Recent Submissions

  • Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lallimo, Jiri; Niemivirta, Markku; Hakkarainen, Kai (University of Maastricht, 2001)
  • Lehtimaki, Jenni; Sinkko, Hanna; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna; Salmela, Elina; Tiira, Katriina; Laatikainen, Tiina; Mäkelainen, Sanna; Kaukonen, Maria; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hanski, Ilkka; Lohi, Hannes; Ruokolainen, Lasse (2018)
    A rural environment and farming lifestyle are known to provide protection against allergic diseases. This protective effect is expected to be mediated via exposure to environmental microbes that are needed to support a normal immune tolerance. However, the triangle of interactions between environmental microbes, host microbiota, and immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we have studied these interactions using a canine model (two breeds, n = 169), providing an intermediate approach between complex human studies and artificial mouse model studies. We show that the skin microbiota reflects both the living environment and the lifestyle of a dog. Remarkably, the prevalence of spontaneous allergies is also associated with residential environment and lifestyle, such that allergies are most common among urban dogs living in single-person families without other animal contacts, and least common among rural dogs having opposite lifestyle features. Thus, we show that living environment and lifestyle concurrently associate with skin microbiota and allergies, suggesting that these factorsmight be causally related. Moreover, microbes commonly found on human skin tend to dominate the urban canine skin microbiota, while environmental microbes are rich in the rural canine skin microbiota. This in turn suggests that skin microbiota is a feasible indicator of exposure to environmental microbes. As short-term exposure to environmental microbes via exercise is not associated with allergies, we conclude that prominent and sustained exposure to environmental microbiotas should be promoted by urban planning and lifestyle changes to support health of urban populations.
  • Pantti, Mervi Katriina (2016)
    This article analyses the affective-discursive work that the image of an anti-asylum seeker demonstrator dressed like a member of the Ku Klux Klan and waving a Finnish flag generated in online platforms in Finland. Specifically, it focuses on how the vocabulary of disgust served to draw boundaries between “us” and “others,” thus reconstructing hierarchies of human worth and deservingness. The aim of the article is to discuss the role of disgust and related emotions in relation to what has become known as the European refugee crisis and whether the language of disgust allows for solidarity with the plight of asylum seekers.
  • Hemilä, Harri Olavi (2018)
    Lääkäriliitto julkaisi suosituksen lääkärin suhtautumisesta uskomushoitoihin (1). Suosituksessa ohjeistetaan, että "jos lääkäri käyttää uskomushoidoiksi katsottavia menetelmiä, hän ei saa tehdä sitä lääkärin ammattinimikkeellä eikä markkinoida lääkärin toimintana". Suosituksessa ei kuitenkaan millään tavalla määritellä, mitä termi "uskomushoito" tarkoittaa.
  • Santala, Johanna; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2018)
    Plants recognize unrelated viruses by the antiviral defense system called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi processes double-stranded viral RNA into small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotides, the reassembly of which into longer strands in silico allows virus identification by comparison with the sequences available in databases. The aim of this study was to compare the virus detection sensitivity of sRNA-based virus diagnosis with the established virus species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Viruses propagated in tobacco plants included three engineered, infectious clones of Potato virus A (PVA), each carrying a different marker gene, and an infectious clone of Potato virus Y (PVY). Total RNA (containing sRNA) was isolated and subjected to reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-RT-PCR) and sRNA deep-sequencing at different concentrations. RNA extracted from various crop plants was included in the reactions to normalize RNA concentrations. Targeted detection of selected viruses showed a similar threshold for the sRNA and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses. The detection limit for PVY and PVA by RT-qPCR in this study was 3 and 1.5 fg of viral RNA, respectively, in 50 ng of total RNA per PCR reaction. When knowledge was available about the viruses likely present in the samples, sRNA-based virus detection was 10 times more sensitive than RT-RT-PCR. The advantage of sRNA analysis is the detection of all tested viruses without the need for virus-specific primers or probes.
  • Kallinen, Timo Petri (2016)
  • Kallinen, Timo Petri (2016)
  • Quist, Liina-Maija Ulriikka (2016)
    In this essay, I examine the practice of ethnographic knowledge-production through my fieldwork encounter with Álvaro, a political leader of fishers in Mexico’s oil-producing state, Tabasco. Exercising ethnographic reflexivity, I analyze how my relations with Álvaro and his family in a context of conflict between fishers and the oil industry shaped my analytical lens on the politics of resource access. The essay focuses on ambiguity as an overriding characteristic of the research encounter, and suggests that paralleling ambiguities in my analysing of Álvaro during fieldwork and in my own, gendered and racialized positionality within the family were formative for my perspective on fisher – oil industry politics. Furthermore, the analysis shows how my knowledge about the ‘field’ was made in the intersection of my and the family’s mutual efforts to draw each other into our categories of thinking, Álvaro’s reflection about his role in politics, and the wider historical and political economic context shaping the relations between the fishers and the oil industry in the Gulf of Mexico. This analysis draws attention to the importance of ethnography in showing the complexity and situatedness of politics of resource access.
  • Vermeulen, N; Le Clef, N; D'Angelo, A; Tilleman, K; Veleva, Zdravka; Nelen, W (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 2017)
  • Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R. (2018)
    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration. Here, we model memory colour effects using prior knowledge about typical colours as priors for the grey adjustments in a Bayesian model. This simple model does not involve any fitting of free parameters. The Bayesian model roughly captured the magnitude of the measured memory colour effect for photographs of objects. To some extent, the model predicted observed differences in memory colour effects across objects. The model could not account for the differences in memory colour effects across different levels of realism in the object images. The Bayesian model provides a particularly simple account of memory colour effects, capturing some of the multiple sources of variation of these effects.
  • Schwartz, Shalom H.; Sortheix, Florencia M. (DEF Publishers, 2018)
    Noba Scholar Handbook series: Subjective well-being
    Research on relations of personal values to subjective well-being has begun to flourish only recently. This is surprising because our values represent what we consider important and worth pursuing in life, and our subjective well-being (henceforth SWB) represents how happy and satisfied we are with the life we are leading. This chapter summarizes what we know about value—SWB relations and identifies some of what we do not know but would like to know. We first discuss the nature of values and the structured system they form. We then note three theoretical perspectives on relations of values to SWB (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000; Sagiv, Roccas & Hazan, 2004). The first perspective seeks to explain direct relations between values and SWB. The second examines the congruence (or similarity) between people’s values and the values prevailing in their environment as a determinant of SWB. The third sees the attainment of valued goals as the source of SWB. We present these perspectives and the literature based on them. Throughout, we note ideas for future research.