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  • Mokart, Djamel; Darmon, Michael; Schellongowski, Peter; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio; Rello, Jordi; Bauer, Philippe R; van de Louw, Andry; Lemiale, Virginie; Taccone, Fabio S; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Salluh, Jorge; Rusinova, Katerina; Mehta, Sangeeta; Antonelli, Massimo; Kouatchet, Achille; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Valkonen, Miia; Landburg, Precious P; Bukan, Ramin B; Pène, Frédéric; Metaxa, Victoria; Burghi, Gaston; Saillard, Colombe; Nielsen, Lene B; Canet, Emmanuel; Bisbal, Magali; Azoulay, Elie (Springer International Publishing, 2020)
    Abstract Background The impact of neutropenia in critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted in a context of acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains uncertain. The primary objective was to assess the prognostic impact of neutropenia on outcomes of these patients. Secondary objective was to assess etiology of ARF according to neutropenia. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter multinational study from 23 ICUs belonging to the Nine-I network. Between November 2015 and July 2016, all adult immunocompromised patients with ARF admitted to the ICU were included in the study. Adjusted analyses included: (1) a hierarchical model with center as random effect; (2) propensity score (PS) matched cohort; and (3) adjusted analysis in the matched cohort. Results Overall, 1481 patients were included in this study of which 165 had neutropenia at ICU admission (11%). ARF etiologies distribution was significantly different between neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, main etiologies being bacterial pneumonia (48% vs 27% in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, respectively). Initial oxygenation strategy was standard supplemental oxygen in 755 patients (51%), high-flow nasal oxygen in 165 (11%), non-invasive ventilation in 202 (14%) and invasive mechanical ventilation in 359 (24%). Before adjustment, hospital mortality was significantly higher in neutropenic patients (54% vs 42%; p = 0.006). After adjustment for confounder and center effect, neutropenia was no longer associated with outcome (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.93–2.11). Similar results were observed after matching (52% vs 46%, respectively; p = 0.35) and after adjustment in the matched cohort (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.63–1.72). Conclusion Neutropenia at ICU admission is not associated with hospital mortality in this cohort of critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted for ARF. In neutropenic patients, main ARF etiologies are bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Gormley, Gerard J; Kajamaa, Anu; Conn, Richard L; O’Hare, Sarah (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The healthcare needs of our societies are continual changing and evolving. In order to meet these needs, healthcare provision has to be dynamic and reactive to provide the highest standards of safe care. Therefore, there is a continual need to generate new evidence and implement it within healthcare contexts. In recent times, in situ simulation has proven to have been an important educational modality to accelerate individuals’ and teams’ skills and adaptability to deliver care in local contexts. However, due to the increasing complexity of healthcare, including in community settings, an expanded theoretical informed view of in situ simulation is needed as a form of education that can drive organizational as well as individual learning. Main body Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) provides us with analytical tools to recognize and analyse complex health care systems. Making visible the key elements of an in situ simulation process and their interconnections, CHAT facilitates development of a system-level view of needs of change. Conclusion In this paper, we theorize how CHAT could help guide in situ simulation processes—to generate greater insights beyond the specific simulation context and bring about meaningful transformation of an organizational activity.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Pranter, Robin; Warren-Gash, Haydon; Tropek, Robert; Wahlberg, Niklas (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Phylogenetically closely related strains of maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria are often found in phylogenetically divergent, and geographically distant insect host species. The interspecies transfer of the symbiont Wolbachia has been thought to have occurred repeatedly, facilitating its observed global pandemic. Few ecological interactions have been proposed as potential routes for the horizontal transfer of Wolbachia within natural insect communities. These routes are however likely to act only at the local scale, but how they may support the global distribution of some Wolbachia strains remains unclear. Results Here, we characterize the Wolbachia diversity in butterflies from the tropical forest regions of central Africa to discuss transfer at both local and global scales. We show that numerous species from both the Mylothris (family Pieridae) and Bicyclus (family Nymphalidae) butterfly genera are infected with similar Wolbachia strains, despite only minor interclade contacts across the life cycles of the species within their partially overlapping ecological niches. The phylogenetic distance and differences in resource use between these genera rule out the role of ancestry, hybridization, and shared host-plants in the interspecies transfer of the symbiont. Furthermore, we could not identify any shared ecological factors to explain the presence of the strains in other arthropod species from other habitats, or even ecoregions. Conclusion Only the systematic surveys of the Wolbachia strains from entire species communities may offer the material currently lacking for understanding how Wolbachia may transfer between highly different and unrelated hosts, as well as across environmental scales.
