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  • Sinclair-Waters, Marion; Nome, Torfinn; Wang, Jing; Lien, Sigbjorn; Kent, Matthew P.; Saegrov, Harald; Floro-Larsen, Bjorn; Bolstad, Geir H.; Primmer, Craig R.; Barson, Nicola J. (2022)
    Characterizing the role of different mutational effect sizes in the evolution of fitness-related traits has been a major goal in evolutionary biology for a century. Such characterization in a diversity of systems, both model and non-model, will help to understand the genetic processes underlying fitness variation. However, well-characterized genetic architectures of such traits in wild populations remain uncommon. In this study, we used haplotype-based and multi-SNP Bayesian association methods with sequencing data for 313 individuals from wild populations to test the mutational composition of known candidate regions for sea age at maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We detected an association at five loci out of 116 candidates previously identified in an aquaculture strain with maturation timing in wild Atlantic salmon. We found that at four of these five loci, variation explained by the locus was predominantly driven by a single SNP suggesting the genetic architecture of this trait includes multiple loci with simple, non-clustered alleles and a locus with potentially more complex alleles. This highlights the diversity of genetic architectures that can exist for fitness-related traits. Furthermore, this study provides a useful multi-SNP framework for future work using sequencing data to characterize genetic variation underlying phenotypes in wild populations.
  • Puris, Elena; Auriola, Seppo; Korhonen, Paula; Loppi, Sanna; Kanninen, Katja M.; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; Gynther, Mikko (2021)
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable disease, with complex pathophysiology and a myriad of proteins involved in its development. In this study, we applied quantitative targeted absolute proteomic analysis for investigation of changes in potential AD drug targets, biomarkers, and transporters in cerebral cortices of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation mouse model, familial AD mice (APdE9) with and without LPS treatment as compared to age-matched wild type (WT) mice. The ABCB1, ABCG2 and GluN1 protein expression ratios between LPS treated APdE9 and WT control mice were 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.72), 0.65 (95% CI 0.53-0.77) and 0.61 (95% CI 0.52-0.69), respectively. The protein expression levels of other proteins such as MGLL, COX-2, CytC, ABCC1, ABCC4, SLC2A1 and SLC7A5 did not differ between the study groups. Overall, the study revealed that systemic inflammation can alter ABCB1 and ABCG2 protein expression in brain in AD, which can affect intra-brain drug distribution and play a role in AD development. Moreover, the inflammatory insult caused by peripheral infection in AD may be important factor triggering changes in GluN1 protein expression. However, more studies need to be performed in order to confirm these findings. The quantitative information about the expression of selected proteins provides important knowledge, which may help in the optimal use of the mouse models in AD drug development and better translation of preclinical data to humans. (c) 2021 American Pharmacists Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Zhu, Xudan; Chen, Liang; Pumpanen, Jukka; Keinänen, Markku; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ojala, Anne; Palviainen, Marjo; Kiirikki, Mikko; Neitola, Kimmo; Berninger, Frank (2021)
    Quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron (Fe) in surface waters is critical for understanding the water quality dynamics, brownification and carbon balance in the northern hemisphere. Especially in the remote areas, sampling and laboratory analysis of DOC and Fe content at a sufficient temporal frequency is difficult. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry is a promising tool for water quality monitoring to increase the sampling frequency and applications in remote regions. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the performance of an in-situ UV-Vis spectrophotometer for detecting spectral absorbances in comparison with a laboratory benchtop instrument; (2) to analyse the stability of DOC and Fe estimates from UV-Vis spectrophotometers among different rivers using multivariate methods; (3) to compare site-specific calibration of models to pooled models and investigate the extrapolation of DOC and Fe predictions from one catchment to another. This study indicates that absorbances that were measured by UV-Vis sensor explained 96% of the absorbance data from the laboratory benchtop instrument. Among the three tested multivariate methods, multiple stepwise regression (MSR) was the best model for both DOC and Fe predictions. Accurate and unbiased models for multiple watersheds for DOC were built successfully, and these models could be extrapolated from one watershed to another even without site-specific calibration for DOC. However, for Fe the combination of different datasets was not possible.
