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  • Lenk, Hartmut Ewald Herbert (Peter Lang, 2020)
    Studien zur Medien- und Kulturlinguistik
  • Nissinen, Martti (2020)
    The article explores the interface of prophecy and shamanhood from the point of view of intermediation, divination, and magic; performance and cosmology; gender; and social status. The most significant thing in common between prophets and shamans is the role of an intermediary and the superhuman authority ascribed to their activity. Other similarities include the performance in an altered state of consciousness, gender-inclusiveness, as well as some ritual roles and forms of social recognition. The action of the prophets rarely reaches beyond the transmission of the divine word, whereas the shamans’ activity is more strongly oriented towards ritual efficacy. The cosmological explanation of prophetic and shamanistic performance is different, and the transgendered roles of the shamans appear stronger. The social status varies according to the different community structures reflected by the source materials. It is argued that, even though the conceptual difference between prophets and shamans should be upheld, there is a strong interface between the two phenomena.
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Enqvist, Kari; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Lumi-Pyry (2020)
    We consider Higgs inflation with an α R2 term. It adds a new scalar degree of freedom, which leads to a two-field model of inflation. We do a complete slow-roll analysis of the three-dimensional parameter space of the R2 coefficient α, the non-minimal coupling ξ and the Higgs self-coupling λ. We find three classes of inflationary solutions, but only pure R2 and attractor solutions fit observations. We find that pure Higgs inflation is impossible when the R2 term is present regardless of how small α is. However, we can have Higgs-like inflation, where the amplitude of the perturbations does not depend on α and the predictions as a function of e-folds are the same as in Higgs inflation, although the inflationary trajectory is curved in field space. The spectral index is 0.939 < nR < 0.967, and constraining it to the observed range, the tensor-to-scalar ratio varies from 3.8×10−3 to the maximum allowed by observations, 0.079. Observational constraints on isocurvature perturbations contribute to these limits, whereas non-Gaussianity is automatically in the range allowed by observations.
  • Tuominen, Hanna (2020)
    Finland acted as the President of the EU Council in the second half of 2019. The Finnish Presidency program had an ambitious, value-based agenda, which underlined the role of the EU as a community of values. The aim of this article is to study why Finland chose to promote values, and what kind of political discussion preceded the presidency term. Secondly, the article focuses on the practical implementation of the common values outlined in the program. Thirdly, the article discusses how to evaluate the presidency, and whether Finland can be considered successful in its value promotion. The analysis draws from the key documents related to the Presidency, as well as on research interviews (N=33) with the key Finnish politicians, civil servants and civil society experts in spring 2020. According to the article, the focus on values was evident priority already when the Finnish parties started to plan possible themes for the term. As the term approached, the relevance of values increased. During its Presidency, Finland was successful in the promotion of several values by binding them with practical questions. As the article suggests, the evaluation of the success of the value-based agenda can be approached from various perspectives with different outcomes.
  • Mikkola, Henri Juhani; Hiilamo, Heikki; Eloranta, Jari (2020)
    Vuodesta 2010 alkaen syntyvyys laski Suomessa yhdeksän vuotta peräjälkeen, mikä herätti julkisen keskustelun ilmiön syistä ja vaikutuksista. Huolestuneita lausuntoja on esitetty muun muassa hyvinvointivaltion maksukyvystä. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään, miten sosioekonomisten tekijöiden muutokset Suomessa ovat yhteydessä kuntakohtaiseen kokonaishedelmällisyyteen. Havaitsemme työttömyyden, opiskelijoiden osuuden, sekularisaation ja tuloluokista varakkaimman kymmenyksen suhteellisen väestömäärän kasvun olevan kuntatasolla yhteydessä alempaan kokonaishedelmällisyyteen. Koulutusasteen kasvu sekä kunnan muuttovoitto korreloivat korkeampien kunnittaisten kokonaishedelmällisyyslukemien kanssa. Maantieteellisesti sosioekonomiset muuttujat ennustavat toteutunutta kunnittaista kokonaishedelmällisyyttä hyvin Pohjanmaan, Keski-Suomen ja Kainuun alueilla. Etelä-Suomessa sosioekonomiset muuttujat ennustavat toteutunutta kokonaishedelmällisyyttä heikosti. Poikkeuksena tästä on opiskelijoiden suhteellinen osuus, joka kasvaessaan ennustaa kohteena olevan kunnan heikentyvää kokonaishedelmällisyyttä merkittävästi etenkin Etelä-Suomen alueella. Kokonaishedelmällisyyden kehitystä ennustettaessa tulisi analysoida tarkemmin kasvukeskuksia ja väestökeskittymiä toisiinsa verraten.