  • Renko, Elina; Knittle, Keegan; Palsola, Minttu; Lintunen, Taru; Hankonen, Nelli (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background To achieve real-world impacts, behavior change interventions need to be scaled up and broadly implemented. Implementation is challenging however, and the factors influencing successful implementation are not fully understood. This study describes the nationwide implementation of a complex theory-based program targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior in vocational schools (Lets’s Move It; LMI). The implementation primarily involved a systematic and theory-based training and user manual for school staff. We explore how the perceived acceptability of this training (in line with the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability) relates to (un) successful implementation. The study evaluates (1) the experienced acceptability of the training and anticipated acceptability of later delivering the program; (2) reach and implementation, including adaptations and barriers; (3) whether acceptability ratings predict teachers’ intentions for implementation. Methods Upper secondary school staff from vocational and high schools (n = 194) enrolled in a two-part training, covering implementation of the LMI program and training in motivational interaction styles. One hundred fifty-one participants attended both parts of the training. Participants reported their perceived acceptability of the training and their implementation efforts in online questionnaires at baseline, after training sessions and at long-term follow-up. Qualitative data (open-ended questions) were analysed with content analysis to collate responses. Quantitative data analyses involved correlations and logistic regression. Results Participants rated the training as highly acceptable on all dimensions (average ratings exceeded 4.0 on a 5-point scale). The implementation reached at least 6100 students and 341 school classes. Most teachers intended to continue program implementation. Acceptability ratings explained 51.7% of teachers’ intentions to implement the student program (훘2 = 30.08; df = 8; p < .001), with affective attitude, perceived effectiveness and self-efficacy the most influential. Teachers commonly reported condensing program content, and reported deficits of time and collegial support as common barriers to implementation. Conclusion High acceptability and reach of the training indicate strong potential for implementation success. Multiple facets of acceptability seem important to successful implementation. Future research should explore ways to improve acceptability, thereby promoting successful implementation in real-world settings.
  • Gordevičius, Juozas; Narmontė, Milda; Gibas, Povilas; Kvederavičiūtė, Kotryna; Tomkutė, Vita; Paluoja, Priit; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Salumets, Andres; Kriukienė, Edita (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Massively parallel sequencing of maternal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is widely used to test fetal genetic abnormalities in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, sequencing-based approaches are still of high cost. Building upon previous knowledge that placenta, the main source of fetal circulating DNA, is hypomethylated in comparison to maternal tissue counterparts of cfDNA, we propose that targeting either unmodified or 5-hydroxymethylated CG sites specifically enriches fetal genetic material and reduces numbers of required analytical sequencing reads thereby decreasing cost of a test. Methods We employed uTOPseq and hmTOP-seq approaches which combine covalent derivatization of unmodified or hydroxymethylated CG sites, respectively, with next generation sequencing, or quantitative real-time PCR. Results We detected increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels in fetal chorionic villi (CV) tissue samples as compared with peripheral blood. Using our previously developed uTOP-seq and hmTOP-seq approaches we obtained whole-genome uCG and 5hmCG maps of 10 CV tissue and 38 cfDNA samples in total. Our results indicated that, in contrast to conventional whole genome sequencing, such epigenomic analysis highly specifically enriches fetal DNA fragments from maternal cfDNA. While both our approaches yielded 100% accuracy in detecting Down syndrome in fetuses, hmTOP-seq maintained such accuracy at ultra-low sequencing depths using only one million reads. We identified 2164 and 1589 placenta-specific differentially modified and 5-hydroxymethylated regions, respectively, in chromosome 21, as well as 3490 and 2002 Down syndrome-specific differentially modified and 5-hydroxymethylated regions, respectively, that can be used as biomarkers for identification of Down syndrome or other epigenetic diseases of a fetus. Conclusions uTOP-seq and hmTOP-seq approaches provide a cost-efficient and sensitive epigenetic analysis of fetal abnormalities in maternal cfDNA. The results demonstrated that T21 fetuses contain a perturbed epigenome and also indicated that fetal cfDNA might originate from fetal tissues other than placental chorionic villi. Robust covalent derivatization followed by targeted analysis of fetal DNA by sequencing or qPCR presents an attractive strategy that could help achieve superior sensitivity and specificity in prenatal diagnostics.