  • Adroit, Benjamin; Grimsson, Friogeir; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Escarguel, Gilles; Zetter, Reinhard; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Fauquette, Severine; Zhuang, Xin; Djamali, Morteza (2022)
    Parrotia persica is one of the most notable endemic relict tree species growing in the Hyrcanian forest at the southern Caspian Sea. The recent discovery of sibling species Parrotia subaequalis, occurring in the temperate for-ests of south-eastern China, offers the opportunity to compare their morphology and ecological preferences and to dig deeper into the paleophytogeographic history of the genus from a perspective. Since pollen morphology of these species would be essential to unravel the origin and evolution of these Arcto-Tertiary species, the present study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to segregate pollen from these two species. Therefore, a detailed combined light-and scanning electron microscopy-based pollen-analysis of each taxon was conducted, the pol-len was described, measured, and compared using statistical approaches and principal component analyses to es-tablish unbiased results. The correlation-based principal component analysis achieved for each species shows an overall good superposition of pollen grains measured in equatorial and polar views in the first principal plane, revealing that the P. persica pollen is morphometrically as homogeneous as that of P. subaequalis. Then, the sig-nificant difference, mainly driven by lumen density, has been highlighted between the two species. Ultimately, the cross-validation of the resulting two-species linear discriminants classifier shows that based upon this refer-ence dataset, (sub)fossil pollen grain can now be confidently assigned to either of the two species with an 85.8% correct-assignment rate. This opens new doors in the affiliation of fossil Parrotia pollen and suggests that previous pollen records need to be revised.(c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Arsene, Cecilia; Bejan, Iustinian G.; Roman, Claudiu; Olariu, Romeo I.; Minella, Marco; Passananti, Monica; Carena, Luca; Vione, Davide (2022)
    Partitioning between surface waters and the atmosphere is an important process, influencing the fate and transport of semi-volatile contaminants. In this work, a simple methodology that combines experimental data and modeling was used to investigate the degradation of a semi-volatile pollutant in a two-phase system (surface water + atmosphere). 4-Isobutylacetophenone (IBAP) was chosen as a model contaminant; IBAP is a toxic transformation product of the non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. Here, we show that the atmospheric behavior of IBAP would mainly be characterized by reaction with center dot OH radicals, while degradation initiated by center dot NO3 or direct photolysis would be negligible. The present study underlines that the gas phase reactivity of IBAP with center dot OH is faster, compared to the likely kinetics of volatilization from aqueous systems. Therefore, it might prove very difficult to detect gas-phase IBAP. Nevertheless, up to 60% of IBAP occurring in a deep and dissolved organic carbon-rich water body might be eliminated via volatilization and subsequent reaction with gas-phase center dot OH. The present study suggests that the gas-phase chemistry of semi-volatile organic compounds which, like IBAP, initially occur in natural water bodies in contact with the atmosphere is potentially very important in some environmental conditions.
  • Zhang, Jinru; Li, Haoran; Zeng, Yong; Yang, Lianmei; Li, Jiangang (2022)
    The macro- and microphysical characteristics of wintertime precipitating clouds and non-precipitating clouds over the West Tianshan Mountains, China, were analyzed with the use of Ka-band radar and weighing rain gauge observations. The data were collected from January to February 2019, December 2019, and from December 2020 to February 2021. Snowfall clouds mainly ranged from 0.15 similar to 2.50 km and had a reflectivity (Z) of mostly 10 33 dBZ. Non-snowfall clouds were primarily distributed within the height range of 2 similar to 8 km, and the Z values were within the range of - 22 similar to 15 dBZ. Compared with non-snowfall clouds, snowfall clouds have a higher particle water content (M) but a similar radial velocity (V). Light and moderate snowfall clouds were mainly located at heights of 0.15 similar to 3.50 km and had Z values concentrated from 5 similar to 24 dBZ. Heavy snowfall clouds were characterized by a Z of 5 similar to 30 dBZ below 3.5 km. The proportion of clouds with an M value> 0.1 g.m(-3) below 2 km was noticeably higher for heavy snow events than for light and moderate snow events. The differences in the distributions and values of snowfall cloud V values were small among the different snow types, and descending motions occurred below 6 km, with V ranging - 1.4 similar to - 0.3 m.s(-1). The heights of the non-snowfall cloud top and base during the day were lower than those at night. The snowfall cloud top did not show noticeable diurnal variations. The cloud top and base heights of the non-snowfall clouds both showed a single-peak distribution. The cloud top values of snowfall clouds exhibited bimodal distributions.
