Articles

Recent Submissions

  • Woestmann, Luisa; Kvist, Jouni Antero; Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina (Wiley Blackwell, 2017)
    Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). We were able to confirm previous findings of flight-induced immune gene expression, but still observed substantially stronger effects on both gene expression levels and life span due to bacterial infection compared to flight treatment. Even though gene expression levels of some immunity-related genes were elevated due to flight, these individuals did not show increased survival of bacterial infection, indicating that flight-induced immune activation does not completely protect them from the negative effects of bacterial infection. Finally, an interaction between flight and immune treatment indicated a potential trade-off: flight treatment increased immune gene expression in naive individuals only, whereas in infected individuals no increase in immune gene expression was induced by flight. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of immune genes upon flight is based on a general stress response rather than reflecting an adaptive response to cope with potential infections during flight or in new habitats.
  • Seitz, Christian; Bumbuliene, Zana; Costa, Ana Rosa; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Heweker, Andrea; Hudecek, Robert; Jacquemyn, Yves; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Parashar, Pooja; Rechberger, Tomasz; Cano Sanchez, Antonio; van Aken, Bart; Zatik, Janos; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina (EXCERPTA MEDICA INC-ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017)
    Background: Uterine fibroids (UFs) may be treated with progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs), which have been shown to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding and the size of UFs. To date, one PRM (ulipristal acetate) has received regulatory approval for the treatment of UFs; therapy comprises intermittent treatment courses of up to 3 months each, followed by a break to allow two menstruations to occur. We report the design of ASTEROID (Assess Safety and efficacy of vilaprisan in patients with uTERine fibrOIDs) 2, a phase 2 study examining the efficacy and safety of a novel PRM, vilaprisan, in women with UFs. Methods/design: In this randomized multi-arm study, vilaprisan (2 mg daily) will be administered in different regimens: continuous treatment for 12 or 24 weeks, or two 12-week treatment periods separated by a break to allow one menstruation to occur. Efficacy and safety will be compared with that of ulipristal acetate (5 mg daily) and placebo. Patients randomized to receive placebo for 12 weeks will also be given active treatment for 12 weeks. The primary measure of efficacy will be amenorrhoea rate; secondary measures include time to normalized menstrual bleeding and percentage change in UF volume. Endometrial changes will be monitored throughout the study. Discussion: The placebo- and active comparator-controlled trial ASTEROID 2 is the first study to evaluate systematically the efficacy and safety of different treatment regimens of PRMs in women with UFs. The findings of this study will direct the planning of future clinical trials of vilaprisan. (C) 2017 Bayer AG. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Smeds, Eero; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmaki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2017)
    Objective: Somatosensory evoked potentials have high prognostic value in neonatal intensive care, but their recording from infants is challenging. Here, we studied the possibility to elicit cortical responses in newborns by simple passive hand movements. Methods: We examined 13 newborns (postnatal age 1-46 days) during clinically indicated 19-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the neonatal intensive care unit; EEG indications included birth asphyxia and suspected epileptic seizures. The experimenter moved the infant's wrist or fingers at 1 or 2 Hz for 5-10 min, separately on both sides. We measured movement kinematics with an accelerometer attached to the infant's hand and computed coherence between the EEG and acceleration signals (corticokinematic coherence, CKC). Results: Statistically significant CKC (amplitude 0.020-0.511) with characteristic scalp topography was observed in all infants at twice the movement frequency. CKC was contralaterally dominant on the central scalp (median laterality index 0.48 for right-hand and -0.63 for left-hand movements). Conclusions: Passive movements elicit cortical responses that can be readily observed in clinical EEG recordings from newborns in the intensive-care environment. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Leminen, Miika M.; Virkkala, Jussi; Saure, Emma; Paajanen, Teemu; Zee, Phyllis C.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Hublin, Christer; Müller, Kiti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Huotilainen, Minna; Paunio, Tiina (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    Introduction: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Aims: Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use. Methods: Fifteen healthy participants slept 3 nights in the laboratory. Learning was tested with 4 memory tasks (word pairs, serial finger tapping, picture recognition, and face-name association). Additional questionnaires addressed subjective sleep quality and overnight changes in mood. During the stimulus night, auditory stimuli were adjusted and targeted by an unsupervised algorithm to be phase-locked to the negative peak of slow waves in SWS. During the control night no sounds were presented. Results: Results showed that the sound stimulation increased both slow wave (p =.002) and sleep spindle activity (p Conclusions: We showed that the memory effect of the SWS-targeted individually triggered single-sound stimulation is specific to verbal associative memory. Moreover, the ambulatory and automated sound stimulus setup was promising and allows for a broad range of potential follow-up studies in the future.