  • Sandu, Gabriel; Carlo, Proietti; Rivenc, Francois (Springer, 2018)
    Springer Undergraduate Texts in Philosophy
  • Ihantola, Petri; Isohanni, Essi; Heino, Pietari; Mikkonen, Tommi (Springer, 2019)
  • Hajializadeh, Parima; Safaie, Mohsen; Naderloo, Reza; Shojaei, Mehdi Ghodrati; Gammal, Johanna; Villnas, Anna; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    Macrofauna play a key role in the functioning of mangrove ecosystems. Nevertheless, our understanding of the diversity and functional structure of macrofaunal communities across different habitats in the mangrove forests of the Persian Gulf is limited. In this study, we investigated species diversity and biological trait patterns of macrofauna in different mangrove-associated habitats, i.e., encompassing actual mangrove forests, and adjacent Beaches and Creeks, which exhibit different levels of habitat heterogeneity. Samples were collected from the different habitats in five different locations, over four seasons. A total of 122 macrofauna taxa were identified. The diversity of species was higher in summer than in winter. In the Beach habitats, species diversity showed an increasing trend from land toward the mangrove, whereas in Creek habitats diversity decreased from the Creek toward the mangrove. Multivariate community analysis showed differences in the distribution of abundant species and biological traits across all habitats. Deposit-feeding, crawlers, medium-size, and free-living were the dominant trait modalities in all habitats. The similarities within habitats over the four seasons had the same specific pattern of species and biological trait abundance in the Beach and the Creek, increasing from the non-covered habitat into the mangrove trees. Although many species shared similar traits, the abundance-driven differences in trait expression between habitats showed the importance of habitat filtering. The results of this study will be useful in the conservation of mangrove forests and they give a deeper understanding of the ecological patterns and functions of benthic macrofaunal communities in the Persian Gulf.
  • Lehmann, Philipp; Westberg, Melissa; Tang, Patrik; Lindstrom, Leena; Kakela, Reijo (2020)
    During winter insects face energetic stress driven by lack of food, and thermal stress due to sub-optimal and even lethal temperatures. To survive, most insects living in seasonal environments such as high latitudes, enter diapause, a deep resting stage characterized by a cessation of development, metabolic suppression and increased stress tolerance. The current study explores physiological adaptations related to diapause in three beetle species at high latitudes in Europe. From an ecological perspective, the comparison is interesting since one species (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is an invasive pest that has recently expanded its range into northern Europe, where a retardation in range expansion is seen. By comparing its physiological toolkit to that of two closely related native beetles (Agelastica alniandChrysolina polita) with similar overwintering ecology and collected from similar latitude, we can study if harsh winters might be constraining further expansion. Our results suggest all species suppress metabolism during diapause and build large lipid stores before diapause, which then are used sparingly. In all species diapause is associated with temporal shifts in storage and membrane lipid profiles, mostly in accordance with the homeoviscous adaptation hypothesis, stating that low temperatures necessitate acclimation responses that increase fluidity of storage lipids, allowing their enzymatic hydrolysis, and ensure integral protein functions. Overall, the two native species had similar lipidomic profiles when compared to the invasive species, but all species showed specific shifts in their lipid profiles after entering diapause. Taken together, all three species show adaptations that improve energy saving and storage and membrane lipid fluidity during overwintering diapause. While the three species differed in the specific strategies used to increase lipid viscosity, the two native beetle species showed a more canalized lipidomic response, than the recent invader. Since close relatives with similar winter ecology can have different winter ecophysiology, extrapolations among species should be done with care. Still, range expansion of the recent invader into high latitude habitats might indeed be retarded by lack of physiological tools to manage especially thermal stress during winter, but conversely species adapted to long cold winters may face these stressors as a consequence of ongoing climate warming.