  • Arnesen, Erik Kristoffer; Christensen, Jacob Juel; Andersen, Rikke; Eneroth, Hanna; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Hoyer, Anne; Lemming, Eva Warensjo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Halldorsson, Porhallur Ingi; Porsdottir, Inga; Schwab, Ursula; Trolle, Ellen; Blomhoff, Rune (2020)
    Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) constitute a major part of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNRs). The step-by-step procedure used to develop SRs has evolved considerably over time and is often tailored to fit the exposure and outcomes in focus. Objective: To describe a detailed procedure for developing qualified SRs commissioned by the NNR2022 project. Design: Scrutinizing procedures of recent SRs commissioned by leading national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations. Results: The following eight steps must be included when developing qualified SRs for the NNR2022 project: 1) define research question, 2) protocol development, 3) literature search, 4) screening and selection of studies, 5) data extraction, 6) assessing risk of bias, 7) synthesis and grading of total strength of evidence, and 8) reporting according to certain standards. Discussion: This guide is based on the guidelines developed for the fifth edition of NNR but includes some important new domains in order to adhere to more recent, authoritative standards. Conclusion: All qualified SRs in the NNR2022 project will follow the protocol described here.
  • Äikäs, Tiina; Lipkin, Sanna; Ahola, Marja (Suomen arkeologinen seura, 2020)
    Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland
  • Ahola, Marja; Äikäs, Tiina (Suomen arkeologinen seura, 2020)
    Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland
  • Hakola, Outi (2020)
    In this article, I consider Donald J. Trump as a case study of how populism has strategically utilized audiovisual popular culture. Here, I understand populist strategy as a complex phenomenon, where popular performances and representations aim to construct desired understanding of populism and populist leadership. My analysis is based on the reality television show The Apprentice (2004–2017), which enhanced Trump as a popular culture figure and built an image of his leadership, and on the Trumpwave videos where Trump’s supporters produce social media videos that idealize his populist leadership. The complex relationship between populism and popular culture is visible both in Trump’s performances and in the representations of him. First, these performances and representations show how popular culture can be used to create political brands that serve populist goals. Second, they bring forward strategies that are typical for popular culture, including importance of stories, emotions, and participatory media culture. By using recognizable and accessible stories, such as a game show model of reality television, politics becomes recognizable for general audiences. Stories often invoke emotions and affects, such as nostalgia or vulgarity, that invite audiences to experience issues from the populist viewpoint and that address the audiences through shared culture. Participatory culture enables mobilization of “the people”, who can then reproduce, modify and share their stories and experiences with their own popular culture products. Within stories, emotions, and participatory culture we can recognize the similar strategies that have been widely used by various populist movements. For example, representations of leadership, masculinity and intersectional social categories (race, gender, sexuality, class) construct typical populist differentiations between “the people” and “the elite”, or “us” and “them”. While popular culture is understood as a culture for masses, its utilization in populist narratives supports the idea of talking to and representing “the people”. At the same time, using popular culture as part of populist strategies emphasizes the political, societal and ideological potentials of popular culture.
  • Hulmi, Sini Vuokko (2019)
    Is the liturgy local and contextual and growing from below, or is it controlled from above? Does the liturgy belong to the people and to the congregation, and are they allowed to use it in their own way? Or is the liturgy the property of the Church, which gives strict orders for its use? Is it powerful men and women, meaning those people with authority, and the institutions (for example, the Church Synod and the Bishops’ Conference) who define the methods and ways in which liturgy is enculturated? Or do the ways of inculturation involve development from below, from the common people, even the poorest and most humble believers, at the congregational level? The balance between these two aspects—top-down and bottom-up worship—has repeatedly shifted over the last three decades, and there have been tensions between them in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. The goal of this essay is to clarify the reason for this confusing situation related to authority, fixed orders and the creative development of liturgical life.