  • ARIA 2016 
    Bousquet, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Agache, I.; Bedbrook, A.; Bachert, C.; Bergmann, K. C.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S.; Bucca, C.; Caimmi, D. P.; Camargos, P. A. M.; Canonica, G. W.; Casale, T.; Chavannes, N. H.; Cruz, A. A.; De Carlo, G.; Dahl, R.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Fonseca, J.; Fokkens, W. J.; Guldemond, N. A.; Haahtela, T.; Illario, M.; Just, J.; Keil, T.; Klimek, L.; Kuna, P.; Larenas-Linnemann, D.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Mullol, J.; Murray, R.; Naclerio, R.; O'Hehir, R. E.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Pawankar, R.; Potter, P.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Simons, F. E. R.; Stellato, C.; Todo-Bom, A.; Tomazic, P. V.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Ventura, M. T.; Wickman, M.; Young, I.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Zuberbier, T.; Aberer, W.; Akdis, C. A.; Akdis, M.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Ankri, J.; Ansotegui, I. J.; Anto, J. M.; Arnavielhe, S.; Asarnoj, A.; Arshad, H.; Avolio, F.; Baiardini, I.; Barbara, C.; Barbagallo, M.; Bateman, E. D.; Beghe, B.; Bel, E. H.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bialoszewski, A. Z.; Bieber, T.; Bjermer, L.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Boner, A. L.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Bosse, I.; Bouchard, J.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Braido, F.; Briggs, A. H.; Brightling, C. E.; Brozek, J.; Buhl, R.; Bunu, C.; Burte, E.; Bush, A.; Caballero-Fonseca, F.; Calderon, M. A.; Camuzat, T.; Cardona, V.; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Carriazo, A. M.; Carlsen, K. H.; Carr, W.; Cepeda Sarabia, A. M.; Cesari, M.; Chatzi, L.; Chiron, R.; Chivato, T.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chuchalin, A. G.; Chung, K. F.; Ciprandi, G.; Correia de Sousa, J.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Custovic, A.; Dahlen, S. E.; Darsow, U.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Denburg, J. A.; De Vries, G.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dray, G.; Dubakiene, R.; Durham, S. R.; Du Toit, G.; Dykewicz, M. S.; Eklund, P.; El-Gamal, Y.; Ellers, E.; Emuzyte, R.; Farrell, J.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fiocchi, A.; Fletcher, M.; Forastiere, F.; Gaga, M.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gemicioglu, B.; Gereda, J. E.; van Wick, R. Gerth; Gonzalez Diaz, S.; Grisle, I.; Grouse, L.; Gutter, Z.; Guzman, M. A.; Hellquist-Dahl, B.; Heinrich, J.; Horak, F.; Hourihane, J. O'. B.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jares, E. J.; Jeandel, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Joos, G.; Jonquet, O.; Jung, K. S.; Jutel, M.; Kaidashev, I.; Khaitov, M.; Kalayci, O.; Kalyoncu, A. F.; Kardas, P.; Keith, P. K.; Kerkhof, M.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Khaltaev, N.; Kogevinas, M.; Kolek, V.; Koppelman, G. H.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kuitunen, M.; Kull, I.; Kvedariene, V.; Lambrecht, B.; Lau, S.; Laune, D.; Le, L. T. T.; Lieberman, P.; Lipworth, B.; Li, J.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; Lupinek, C.; MacNee, W.; Magar, Y.; Magnan, A.; Mahboub, B.; Maier, D.; Majer, I.; Malva, J.; Manning, P.; De Manuel Keenoy, E.; Marshall, G. D.; Masjedi, M. R.; Mathieu-Dupas, E.; Maurer, M.; Mavale-Manuel, S.; Melen, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Meltzer, E. O.; Mercier, J.; Merk, H.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Millot-Keurinck, J.; Mohammad, Y.; Momas, I.; Mosges, R.; Muraro, A.; Namazova-Baranova, L.; Nadif, R.; Neffen, H.; Nekam, K.; Nieto, A.; Niggemann, B.; Nogueira-Silva, L.; Nogues, M.; Nyembue, T. D.; Ohta, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Okubo, K.; Olive-Elias, M.; Ouedraogo, S.; Paggiaro, P.; Pali-Schoell, I.; Palkonen, S.; Panzner, P.; Papi, A.; Park, H. S.; Passalacqua, G.; Pedersen, S.; Pereira, A. M.; Pfaar, O.; Picard, R.; Pigearias, B.; Pin, I.; Plavec, D.; Pohl, W.; Popov, T. A.; Portejoie, F.; Postma, D.; Poulsen, L. K.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Raciborski, F.; Roberts, G.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Rodenas, F.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Rolland, C.; Roman Rodriguez, M.; Romano, A.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Rosario, N.; Rottem, M.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Sastre-Dominguez, J.; Scadding, G. K.; Scichilone, N.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Serrano, E.; Shields, M.; Siroux, V.; Sisul, J. C.; Skrindo, I.; Smit, H. A.; Sole, D.; Sooronbaev, T.; Spranger, O.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Strandberg, T.; Sunyer, J.; Thijs, C.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A.; van Eerd, M.; van Ganse, E.; van Hague, M.; Vandenplas, O.; Varona, L. L.; Vellas, B.; Vezzani, G.; Vazankari, T.; Viegi, G.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagenmann, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, D. Y.; Wahn, U.; Werfel, T.; Whalley, B.; Williams, D. M.; Williams, S.; Wilson, N.; Wright, J.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zaidi, A.; Zar, H. J.; Zernotti, M. E.; Zhang, L.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2016)