  • Rehan, Feroze; Sumelius, John; Bäckman, Stefan T (2019)
    This study determines the factors that affect the nature and extent of household income diversification in Bangladesh. The study also investigates whether the motivation for diversification was to support asset accumulation or survival. The findings show that the extent of the diversification index is determined by household endowments of assets such as wealth, a higher number of earners, higher education, easy access to market, and better infrastructure. The motive for overall diversification was accumulation, not survival. An interesting finding was that off-farm income diversification serves a two-fold purpose. Wealthier households are attracted into off-farm self-employment to get a higher return facilitated by easy access to financial assets, and labour endowment. Credit constrained poor households are influenced by endowment in the form of education and labour to diversify into off-farm wage activities as a mean of survival. Investment in infrastructure, electrification and education does and will support income diversification in Bangladesh.
  • Neupane, Subas; Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi (2020)
    Objectives We examined developmental trajectories of multisite musculoskeletal pain in midlife, and their associations with mental well-being. Methods Midlife municipal employees at baseline aged 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years (80% women) from the City of Helsinki, Finland, responded to a baseline questionnaire in 2000-02 (N = 8,960; response rate 67%) and follow-ups in 2007 (N = 7,332; 83%) and 2012 (N = 6,809; 78%). Trajectories of the number of pain sites (0-4) were modelled using latent class growth analysis (n = 6,527). Common mental disorders were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12-item version (trichotomized to low, intermediate or high). Information on health-related behaviour, comorbidity and socioeconomic position was obtained from the questionnaire. Associations of baseline factors with pain trajectories were assessed by multinomial logistic regression. Results We identified four distinct pain trajectories: high (15%), increasing (24%), decreasing (20%) and low (41%). After an initial increase, the high and increasing trajectories stabilized at around 2.5 and 1.5 pain sites respectively. In a multivariable model, high, increasing and decreasing trajectories of pain sites were associated with higher baseline GHQ scores. The association was strongest for the high trajectory (low GHQ: OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8-4.9; high GHQ: OR 5.4, 95% 4.4-6.6). Trajectory membership also associated with unhealthy behaviours, musculoskeletal comorbidities and a low socioeconomic position at baseline. Average GHQ was consistently highest for the high pain trajectory and decreased in the decreasing trajectory over the follow-up. Conclusions Multisite musculoskeletal pain shows variable developmental patterns among midlife employees. The trajectories are associated with the level of common mental disorders. Significance Four developmental trajectories of multisite pain in midlife were described over 10-12 years of follow-up: low (41% of the sample), increasing (24%), high (15%) and decreasing (20%). Common mental disorders strongly associated with these. Belonging to the highest tertile of mental disorders at baseline increased the risk of membership in the high trajectory more than fivefold. On the other hand, together with a decrease in mental disorders, the number of pain sites decreased to zero.
  • Pirhonen, Jari Pentti Tapio; Blomqvist, Katarina; Harju, Maija Elina; Laakkonen, Riku; Lemivaara, Marjut (2020)
    COVID19-virus levisi nopeasti ympäri maailman keväällä 2020. Maaliskuussa Suomessa valmisteltiin ja toteutettiin pikaisesti valmiuslaki, jossa yhtenä toimenpiteenä viruksen torjumiseksi asetettiin vierailukielto sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon yksiköihin, ikäihmisten asumispalvelut mukaan lukien. Aiemman tutkimuksen perusteella vierailuilla tiedetään olevan suuri merkitys sekä hoivakotien asukkaiden että vierailevien läheisten hyvinvoinnille. Me kuvasimme läheisten näkökulmasta, millaisin keinoin yhteyttä hoivakodissa asuvaan omaiseen on pidetty vierailukiellon aikana, miten vierailukielto on vaikuttanut hoivakotiasukkaiden läheisiin, millaisia vaikutuksia hoivakodissa asuvan omaisen hyvinvoinnissa on havaittu ja mitä oppia läheisten kokemuksista voitaisiin saada tulevaisuutta ajatellen. Tutkimuksen aineistona on 28 läheisiltä saatua sähköpostikirjettä, jotka analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin keinoin teemoittelemalla. Vaikka uusien viestintäteknologioiden käyttöönotto on helpottanut yhteydenpitoa hoivakotiin, on huoli omaisen tilanteesta ja epätietoisuus vierailukiellon kestosta heikentänyt läheisten hyvinvointia. Tulevaisuutta ajatellen tärkeää oppia saatiin erityisesti siitä, että varmuusvarastojen suunnittelussa kannattaa huomioida sosiaaliset tekijät lääketieteellisten lisäksi. Tuloksillaan tutkimus osallistuu poikkeusoloihin varautumiseen, hoivakotien toiminnan kehittämiseen ja vanhojen ihmisten yhteiskunnallisesta asemasta käytävään keskusteluun.