  • Marila, Marko Mikael; Ilves, Kristin (Department of Cultures, University of Helsinki, 2020)
    Ett magisterprogram i maritim arkeologi planeras vid Helsingfors Universitet, med start 2023 om fakulteten möjliggör dess infogande. Som stöd för planeringen genomfördes en undersökning kring vilka faktorer som inverkar på ett programs framgång. Yrkesverksamma med erfarenhet i högre utbildning inom maritim arkeologi och kulturmiljövård undervatten intervjuades och en online enkät skickades ut. Resultaten från dessa kombinerades i denna rapport tillsammans med en genomgång av litteraturen kring utvecklingen av högre utbildning inom maritim arkeologi. Resultaten indikerar att den vanligaste orsaken för ett utbildningsprogram avvecklas är bristen på kontinuitet när det gäller utbildningspersonalen. Program inom maritim arkeologi drivs oftast av minimal personalstyrka och när en person pensioneras eller lämnar universitetet, så kan det ske att de inte ersätts. Två faktorer som kan förväntas när det kommer till planeringen av läroplanen identifierades som viktiga för att nå framgång. 1) Integration i den övriga undervisningen vid hemmainstitutionen – speciellt i arkeologi, kulturarvsstudier och historia – för att uppnå en avvägd balans mellan teori och praktik. 2) Nära samarbete, engagemang och dialog med andra akademiska och icke-akademiska institutioner och grupperingar för inklusion i utbildningen samt identifikation av behov och förväntningar på läroplaners innehåll hos dessa grupper. Utgående från dessa resultat innehåller rapporten också ett förslag på läroplan i maritim arkeologi.
  • Lehtonen, Jukka; Taavetti, Riikka (Routledge, 2018)
    Routledge Critical Studies in Gender and Sexuality in Education
    This chapter discusses the positions of researchers and young people in research projects on young rainbow, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) people. It analyses methodological, ethical and theoretical problems that each faced in research on and with young people and discusses challenges related to research contexts. The specific contexts analyzed were as follows: a government-funded short-term project with a need to produce results for advocacy work in which Riikka Taavetti worked. The chapter describes the specific problems involved in using the survey data. It also describes individual research projects and discusses how the position of the researcher and participation of the young people were negotiated in the research process. The chapter focuses on how research projects were influenced by their structure and funding. In Finland, young people who do not identify with the heterosexual and cisgendered norms, or are seen to challenge these norms, are sometimes referred to as "rainbow" youth.
  • PHENIX Collaboration; Acharya, U.; Kim, D. J.; Novitzky, N.; Rak, J. (2020)
    The cross section of bottom quark-antiquark (b (b) over bar) production in p + p collisions at root s = 510 GeV is measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The results are based on the yield of high mass, like-sign muon pairs measured within the PHENIX muon arm acceptance (1.2 <vertical bar y vertical bar <2.2). The b (b) over bar signal is extracted from like-sign dimuons by utilizing the unique properties of neutral B meson oscillation. We report a differential cross section of d sigma(b (b) over bar ->mu +/-mu +/-)/dy = 0.16 +/- 0.01 (stat) +/- 0.02 (syst) +/- 0.02 (global) nb for like-sign muons in the rapidity and p(T) ranges 1.2 <vertical bar y vertical bar <2.2 and p(T) > 1 GeV/c, and dimuon mass of 5-10 GeV/c(2). The extrapolated total cross section at this energy for b (b) over bar production is 13.1 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (syst) +/- 2.7 (global) mu b. The total cross section is compared to a perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculation and is consistent within uncertainties. The azimuthal opening angle between muon pairs from b (b) over bar decays and their p(T) distributions are compared to distributions generated using PS PYTHIA6, which includes next-to-leading order processes. The azimuthal correlations and pair p(T) distribution are not very well described by PYTHIA calculations, but are still consistent within uncertainties. Flavor creation and flavor excitation subprocesses are favored over gluon splitting.
