehensive schools. In this study we explore how policies of inclusion are implemented in a school with separated special educational needs (SEN) and general education (GE) classes. More specifically we conducted a two-year ethnographic study focusing particularly on exclusion and the sense of belonging in a lower secondary school (students aged 13–16) in the capital region of Finland. During the fieldwork, several students attending the SEN-class expressed an interest in changing from the SEN-class to a GE-class, or in breaking the borders between SEN and GE classes in other ways. As part of the negotiations with the school, students who criticised the GE- and SEN-class division were offered an opportunity to transfer to GE-classes but in the end, all of them wanted to stay in the SEN-class. In this investigation, we focus on the students’ reasoning and the teachers’ reactions when students negotiate the borders between SEN and GE-classes. In this study we found a clash between integration and inclusive thinking.
  • Ravantti, Janne; Laanto, Elina; Papponen, Petri; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina (2019)
  • Markkanen, Tommi; Rasanen, Syksy; Wahlman, Pyry (2015)
    It is sometimes argued that observation of tensor modes from inflation would provide the first evidence for quantum gravity. However, in the usual inflationary formalism, also the scalar modes involve quantized metric perturbations. We consider the issue in a semiclassical setup in which only matter is quantized, and spacetime is classical. We assume that the state collapses on a spacelike hypersurface and find that the spectrum of scalar perturbations depends on the hypersurface. For reasonable choices, we can recover the usual inflationary predictions for scalar perturbations in minimally coupled single-field models. In models where nonminimal coupling to gravity is important and the field value is sub-Planckian, we do not get a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations. As gravitational waves are only produced at second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio is negligible. We conclude that detection of inflationary gravitational waves would indeed be needed to have observational evidence of quantization of gravity.

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