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Open access articles by University of Helsinki researchers. Contains final versions and manuscripts of research articles as well as professional publications and publications aimed at general public.

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  • Poutiainen, Saila; Kytö, Sinikka; Virtanen, Ira; Pekkala, Seija (2020)
    Parisuhde on ihmisten välisessä viestinnässä rakentuva suhde, jossa toimimista ohjaavat kulttuuriset käsitykset (esim. Baxter 2011; Fitch 1998; Sigman 1995). Parisuhteen on yleisesti todettu vaikuttavan yksilön hyvinvointiin myönteisesti. Yksilön kognitiivisia ja viestinnällisiä kykyjä heikentävään muistisairauteen sairastuminen kuitenkin muuttaa parisuhdetta ja sen luonnetta. Parisuhdeviestinnän ja suhteen kulttuurinen tarkastelu on tähänastisissa muistisairaiden ihmisten ja heidän puolisoidensa tutkimuksissa jäänyt vähäiseksi. Artikkelissa raportoidun tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tuottaa syvempää ymmärrystä muistisairaan ihmisen ja puolison välisestä suhteesta. Diskurssianalyysin avulla haastattelupuheesta tunnistettiin kulttuurisia oletuksia ja merkityksiä parisuhteille, joissa toinen osapuoli sairastaa muistisairautta. Aineisto koostui 13 tutkimus- ja mediahaastattelusta. Artikkelissa pohditaan parisuhteen luonnetta hoidollisena suhteena, viestinnän merkitystä suhteelle ja diskurssien taustalla tulkittavaa interpersonaalista ideologiaa. Lisäksi tutkimus peilaa tunnistettuja diskursseja aiempaan muistisairautta koskevaan sosiokulttuuriseen tutkimukseen.
  • Kaihovirta, Matias; Ahlskog, Jonas; Wickström, Mats (2020)
    The interpenetration of nationalism and socialism is a seminal problem for understanding 20th century labour movement history. This article approaches the issue of ideological interpenetration by way of a close examination of the relationship between minority nationalism and socialist unity during a formative phase for the Finnish labour movement in the post-war period. More precisely, the article investigates the Swedish-speaking minority within the Finnish labour movement and its attempt to unify different ideological factions in the labour movement through minority nationalism. The article contributes to the study of the relation between socialism and nationalism by extending the discussion to include national minorities and their relation to the socialist labour movement. The main theoretical innovation of the article is the concept of socialist minority nationalism. This concept will function as a heuristic tool for analysing the intersection of nationalism and socialist class-consciousness within the Finnish labour movement. The Swedish-speaking agents of the Finnish labour movement, and their socialist Finland-Swedish identity-project, has hitherto been neglected in Finnish labour history. Through historical investigations of national or ethnic minorities, or other past and present marginalized groups and individuals in labour history, it is possible to problematize the hegemonic historical narratives of the majority.
  • Lipponen, Jukka; Kaltiainen, Janne; van der Werff, Lisa; Steffens, Niklas K. (2020)
    Organizational mergers and subsequent restructurings often create situations in which employees are assigned a new supervisor and they start to form a new relationship. In this study, we investigated how the development of trust in a new supervisor is affected by trust cues specific to the merger context. We conducted a quasi-experiment using three-wave longitudinal data to follow the development of trust throughout two years. About half of the participants were assigned a new supervisor between pre-merger (Time 1) and first post-merger (Time 2) measurement time points, while the remaining participants continued to work with the same supervisor. Results showed that new supervisor's outgroup membership prior to the merger was negatively related, while favorable outgroup attitudes and perceptions of top management reliability were positively related to the development of trust. These cues were important especially in the early phase of the relationship but their relative importance decreased over time.