  • Pilowsky, Julia A.; Haythorne, Sean; Brown, Stuart C.; Krapp, Mario; Armstrong, Edward; Brook, Barry W.; Rahbek, Carsten; Fordham, Damien A. (2022)
    Aim To determine the ecological processes and drivers of range collapse, population decline and eventual extinction of the steppe bison in Eurasia. Location Siberia. Time period Pleistocene and Holocene. Major taxa studied Steppe bison (Bison priscus). Methods We configured 110,000 spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) of climate-human-steppe bison interactions in Siberia, which we ran at generational time steps from 50,000 years before present. We used pattern-oriented modelling (POM) and fossil-based inferences of distribution and demographic change of steppe bison to identify which SEPMs adequately simulated important interactions between ecological processes and biological threats. These "best models" were then used to disentangle the mechanisms that were integral in the population decline and later extinction of the steppe bison in its last stronghold in Eurasia. Results Our continuous reconstructions of the range and extinction dynamics of steppe bison were able to reconcile inferences of spatio-temporal occurrence and the timing and location of extinction in Siberia based on hundreds of radiocarbon-dated steppe bison fossils. We showed that simulating the ecological pathway to extinction for steppe bison in Siberia in the early Holocene required very specific ecological niche constraints, demographic processes and a constrained synergy of climate and human hunting dynamics during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Main conclusions Ecological processes and drivers that caused ancient population declines of species can be reconstructed at high spatio-temporal resolutions using SEPMs and POM. Using this approach, we found that climatic change and hunting by humans are likely to have interacted with key ecological processes to cause the extinction of the steppe bison in its last refuge in Eurasia.
  • Trzaska, W. H.; Barzilov, A.; Enqvist, T.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kasztelan, M.; Kotavaara, O.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Loo, K. K.; Orzechowski, J.; Puputti, J.; Slupecki, M.; Szabelski, J.; Usoskin, I.; Ward, T. E. (2022)
    We summarize the evidence for DM-like anomalies in neutron multiplicity spectra collected underground with Pb targets by three independent experiments: NEMESIS (at 210 m.w.e.) NMDS (at 583 m.w.e.), and ZEPLIN-II (at 2850 m.w.e.). A new analysis shows small but persistent anomalies at high neutron multiplicities. Adjusted for differences in detection efficiencies, the positions of the anomalies are consistent between the three systems. Also, the intensities match when corrected for the acquisition time and estimated detection efficiency. While the three measurements are inconclusive when analyzed separately, together, they exclude a statistical fluke to better than one in a million. To prove the existence of the anomalies above the 5-sigma discovery threshold, we propose to upgrade the current NEMESIS setup. The upgrade concept and the critical components of the new experiment are described. The upgraded setup would already acquire the needed data sample during the first year of operation. Additional information, vital for the physics interpretation of the analysis, will be obtained with a Cu target.