    The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative commenced during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999. The initial goals were (1) to propose a new allergic rhinitis classification, (2) to promote the concept of multi-morbidity in asthma and rhinitis and (3) to develop guidelines with all stakeholders that could be used globally for all countries and populations. ARIA-disseminated and implemented in over 70 countries globally-is now focusing on the implementation of emerging technologies for individualized and predictive medicine. MASK [MACVIA (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif)-ARIA Sentinel NetworK] uses mobile technology to develop care pathways for the management of rhinitis and asthma by a multi-disciplinary group and by patients themselves. An app (Android and iOS) is available in 20 countries and 15 languages. It uses a visual analogue scale to assess symptom control and work productivity as well as a clinical decision support system. It is associated with an inter-operable tablet for physicians and other health care professionals. The scaling up strategy uses the recommendations of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. The aim of the novel ARIA approach is to provide an active and healthy life to rhinitis sufferers, whatever their age, sex or socio-economic status, in order to reduce health and social inequalities incurred by the disease.
  • Eldfors, S.; Kuusanmäki, H.; Kontro, M.; Majumder, M. M.; Parsons, Alun; Edgren, H.; Pemovska, T.; Kallioniemi, O.; Wennerberg, K.; Gökbuget, N.; Burmeister, T.; Porkka, K.; Heckman, C. A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017)
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkilä, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Methods The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. Results During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9–20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5–9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4–10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3–31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7–23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary health care level emergency rooms are strongly associated with both dual diagnosis and SUDs. Active treatment for SUDs could reduce the amount of emergency visits made by homeless shelter users.
  • Grönman, Maria; Tarkia, Miikka; Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Halonen, Paavo; Kuivanen, Antti; Savunen, Timo; Tolvanen, Tuula; Teuho, Jarmo; Käkelä, Meeri; Metsälä, Olli; Pietilä, Mikko; Saukko, Pekka; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Knuuti, Juhani; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Radiolabeled RGD peptides detect αvβ3 integrin expression associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling after myocardial infarction. We studied whether cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) with [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD detects increased αvβ3 integrin expression after induction of flow-limiting coronary stenosis in pigs, and whether αvβ3 integrin is expressed in viable ischemic or injured myocardium. Methods We studied 8 Finnish landrace pigs 13 ± 4 days after percutaneous implantation of a bottleneck stent in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Antithrombotic therapy was used to prevent stent occlusion. Myocardial uptake of [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD (290 ± 31 MBq) was evaluated by a 62 min dynamic PET scan. The ischemic area was defined as the regional perfusion abnormality during adenosine-induced stress by [15O]water PET. Guided by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, tissue samples from viable and injured myocardial areas were obtained for autoradiography and histology. Results Stent implantation resulted in a partly reversible myocardial perfusion abnormality. Compared with remote myocardium, [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD PET showed increased tracer uptake in the ischemic area (ischemic-to-remote ratio 1.3 ± 0.20, p = 0.0034). Tissue samples from the injured areas, but not from the viable ischemic areas, showed higher [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD uptake than the remote non-ischemic myocardium. Uptake of [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD correlated with immunohistochemical detection of αvβ3 integrin that was expressed in the injured myocardial areas. Conclusions Cardiac [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD PET demonstrates increased myocardial αvβ3 integrin expression after induction of flow-limiting coronary stenosis in pigs. Localization of [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD uptake indicates that it reflects αvβ3 integrin expression associated with repair of recent myocardial injury.