  • Pirhonen, Jari Pentti Tapio; Blomqvist, Katarina; Harju, Maija Elina; Laakkonen, Riku; Pietilä, Ilkka (2020)
    Vanhojen ihmisten kuoleminen tehostetussa palveluasumisessa sairaaloiden ja terveyskeskusten sijaan on Suomessa verrattain uusi ja nopeasti yleistyvä ilmiö, josta emme kuitenkaan tiedä juuri mitään. Aiempi vanhojen ihmisten kuolemaa tarkastellut tutkimus on keskittynyt joko kodin tai laitoksen ympäristöihin, ja palvelutalo sijoittuu instituutiona näiden välimaastoon. Helsingin yliopiston valtiotieteellisessä tiedekunnassa (sosiaaligerontologia) alkoi maaliskuussa 2020 Kuoleman ja kukkaron välissä: muistisairaan vanhuksen elämän loppuvaiheen hoidon haasteet -tutkimushanke, jota rahoittaa Koneen säätiö. Kolmevuotisen hankkeen aikana on tarkoitus paitsi tutkia muistisairaiden ihmisten kuolemisen prosessia ja olosuhteita, myös tehdä näkyväksi, mitä kuoleminen palvelutaloissa tarkoittaa kuoleman prosessiin osallistuvien (asukkaat, läheiset, hoitohenkilöstö) kannalta. Tutkimushankkeen tuloksia tullaan esittämään paitsi tieteellisissä ja muissa kirjallisissa julkaisuissa, myös audiodokumentteina ja taiteellisina esityksinä. Esittelemme tässä kirjoituksessa lyhyesti hankkeen taustan, tavoitteet ja tutkimusmenetelmät. Termillä palvelutalo viittaamme tässä kirjoituksessa tehostetun palveluasumisen yksiköihin.
  • Harjuniemi, Timo (2020)
    Arvio teoksesta: Reunanen, Esa & Väliverronen, Jari (2020). Tupo ja media. Talous- ja työmarkkinapoliittisen julkisuuden toimintahorisontit kolmella vuosikymmenellä. Tampere: Tampere University Press, 207 s.
  • Grön, Kirsikka; Nelimarkka, Matti (Association for Computing Machinery, 2020)
    Proceedings of the ACM Human-Computer Interaction
    While the political nature of any technologies is widely acknowledged in human-computer interaction, such considerations have been less studied when designing for political engagement in social media services. We used speculative design probes to gauge how political elites perceive alternative social media interfaces designed to increase media diversity and decrease political polarisation. We show how elites’ reactions to design probes could be rooted into party ideologies. Based on these, we discuss directions how social media services could be designed. Our underlying contribution is wider. We show how studying elites can provide insights about politics embedded into proposed novel social media services for political engagement. Second, we demonstrate what elites’ perspective provide fruitful way to expand and rethink concepts that have been used to study ordinary people before. Finally, we discuss potential challenges of replacing economic interests with political interest in social media service design and provide a richer account on the discussion about social media regulation. Therefore, we pave the way to more research to critically study elites within social computing scholarship and highlight the importance of understanding political motivations which can guide the development of social media.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Osterberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J. (2020)
    Results are reported from a search for new physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions in final states with a single lepton; multiple jets, including at least one jet tagged as originating from the hadronization of a bottom quark; and large missing transverse momentum. The search uses a sample of proton-proton collision data at root s =13 TeV, corresponding to 137 fb(-1), recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The signal region is divided into categories characterized by the total number of jets, the number of bottom quark jets, the missing transverse momentum, and the sum of masses of large-radius jets. The observed event yields in the signal regions are consistent with estimates of standard model backgrounds based on event yields in the control regions. The results are interpreted in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry involving gluino pair production in which each gluino decays into a top quark-antiquark pair and a stable, unobserved neutralino, which generates missing transverse momentum in the event. Scenarios with gluino masses up to about 2150 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level (or more) for neutralino masses up to 700 GeV. The highest excluded neutralino mass is about 1250 GeV, which holds for gluino masses around 1850 GeV.
  • Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Palmroth, M.; Johlander, A.; Turc, L.; Alho, M.; Battarbee, M.; Dubart, M.; Grandin, M.; Ganse, U. (2020)
    Dayside magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause, which is a major driver of space weather, is studied for the first time in a three-dimensional (3D) realistic setup using a hybrid-Vlasov kinetic model. A noon-midnight meridional plane simulation is extended in the dawn-dusk direction to cover 7 Earth radii. The southward interplanetary magnetic field causes magnetic reconnection to occur at the subsolar magnetopause. Perturbations arising from kinetic instabilities in the magnetosheath appear to modulate the reconnection. Its characteristics are consistent with multiple, bursty, and patchy magnetopause reconnection. It is shown that the kinetic behavior of the plasma, as simulated by the model, has consequences on the applicability of methods such as the four-field junction to identify and analyze magnetic reconnection in 3D kinetic simulations.
  • Maronga, Bjoern; Banzhaf, Sabine; Burmeister, Cornelia; Esch, Thomas; Forkel, Renate; Froehlich, Dominik; Fuka, Vladimir; Gehrke, Katrin Frieda; Geletic, Jan; Giersch, Sebastian; Gronemeier, Tobias; Gross, Guenter; Heldens, Wieke; Hellsten, Antti; Hoffmann, Fabian; Inagaki, Atsushi; Kadasch, Eckhard; Kanani-Suehring, Farah; Ketelsen, Klaus; Khan, Basit Ali; Knigge, Christoph; Knoop, Helge; Krc, Pavel; Kurppa, Mona; Maamari, Halim; Matzarakis, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias; Pallasch, Matthias; Pavlik, Dirk; Pfafferott, Jens; Resler, Jaroslav; Rissmann, Sascha; Russo, Emmanuele; Salim, Mohamed; Schrempf, Michael; Schwenkel, Johannes; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Schubert, Sebastian; Suehring, Matthias; von Tils, Robert; Vollmer, Lukas; Ward, Simon; Witha, Bjoern; Wurps, Hauke; Zeidler, Julian; Raasch, Siegfried (2020)
    In this paper, we describe the PALM model system 6.0. PALM (formerly an abbreviation for Parallelized Large-eddy Simulation Model and now an independent name) is a Fortran-based code and has been applied for studying a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for about 20 years. The model is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures. This is a follow-up paper to the PALM 4.0 model description in Maronga et al. (2015). During the last years, PALM has been significantly improved and now offers a variety of new components. In particular, much effort was made to enhance the model with components needed for applications in urban environments, like fully interactive land surface and radiation schemes, chemistry, and an indoor model. This paper serves as an overview paper of the PALM 6.0 model system and we describe its current model core. The individual components for urban applications, case studies, validation runs, and issues with suitable input data are presented and discussed in a series of companion papers in this special issue.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2020)
    We develop a set of machine-learning interatomic potentials for elemental V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W using the Gaussian approximation potential framework. The potentials show good accuracy and transferability for elastic, thermal, liquid, defect, and surface properties. All potentials are augmented with accurate repulsive potentials, making them applicable to radiation damage simulations involving high-energy collisions. We study melting and liquid properties in detail and use the potentials to provide melting curves up to 400 GPa for all five elements.
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Säily, Tanja; Vartiainen, Turo; Liimatta, Aatu; Lijffijt, Jefrey (2020)
    In this paper, we explore the rate of language change in the history of English. Our main focus is on detecting periods of accelerated change in Middle English (1150–1500), but we also compare the Middle English data with the Early Modern period (1500–1700) in order to establish a longer diachrony for the pace at which English has changed over time. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of existing corpus research, which is made available through a new linguistic resource, the Language Change Database (LCD). By aggregating the rates of 44 individual changes, we provide a critical assessment of how well the theory of punctuated equilibria (Dixon 1997) fits with our results. More specifically, by comparing the rate of language change with major language-external events, such as the Norman Conquest and the Black Death, we provide the first corpus-based meta-analysis of whether these events, which had significant societal consequences, also had an impact on the rate of language change. Our results indicate that major changes in the rate of linguistic change in the late medieval period could indeed be connected to the social and cultural after-effects of the Norman Conquest. We also make a methodological contribution to the field of English historical linguistics: by re-using data from existing research, linguists can start to ask new, fundamental questions about the ways in which language change progresses.

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