  • Yin, Xianyong; Bose, Debraj; Kwon, Annie; Hanks, Sarah C.; Jackson, Anne U.; Stringham, Heather M.; Welch, Ryan; Oravilahti, Anniina; Silva, Lilian Fernandes; Locke, FinnGen Adam E.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Service, Susan K.; Erdos, Michael R.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Hall, Ira M.; Morrison, Jean; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Freimer, Nelson B.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Scott, Laura J.; Fauman, Eric B.; Burant, Charles; Boehnke, Michael; Laakso, Markku; Wen, Xiaoquan (2022)
    Transcriptomics data have been integrated with genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to help understand disease/trait molecular mechanisms. The utility of metabolomics, integrated with transcriptomics and disease GWASs, to understand molecular mechanisms for metabolite levels or diseases has not been thoroughly evaluated. We performed probabilistic transcriptome-wide association and locus-level colocalization analyses to integrate transcriptomics results for 49 tissues in 706 individuals from the GTEx project, metabolomics results for 1,391 plasma metabolites in 6,136 Finnish men from the METSIM study, and GWAS results for 2,861 disease traits in 260,405 Finnish individuals from the FinnGen study. We found that genetic variants that regulate metabolite levels were more likely to influence gene expression and disease risk compared to the ones that do not. Integrating transcriptomics with metabolomics results prioritized 397 genes for 521 metabolites, including 496 previously identified gene-metabolite pairs with strong functional connections and suggested 33.3% of such gene-metabolite pairs shared the same causal variants with genetic associations of gene expression. Integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics individually with FinnGen GWAS results identified 1,597 genes for 790 disease traits. Integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics jointly with FinnGen GWAS results helped pinpoint metabolic pathways from genes to diseases. We identified putative causal effects of UGT1A1/UGT1A4 expression on gallbladder disorders through regulating plasma (E,E)-bilirubin levels, of SLC22A5 expression on nasal polyps and plasma carnitine levels through distinct pathways, and of LIPC expression on age-related macular degeneration through glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. Our study highlights the power of integrating multiple sets of molecular traits and GWAS results to deepen understanding of disease pathophysiology.
  • Juurikka, Krista; Åström, Pirjo; Pekkala, Tiina; Öhman, Hanna; Sorsa, Timo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Salo, Tuula; Lehenkari, Petri; Nyberg, Pia (2022)
  • Shen, Jiali; Scholz, Wiebke; He, Xu-Cheng; Zhou, Putian; Marie, Guillaume; Wang, Mingyi; Marten, Ruby; Surdu, Mihnea; Rörup, Birte; Baalbaki, Rima; Amorim, Antonio; Ataei, Farnoush; Bell, David M.; Bertozzi, Barbara; Brasseur, Zoe; Caudillo, Lucia; Chen, Dexian; Chu, Biwu; Dada, Lubna; Duplissy, Jonathan; Finkenzeller, Henning; Granzin, Manuel; Guida, Roberto; Heinritzi, Martin; Hofbauer, Victoria; Iyer, Siddharth; Kemppainen, Deniz; Kong, Weimeng; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Kürten, Andreas; Lamkaddam, Houssni; Lee, Chuan Ping; Lopez, Brandon; Mahfouz, Naser G. A.; Manninen, Hanna E.; Massabo, Dario; Mauldin, Roy L.; Mentler, Bernhard; Müller, Tatjana; Pfeifer, Joschka; Philippov, Maxim; Piedehierro, Ana A.; Roldin, Pontus; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Simon, Mario; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Tham, Yee Jun; Tome, Antonio; Umo, Nsikanabasi Silas; Wang, Dongyu; Wang, Yonghong; Weber, Stefan K.; Welti, Andre; de Jonge, Robin Wollesen; Wu, Yusheng; Zauner-Wieczorek, Marcel; Zust, Felix; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Flagan, Richard C.; Hansel, Armin; Möhler, Ottmar; Petäjä, Tuukka; Volkamer, Rainer; Kulmala, Markku; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rissanen, Matti; Kirkby, Jasper; El-Haddad, Imad; Bianchi, Federico; Sipilä, Mikko; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R. (2022)
    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) influences climate via cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation resulting from its oxidation products (mainly methanesulfonic acid, MSA, and sulfuric acid, H2SO4). Despite their importance, accurate prediction of MSA and H2SO4 from DMS oxidation remains challenging. With comprehensive experiments carried out in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN, we show that decreasing the temperature from +25 to -10 ? enhances the gas-phase MSA production by an order of magnitude from OH-initiated DMS oxidation, while H2SO4 production is modestly affected. This leads to a gas-phase H2SO4-to-MSA ratio (H2SO4/MSA) smaller than one at low temperatures, consistent with field observations in polar regions. With an updated DMS oxidation mechanism, we find that methanesulfinic acid, CH3S(O)OH, MSIA, forms large amounts of MSA . Overall, our results reveal that MSA yields are a factor of 2-10 higher than those predicted by the widely used Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.3.1), and the NOx effect is less significant than that of temperature. Our updated mechanism explains the high MSA production rates observed in field observations, especially at low temperatures, thus, substantiating the greater importance of MSA in the natural sulfur cycle and natural CCN formation. Our mechanism will improve the interpretation of present-day and historical gas-phase H2SO4/MSA measurements.