  • Editorial 
    Näre, Lena Margareta; Bendixsen, Synnöve (Versita, 2017)
  • Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti T. J.; Hynynen, Sini-Tuuli; Laine, Hanna; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Vasankari, Tommi; Sund, Reijo; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central Ltd, 2017)
    BACKGROUND: No school-based physical activity (PA) interventions among older adolescents have demonstrated long-term effectiveness, and few of them so far have addressed sedentary behaviour (SB). Based on behavioural theories and evidence, we designed a multi-level intervention to increase PA and decrease SB among vocational school students. This study investigates feasibility and acceptability of two main intervention components and research procedures. We also examine uptake of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by the participants. METHODS: Design was an outcome assessor blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Four classes of students (matched pairs) were randomised into one intervention and one control arm. The intervention consisted of (1) a 6-h group-based intervention for students, (2) two 2-h training workshops to reduce their students' sitting in class for teachers, and (3) provision of light PA equipment in classrooms. At baseline (T1), mid-intervention (T2) at 3 weeks, post-intervention (T3) and 6 months after baseline (T4) we measured hypothesised psychosocial mediators and self-reported PA and sitting. Objective assessment of PA and SB (7-day accelerometry) was conducted at T1, T3 and T4. Body composition (bioimpedance) was measured at T1 and T4. Students and teachers in the intervention arm filled in acceptability questionnaires at T3. RESULTS: Recruitment rate was 64% (students) and 88.9% (teachers), and at T3, all post-intervention measurements were completed by 33 students (retention 76.7%) and 15 teachers (retention 93.8%). Acceptability ratings of sessions were high (students M = 6.29, scale 1-7), and data collection procedures were feasible. Intervention arm students reported increased use of BCTs, but uptake of some key BCTs was suboptimal. BCT use correlated highly with objective measures of PA. Based on both self-report and student evaluation, teachers in the intervention arm increased the use of sitting reduction strategies at post-intervention and T4 follow-up (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: We detected willingness of the target groups to participate, good response rates to questionnaires, adequate retention, as well as acceptability of the trial protocol. Investigation of BCT use among students helped further enhance intervention procedures to promote BCT use. After making necessary modifications identified, intervention effectiveness can next be tested in a definitive trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN34534846 . Registered 23 May 2014. Retrospectively registered.
  • Patel, Kishan; Kouvonen, Anne Maria; Close, Ciara; Väänänen, Ari; O'Reilly, Dermot; Donnelly, Michael (BioMed Central, 2017)
  • Tahko, Tuomas E. (Springer, 2017)
    Synthese Library
    In this chapter, it is suggested that our epistemic access to metaphysical modality generally involves rationalist, a priori elements. However, these a priori elements are much more subtle than ‘traditional’ modal rationalism assumes. In fact, some might even question the ‘apriority’ of these elements, but I should stress that I consider a priori and a posteriori elements especially in our modal inquiry to be so deeply intertwined that it is not easy to tell them apart. Supposed metaphysically necessary identity statements involving natural kind terms are a good example: the fact that empirical input is crucial in establishing their necessity has clouded the role and content of the a priori input, as I have previously argued (Tahko forthcoming). For instance, the supposed metaphysically necessary identity statement involving water and its microstructure can only be established with the help of a controversial a priori principle concerning the determination of chemical properties by microstructure. The Kripke-Putnam framework of modal epistemology fails precisely because it is unclear whether the required a priori element is present. My positive proposal builds on E. J. Lowe’s work. Lowe holds that our knowledge of metaphysical modality is based on our knowledge of essence. Lowe’s account strives to offer a uniform picture of modal epistemology: essence is the basis of all our modal knowledge. This is the basis of Lowe’s modal rationalism. I believe that Lowe’s proposal is on the right lines in the case of abstract objects, but I doubt that it can be successfully applied to the case of natural kinds. Accordingly, the case of natural kinds will be my main focus and I will suggest that modal rationalism, at least as it is traditionally understood, falls short of explaining modal knowledge concerning natural kinds. Yet, I think that Lowe has identified something of crucial importance for modal epistemology, namely the essentialist, a priori elements present in our modal inquiry. The upshot is that rather than moving all the way from modal rationalism to modal empiricism, a type of hybrid approach, ‘empirically-informed modal rationalism’, can be developed.