  • Korponai, Janos; Köver, Csilla; Lopez-Blanco, Charo; Gyulai, Istvan; Forro, Laszlo; Katalinic, Ana; Ketola, Mirva; Nevalainen, Liisa; Luoto, Tomi P.; Sarmaja-Korjonen, Kaarina Margareta; Magyari, Enikö; Weckström, Jan; Urak, Istvan; Vadkerti, Edit; Buczko, Krisztina (2020)
  • Attard, Karl M.; Rodil, Ivan F.; Berg, Peter; Mogg, Andrew; Westerbom, Mats; Norkko, Alf; Glud, Ronnie N. (2020)
  • Vazquez, Raul; Raganato, Alessandro; Creutz, Mathias; Tiedemann, Jorg (2020)
    Neural machine translation has considerably improved the quality of automatic translations by learning good representations of input sentences. In this article, we explore a multilingual translation model capable of producing fixed-size sentence representations by incorporating an intermediate crosslingual shared layer, which we refer to as attention bridge. This layer exploits the semantics from each language and develops into a language-agnostic meaning representation that can be efficiently used for transfer learning. We systematically study the impact of the size of the attention bridge and the effect of including additional languages in the model. In contrast to related previous work, we demonstrate that there is no conflict between translation performance and the use of sentence representations in downstream tasks. In particular, we show that larger intermediate layers not only improve translation quality, especially for long sentences, but also push the accuracy of trainable classification tasks. Nevertheless, shorter representations lead to increased compression that is beneficial in non-trainable similarity tasks. Similarly, we show that trainable downstream tasks benefit from multilingual models, whereas additional language signals do not improve performance in non-trainable benchmarks. This is an important insight that helps to properly design models for specific applications. Finally, we also include an in-depth analysis of the proposed attention bridge and its ability to encode linguistic properties. We carefully analyze the information that is captured by individual attention heads and identify interesting patterns that explain the performance of specific settings in linguistic probing tasks.
  • Färkkilä, Anniina; Gulhan, Doga C.; Casado, Julia; Jacobson, Connor A.; Nguyen, Huy; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Maliga, Zoltan; Yapp, Clarence; Chen, Yu-An; Schapiro, Denis; Zhou, Yinghui; Graham, Julie R.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Munster, Pamela; Santagata, Sandro; Garcia, Elizabeth; Rodig, Scott; Lako, Ana; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Shapiro, Geoffrey; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Park, Peter J.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Sorger, Peter K.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A. (2020)
    Combined PARP and immune checkpoint inhibition has yielded encouraging results in ovarian cancer, but predictive biomarkers are lacking. We performed immunogenomic profiling and highly multiplexed single-cell imaging on tumor samples from patients enrolled in a Phase I/II trial of niraparib and pembrolizumab in ovarian cancer (NCT02657889). We identify two determinants of response; mutational signature 3 reflecting defective homologous recombination DNA repair, and positive immune score as a surrogate of interferon-primed exhausted CD8+T-cells in the tumor microenvironment. Presence of one or both features associates with an improved outcome while concurrent absence yields no responses. Single-cell spatial analysis reveals prominent interactions of exhausted CD8+T-cells and PD-L1+macrophages and PD-L1+tumor cells as mechanistic determinants of response. Furthermore, spatial analysis of two extreme responders shows differential clustering of exhausted CD8+T-cells with PD-L1+macrophages in the first, and exhausted CD8+T-cells with cancer cells harboring genomic PD-L1 and PD-L2 amplification in the second. A Phase I/II trial previously revealed variable anti-tumor efficacy of the PARP inhibitor niraparib in combination with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients. Here, the authors perform an integrated genomic and immunomics analysis of tumor samples from the same patients and find potential predictive biomarkers of response to such combination therapy.
  • Vinkovic, Dejan; Gritsevich, Maria (2020)
    Meteor science contributes greatly to the study of the Solar System and the Earth's atmosphere. However, despite its importance and very long history, meteor science still has a lot to explore in the domain of meteor plasma microphysics and the meteor-ionosphere interaction. Meteors are actually a difficult target for high-resolution observations, which leads to the need for more ambitious interdisciplinary observational setups and campaigns. We describe some recent developments in the physics of meteor flight and microphysics of meteor plasma and argue that meteor science should be fully integrated into the science cases of large astronomical facilities.
  • Harju, Jorma; Pineda, Jaime E.; Vasyunin, Anton; Caselli, Paola; Offner, Stella S. R.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Juvela, Mika; Sipilä, Olli; Faure, Alexandre; Le Gal, Romane; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Alves, Joao; Bizzocchi, Luca; Burkert, Andreas; Chen, Hope; Friesen, Rachel K.; Guesten, Rolf; Myers, Philip C.; Punanova, Anna; Rist, Claire; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlemmer, Stephan; Shirley, Yancy; Spezzano, Silvia; Vastel, Charlotte; Wiesenfeld, Laurent (2020)
    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array maps of the starless molecular cloud core Ophiuchus/H-MM1 in the lines of deuterated ammonia (ortho-NH2D), methanol (CH3OH), and sulfur monoxide (SO). The dense core is seen in NH2D emission, whereas the CH3OH and SO distributions form a halo surrounding the core. Because methanol is formed on grain surfaces, its emission highlights regions where desorption from grains is particularly efficient. Methanol and sulfur monoxide are most abundant in a narrow zone that follows the eastern side of the core. This side is sheltered from the stronger external radiation field coming from the west. We show that photodissociation on the illuminated side can give rise to an asymmetric methanol distribution but that the stark contrast observed in H-MM1 is hard to explain without assuming enhanced desorption on the shaded side. The region of the brightest emission has a wavy structure that rolls up at one end. This is the signature of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring in sheared flows. We suggest that in this zone, methanol and sulfur are released as a result of grain-grain collisions induced by shear vorticity.