  • Vart, Priya; Duivenvoorden, Raphael; Adema, Aaltje; Covic, Adrian; Finne, Patrik; Heijtink-ter Break, Nicole; Laine, Kaisa; Noordzij, Marlies; Schouten, Marcel; Jager, Kitty J.; Gansevoort, Ron T. (2022)
  • Laury, Ritva (John Benjamins, 2021)
    Pragmatics and Beyond New Series
    This chapter concerns expressions which seem internally contradictory because they consist of both a recognitional and a non-recognitional element. They contain both the Finnish demonstrative se ‘that, the’, a recognitional, as in se ihminen ‘that/the person’, and one of the indefinite determiners yksi ‘one’, semmonen ‘such’, and joku ‘some’, all of which are non-recognitionals, resulting in expressions such as se joku ihminen ‘that/the some person’. The chapter shows that each of these expressions has its own home environment and expresses a distinct epistemic stance. The main findings are that these expressions constitute a fine-grained resource for the negotiation of relative epistemic status and are tools for building intersubjective common ground in interaction.
  • Borchers, Joonatan; Mäkitie, Outi; Laakso, Saila (2021)
    Objective: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) has variable clinical course. Overall mortality is increased but reasons for this remain largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the causes of death and factors contributing to increased mortality. Design: A follow-up study of the Finnish APECED cohort in 1970-2019. Methods: In 33 deceased patients with APECED, causes of death and clinical course preceding the death were analyzed using national registry data, death certificates, autopsy reports, and patient records. Results: Most common causes leading to death were infections (24%), oral and esophageal malignancies (15%; median age at death 36.7 years; median survival 1.5 years), and diseases of the circulatory system (18%). Adrenal crisis was an independent cause of death in two patients. In addition, in four patients, the adrenal crisis was a complicating factor during a fatal infection. Other APECED manifestations leading to death were hypoparathyroidism, diabetes, and hepatitis. Other causes of death included accidents (12%), alcohol-related causes, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Challenges in overall, and especially in the endocrine, care contributed to deaths related to carcinomas and adrenal crisis. Age at death and year of death correlated (r = 0.345, P = 0.045), suggesting improved longevity. Conclusions: Infections, malignancies, and diseases of the circulatory system are the most common primary causes of death in patients with APECED. Adrenal crisis is an independent cause of death but more often a contributing factor in fatal infections. Despite the high overall mortality and the demanding care, our results suggest improved patient survival in recent years.