  • Roinila, Markku (2010)
    Filosofisia tutkimuksia Helsingin yliopistosta
    Julkaisematta jääneessä muistiossaan Mietteitä oikeuden yleiskäsitteestä (1702-1703?) G. W. Leibniz muotoilee uudelleen Platonin Euthyfron-dialogissa esitetyn kuuluisan kysymyksen. Hän kirjoittaa: ”Myönnetään, että kaikki mitä Jumala tahtoo, on hyvää ja oikein. Sen sijaan kysytään, onko se hyvää ja oikein siksi että Jumala niin tahtoo, vai tahtooko Jumala sitä koska se on hyvää ja oikein. Eli kysytään, onko hyvyys tai oikeus jotakin mielivaltaista, vai koostuvatko ne asioiden luonnetta koskevista välttämättömistä ja ikuisista totuuksista, kuten luvut ja suhteet.” Universaaleja, ikuisia totuuksia puolustava filosofi ei voi hyväksyä ensin mainittua vaihtoehtoa. Hänen mukaansa ”Se toden totta tuhoaisi Jumalan oikeudenmukaisuuden. Sillä miksi ylistäisimme häntä oikeudenmukaisista teoista, jos oikeudenmukaisuuden käsite ei hänen tapauksessaan lisää mitään teon käsitteeseen? Ja sanonta stat pro ratione voluntas, minun tahtoni käyköön perusteesta, on todella tyrannin motto.” Leibnizin kritiikki on suunnattu erityisesti hänen aikalaisiaan René Descartesia, Thomas Hobbesia ja Samuel Pufendorfia vastaan. Hän ei voi hyväksyä näkemystä, jonka mukaan oikeudenmukaisuuden mitta on vain Jumalan tahto. Perustan on löydyttävä ikuisista totuuksista, jotka ovat myös Jumalan oikeudenmukaisuuden standardi. Erityisen kuuluisaksi tuli Leibnizin kritiikki Pufendorfin näkemyksiä kohtaan, sillä Pufendorfin laajalle levinneen teoksen De officio hominis et civis ranskalaisen laitoksen neljännen painoksen toimittaja Barbeyrac liitti siihen Leibnizin kiistakirjoituksen, joka tunnetaan lyhyellä nimellä Monita (Epistola viri excellentissimi ad amicum qua monita quaedam ad principia Pufendorfiani operis de officio hominis et civis continentur, 1706) ja puolusti Pufendorfia Leibnizia vastaan. Leibnizin onnistui kuitenkin ilmeisesti osoittaa eräs heikkous Pufendorfin näkemyksissä, jota Barbeyrac ei pystynyt sivuuttamaan: tämän mukaan Jumala on saman aikaan sekä ylin tuomari että lakien laatija. Siten Leibnizin näkökulmasta Jumala on tyranni – hänen tahtonsa on oikeuden ja etiikan mitta ja koska hän on kaikkivaltias, hän voi pakottaa ihmiset noudattamaan sellaista oikeudenmukaisuutta, joka on hänen mieleistään. Koska Jumalan yläpuolella ei ole Pufendorfin mukaan mitään, hän voi toimia aivan mielivaltaisesti. Leibnizin kritiikki kiteytyy Pufendorfin epäselvään erotteluun ulkoisen ja sisäisen velvollisuuden välillä, joka jättää hänen näkemyksensä arvoitukselliseksi. Tutkiskelen tässä esitelmässä oliko Leibnzin kritiikki johdonmukainen ja oikeutettu. Onko Pufendorfin näkemyksissä heikkous, jota hän ei itse huomannut? Vertailen myös asiaa koskevia eri kommentaareja (mm. Kari Saastamoinen, Petter Korkman, Fiametta Palladini) ja arvioin Leibnizin kritiikin reseptiota Pufendorf-tutkimuksessa.
  • Harris, Vanessa C.; Armah, George; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri E.; Parashar, Umesh; Victor, John C.; Tate, Jacqueline; de Weerth, Carolina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Lewis, Kristen D. C.; de Vos, Willem M. (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings. Methods. We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana. These infants' microbiomes were then compared with 154 age-matched, healthy Dutch infants' microbiomes, assumed to be RVV responders. Fecal microbiome analysis was performed in all groups using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip. Results. We analyzed findings in 78 Ghanaian infants, including 39 RVV responder and nonresponder pairs. The overall microbiome composition was significantly different between RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.12), and Ghanaian responders were more similar to Dutch infants than nonresponders (P =.002). RVV response correlated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus bovis and a decreased abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in comparisons between both Ghanaian RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.008 vs 0.003) and Dutch infants and Ghanaian nonresponders (FDR, 0.002 vs 0.009). Conclusions. The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries.
  • Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J. R.; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2017)
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in data-bases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.