  • Brink, Christiaan W.; Santangeli, Andrea; Amar, Arjun; Wolter, Kerri; Tate, Gareth; Kruger, Sonja; Tucker, Andrew S.; Thomson, Robert L. (2020)
    Under the current African vulture crisis, supplementary feeding sites (SFS), which provide carrion resources, have become a popular conservation tool to address vulture declines. In South Africa, this practice is unregulated and the context in which SFS operate and their adherence to best management practices is currently unknown. In this study, we conducted a survey with SFS managers regarding the management of their SFS to evaluate potential conservation implications of different practices. Half of the SFS surveyed were associated with livestock farming. Overall, most managers (84%) perceived some benefit from running an SFS, largely attributed to cleaning services provided by vultures. Over half of the managers perceived no disadvantages from running SFS. We found a positive correlation between numbers of vultures seen at SFS and the amount of food provided there. Despite unintentional and intentional poisoning being identified by experts as the most critical threats to vultures in Southern Africa, only 47 and 24% of managers, respectively, listed these as potential threats to vultures, highlighting limited understanding of current vulture conservation issues. Most managers (85%) vetted carcasses for provisioning suitability based on whether they had been treated with veterinary drugs, but relatively few managers (10%) did the same for lead (Pb) contamination. Only 30% of managers considered threats to vultures when they decided on a location for their SFS. Overall, this study unveils that at many SFS, safety conditions are not met and vultures may be exposed to risks, such as the ingestion of toxic substances (e.g., Pb) or electrocution by energy infrastructure. To minimize unintended negative consequences from SFS, it will be essential to increase the interaction between SFS managers and conservation practitioners, to increase the flow of information on best management practices and enforce stringent and clear guidelines that minimize any risks to vultures.
  • Honkasalo, Julian (2020)
  • Ijäs, Antti (2020)
    A survey of Finnish literature on close-quarter combat.
  • Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari (Taidehistorian seura, 2020)
    Taidehistoriallisia tutkimuksia
  • Juutilainen, Teemu (Edward Elgar, 2020)
    Private Regulation
  • Opedal, Øystein H.; von Numers, Mikael; Tikhonov, Gleb; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    Abstract Predicting the dynamics of biotic communities is difficult because species? environmental responses are not independent, but covary due to shared or contrasting ecological strategies and the influence of species interactions. We used latent-variable joint species distribution models to analyse paired historical and contemporary inventories of 585 vascular plant species on 471 islands in the south-west Finnish archipelago. Larger, more heterogeneous islands were characterized by higher colonisation rates and lower extinction rates. Ecological and taxonomical species groups explained small but detectable proportions of variance in species? environmental responses. To assess the potential influence of species interactions on community dynamics, we estimated species associations as species-to-species residual correlations for historical occurrences, for colonisations, and for extinctions. Historical species associations could to some extent predict joint colonisation patterns, but the overall estimated influence of species associations on community dynamics was weak. These results illustrate the benefits of considering metacommunity dynamics within a joint framework, but also suggest that any influence of species interactions on community dynamics may be hard to detect from observational data.
  • Willems, Annemarie; Thomas, Suzanne Elizabeth; Immonen, Visa Aleksis; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Kalakoski, Iida; Castillo Mena, Alicia; Pérez González, Elena; Mazel, Aron; Ceginskas, Viktorija L.A.; Lähdesmäki, Ulla; White, Cheryl; Lädesmäki, Tuuli (2018)
    The concept of archaeological heritage management (AHM) has been key to wider archaeological research and preservation agendas for some decades. Many universities and other education providers now offer what is best termed heritage management education (HME) in various forms. The emphasis is commonly on archaeological aspects of heritage in a broad sense and different terms are often interchangeable in practice. In an innovative working-conference held in Tampere, Finland, we initiated a debate on what the components of AHM as a course or curriculum should include. We brought together international specialists and discussed connected questions around policy, practice, research and teaching/training, at local, national, transnational and World Heritage levels. In this article we take the Tampere discussions further, focusing especially on the meaning, necessity, implications and prerequisites of interdisciplinary HME. We offer our thoughts on developing HME that reflects the contemporary aspects and needs of heritage and its management.