  • Ekumenia 
    Lauha, Aila (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2021)
    Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran toimituksia
  • MRI-GENIE & GISCOME Investigators; Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; Bonkhoff, Anna K.; Ullberg, Teresa; Bretzner, Martin; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2022)
    Background purposeA substantial number of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) experience multiple acute lesions (MAL). We here aimed to scrutinize MAL in a large radiologically deep-phenotyped cohort. Materials and methodsAnalyses relied upon imaging and clinical data from the international MRI-GENIE study. Imaging data comprised both Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden estimation and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences for the assessment of acute stroke lesions. The initial step featured the systematic evaluation of occurrences of MAL within one and several vascular supply territories. Associations between MAL and important imaging and clinical characteristics were subsequently determined. The interaction effect between single and multiple lesion status and lesion volume was estimated by means of Bayesian hierarchical regression modeling for both stroke severity and functional outcome. ResultsWe analyzed 2,466 patients (age = 63.4 +/- 14.8, 39% women), 49.7% of which presented with a single lesion. Another 37.4% experienced MAL in a single vascular territory, while 12.9% featured lesions in multiple vascular territories. Within most territories, MAL occurred as frequently as single lesions (ratio similar to 1:1). Only the brainstem region comprised fewer patients with MAL (ratio 1:4). Patients with MAL presented with a significantly higher lesion volume and acute NIHSS (7.7 vs. 1.7 ml and 4 vs. 3, p(FDR) < 0.001). In contrast, patients with a single lesion were characterized by a significantly higher WMH burden (6.1 vs. 5.3 ml, p(FDR) = 0.048). Functional outcome did not differ significantly between patients with single versus multiple lesions. Bayesian analyses suggested that the association between lesion volume and stroke severity between single and multiple lesions was the same in case of anterior circulation stroke. In case of posterior circulation stroke, lesion volume was linked to a higher NIHSS only among those with MAL. ConclusionMultiple lesions, especially those within one vascular territory, occurred more frequently than previously reported. Overall, multiple lesions were distinctly linked to a higher acute stroke severity, a higher total DWI lesion volume and a lower WMH lesion volume. In posterior circulation stroke, lesion volume was linked to a higher stroke severity in multiple lesions only.
  • Rantala, Heikki; Ikkala, Esko; Jokipii, Ilkka; Hyvönen, Eero (2022)
    This article presents the semantic portal and Linked Open Data service WARVICTIMSAMPO 1914-1922 about the war victims, battles, and prisoner camps in the Finnish Civil and other wars in 1914-1922. The system is based on a database of the National Archives of Finland and additional related data created, compiled, and linked during the project. The system contains detailed information about some 40,000 deaths extracted from several data sources and data about over 1,000 battles of the Civil War. A key novelty of WARVICTIMSAMPO 1914-1922 is the integration of ready-to-use Digital Humanities visualizations and data analysis tooling with semantic faceted search and data exploration, which allows, e.g., studying data about wider prosopographical groups in addition to individual war victims. The article focuses on demonstrating how the tools of the portal, as well as the underlying SPARQL endpoint openly available on the Web, can be used to explore and analyze war history in flexible and visual ways. WARVICTIMSAMPO 1914-1922 is a new member in the series of "Sampo" model-based semantic portals. The portal is in use and has had 23,000 users, including both war historians and the general public seeking information about their deceased relatives.
  • Paloviita, Pauliina; Vuoristo, Sanna (2022)
    Not that long ago, the human genome was discovered to be mainly non-coding, that is comprised of DNA se-quences that do not code for proteins. The initial paradigm that non-coding is also non-functional was soon overturned and today the work to uncover the functions of non-coding DNA and RNA in human early embryogenesis has commenced. Early human development is characterized by large-scale changes in genomic activity and the transcriptome that are partly driven by the coordinated activation and repression of repetitive DNA elements scattered across the genome. Here we provide examples of recent novel discoveries of non-coding DNA and RNA interactions and mechanisms that ensure accurate non-coding activity during human maternal-to -zygotic transition and lineage segregation. These include studies on small and long non-coding RNAs, trans-posable element regulation, and RNA tailing in human oocytes and early embryos. High-throughput approaches to dissect the non-coding regulatory networks governing early human development are a foundation for func-tional studies of specific genomic elements and molecules that has only begun and will provide a wider un-derstanding of early human embryogenesis and causes of infertility.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Roos, Eva; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea (2022)
    Sosioekonominen asema on keskeinen ruokatottumuksia määrittelevä tekijä. Työikäisessä väestössä alempi sosioekonominen asema on yhdistetty esimerkiksi vähäisempään kasvisten, hedelmien ja marjojen käyttöön sekä heikompaan kokonaisruokavalion laatuun. Ruokatottumusten sosioekonomisia eroja vanhuuseläkkeelle siirtymisen jälkeen on kuitenkin tutkittu niukasti. Tutkimme, miten eri sosioekonomiset tekijät ovat yhteydessä ruokatottumuksiin vanhuuseläkkeelle siirtyneillä entisillä Helsingin kaupungin työntekijöillä. Tutkimusaineistona käytimme Helsinki Health Study -kohorttitutkimuksen neljää kyselyä vuosilta 2000–2017. Peruskyselyssä tutkittavat olivat 40–60-vuotiaita kuntatyöntekijöitä (N=8 960, 80 % naisia). Analysoitava aineisto koostui 2 810:sta naisesta ja 734:stä miehestä, jotka siirtyivät vanhuuseläkkeelle seurannan aikana. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin viittä sosioekonomista mittaria ja seitsemää ruokatottumusta, ja näiden välisiä yhteyksiä tutkittiin binäärisellä logistisella regressioanalyysilla. Naisilla epäsuotuisammat sosioekonomiset olosuhteet olivat yhteydessä pienempään todennäköisyyteen noudattaa suositeltavia ruokatottumuksia, riippumatta käytetystä sosioekonomisesta mittarista. Aiempi ammattiasema oli vahvimmin yhteydessä ruokatottumuksiin naisilla. Miehillä selkeimmät yhteydet havaitsimme omistusasumisen ja taloudellisten vaikeuksien puuttumisen sekä suositeltavien ruokatottumusten välillä, kun taas kotitalouden tulot eivät olleet yhteydessä ruokatottumuksiin. Siviilisääty, aiemman työn kuormittavuus sekä elintapa- ja terveystekijät eivät selittäneet löydettyjä yhteyksiä. Tutkimuksessa havaitut ruokatottumusten sosioekonomiset erot noudattivat aiempia löydöksiä työikäisten ruokatottumusten sosioekonomisista eroista. Vanhuuseläkkeelle siirtyminen on merkittävä elämänkulun käännekohta, joka voi mahdollistaa monenlaisia muutoksia yksilöiden elintavoissa. Tämän tutkimuksen tulokset tukevat aiempaa käsitystä siitä, että ruokatottumusten sosioekonomiset erot ovat pitkällä aikavälillä kehittyviä ja siten vaikeasti kavennettavissa.
  • Tischer, Christina; Täubel, Martin; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Depner, Martin; Hyvärinen, Anne; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Pekkanen, Juha; Karvonen, Anne M. (2022)
    Background and Aims Moisture damage increases the risk for respiratory disorders in childhood. Our aim was to determine whether early age residential exposure to inspector-observed moisture damage or mold is associated with different wheezing phenotypes later in childhood. Methods Building inspections were performed by civil engineers, in a standardized manner, in the children's homes-mostly single family and row houses (N = 344)-in the first year of life. The children were followed up with repeated questionnaires until the age of 6 years and wheezing phenotypes-never/infrequent, transient, intermediate, late onset, and persistent-were defined using latent class analyses. The multinomial logistic regression model was used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 63% (n = 218) had infrequent or no wheeze, 23% (n = 80) had transient and 9.6% (n = 21) had a persistent wheeze. Due to the low prevalence, results for intermediate (3.8%, n = 13) and late-onset wheeze (3.5%, n = 12) were not further evaluated. Most consistent associations were observed with the persistent wheeze phenotype with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) 2.04 (0.67-6.18) for minor moisture damage with or without mold spots (present in 23.8% of homes) and 3.68 (1.04-13.05) for major damage or any moisture damage with visible mold in a child's main living areas (present in 13.4% of homes). Early-age moisture damage or mold in the kitchen was associated with transient wheezing. Conclusion At an early age, residential exposure to moisture damage or mold, can be dose-dependently associated especially with persistent wheezing phenotype later in childhood.

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