  • Picazo, Felix; Vilmi, Annika; Aalto, Juha; Soininen, Janne; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Liu, Yongqin; Wu, Qinglong; Ren, Lijuan; Zhou, Jizhong; Shen, Ji; Wang, Jianjun (2020)
    Background Understanding the large-scale patterns of microbial functional diversity is essential for anticipating climate change impacts on ecosystems worldwide. However, studies of functional biogeography remain scarce for microorganisms, especially in freshwater ecosystems. Here we study 15,289 functional genes of stream biofilm microbes along three elevational gradients in Norway, Spain and China. Results We find that alpha diversity declines towards high elevations and assemblage composition shows increasing turnover with greater elevational distances. These elevational patterns are highly consistent across mountains, kingdoms and functional categories and exhibit the strongest trends in China due to its largest environmental gradients. Across mountains, functional gene assemblages differ in alpha diversity and composition between the mountains in Europe and Asia. Climate, such as mean temperature of the warmest quarter or mean precipitation of the coldest quarter, is the best predictor of alpha diversity and assemblage composition at both mountain and continental scales, with local non-climatic predictors gaining more importance at mountain scale. Under future climate, we project substantial variations in alpha diversity and assemblage composition across the Eurasian river network, primarily occurring in northern and central regions, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that climate controls microbial functional gene diversity in streams at large spatial scales; therefore, the underlying ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to climate variations, especially at high latitudes. This biogeographical framework for microbial functional diversity serves as a baseline to anticipate ecosystem responses and biogeochemical feedback to ongoing climate change.
  • Ramos, Danielle Leal; Pizo, Marco Aurelio; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Cruz, Rafael Souza; Morales, Juan Manuel; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    In a rapidly changing world, it is important to understand how environmental modifications by humans affect species behavior. This is not a simple task, since we need to deal with a multitude of species and the different external contexts that affect their behavior. Here, we investigate how interpatch short-distance movements of 73 common forest bird species can be predicted by forest cover and forest isolation. We modeled bird movement as a function of environmental covariates, species traits - body mass and feeding habit - and phylogenetic relationships using Joint Species Movement Models. We used field data collected in forest edges and open pastures of six 600 x 600 m plots in the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot. We found that birds fly larger distances and visit more forest patches and remnant trees with decreasing forest cover. Increasing landscape isolation results in larger flight distances, and it increases the use of trees as stepping-stones for most species. Our results show that birds can adjust their behavior as a response to spatial modification in resource distribution and landscape connectivity. These adjusted behaviors can potentially contribute to ecosystem responses to habitat modification.
  • Strona, Giovanni; Castellano, Claudio; Fattorini, Simone; Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Beck, Pieter S.A. (2020)
    Outbreaks of a plant disease in a landscape can be meaningfully modelled using networks with nodes representing individual crop-fields, and edges representing potential infection pathways between them. Their spatial structure, which resembles that of a regular lattice, makes such networks fairly robust against epidemics. Yet, it is well-known how the addition of a few shortcuts can turn robust regular lattices into vulnerable ‘small world’ networks. Although the relevance of this phenomenon has been shown theoretically for networks with nodes corresponding to individual host plants, its real-world implications at a larger scale (i.e. in networks with nodes representing crop fields or other plantations) remain elusive. Focusing on realistic spatial networks connecting olive orchards in Andalusia (Southern Spain), the world’s leading olive producer, we show how even very small probabilities of long distance dispersal of infectious vectors result in a small-world effect that dramatically exacerbates a hypothetical outbreak of a disease targeting olive trees (loosely modelled on known epidemiological information on the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, an important emerging threat for European agriculture). More specifically, we found that the probability of long distance vector dispersal has a disproportionately larger effect on epidemic dynamics compared to pathogen’s intrinsic infectivity, increasing total infected area by up to one order of magnitude (in the absence of quarantine). Furthermore, even a very small probability of long distance dispersal increased the effort needed to halt a hypothetical outbreak through quarantine by about 50% in respect to scenarios modelling local/short distance pathogen’s dispersal only. This highlights how identifying (and disrupting) long distance dispersal processes may be more efficacious to contain a plant disease epidemic than surveillance and intervention concentrated on local scale transmission processes.

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