  • Naaranoja, Tiina; Golovleva, Maria; Gädda, Akiko; Martikainen, Laura; Ott, Jennifer; Berretti, Mirko; Garcia, Francisco; Luukka, Panja; Tuuva, Tuure; Österberg, Kenneth (2019)
    The radiation hardness of diamond at the sensor level is studied by irradiating five sensors and studying them with various particle sources, without making any modifications to the sensors in between. The electronics used in the characterization is not irradiated to ensure that any observed effect is merely due to the sensor. Three sensors have received a fluence of 10 (14) protons cm(-2) and two 5 center dot 10 (15) protons cm(-2). At the lower fluence, the impact on the charge collection efficiency is very small, when the applied bias voltage is above 1 V mu m(-1). For the higher fluence, the charge collection efficiency is lower than expected based on earlier studies of diamond radiation hardness on the substrate level. Furthermore, it is noticed that the irradiation has a stronger impact on the signal amplitude recorded with a fast timing than with a charge sensitive amplifier.
  • Kikas, Eve; Tang, Xin (2019)
    This study examined relations between child-reported teacher emotional support, teaching practices, and children's task-persistent learning behaviour. The study was carried out in Estonia, where a students' first teacher advances with his/her students and teaches all primary subjects in the first 3years of schooling. In total, 660 sixth-grade children reported about their first teacher's emotional support. Teachers' child-centred and teacher-directed practices were observed with the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM); results included 38 teachers in Grade 1, and 37 in Grade 3. Within the same grades, teachers reported on their affection for students, as well as their behavioural and psychological control over students. Teachers also evaluated each of their student's task persistence. As shown by ECCOM results, retrospective student-reported teacher emotional support tended to be positively related to child-centred practises, and negatively related to teacher-directed practises in Grade 3, while also negatively related to teacher-reported psychological control in Grade 1. Although higher perceived emotional support was related with more persistent learning behaviour on an individual level, general task persistence was predicted primarily by teacher-reported practices at the classroom level.
  • Carroll, R. J.; Podolyak, Zs; Berry, T.; Grawe, H.; Alexander, T.; Andreyev, A. N.; Ansari, S.; Borge, M. J. G.; Brunet, M.; Creswell, J. R.; Fraile, L. M.; Fahlander, C.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Gamba, E. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gerst, R-B; Gorska, M.; Gredley, A.; Greenlees, P. T.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Huyse, M.; Judge, S. M.; Judson, D. S.; Konki, J.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kuti, I.; Lalkovski, S.; Lazarus, I. H.; Lica, R.; Lund, M.; Madurga, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Marroquin, I.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R. E.; Nacher, E.; Negret, A.; Nita, C.; Pascu, S.; Page, R. D.; Patel, Z.; Perea, A.; Phrompao, J.; Piersa, M.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Regan, P. H.; Rotaru, F.; Rudigier, M.; Shand, C. M.; Shearman, R.; Stegemann, S.; Stora, T.; Sotty, Ch; Tengblad, O.; Van Duppen, P.; Vedia, V.; Wadsworth, R.; Walker, P. M.; Warr, N.; Wearing, F.; De Witte, H. (2020)
    The beta decay of Hg-208 into the one-proton hole, one neutron-particle Tl-208(81)127 nucleus was investigated at CERN-ISOLDE. Shell-model calculations describe well the level scheme deduced, validating the proton-neutron interactions used, with implications for the whole of the N > 126, Z <82 quadrant of neutron-rich nuclei. While both negative and positive parity states with spin 0 and 1 are expected within the Q(beta) window, only three negative parity states are populated directly in the beta decay. The data provide a unique test of the competition between allowed Gamow-Teller and Fermi, and first-forbidden beta decays, essential for the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in the rapid neutron capture process. Furthermore, the observation of the parity changing 0(+) -> 0(-)beta decay where the daughter state is core excited is unique, and can provide information on mesonic corrections of effective operators.
  • Aalto, Atte; Viitasaari, Lauri; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Mombaerts, Laurent; Goncalves, Jorge (2020)
    The complexity of biological systems is encoded in gene regulatory networks. Unravelling this intricate web is a fundamental step in understanding the mechanisms of life and eventually developing efficient therapies to treat and cure diseases. The major obstacle in inferring gene regulatory networks is the lack of data. While time series data are nowadays widely available, they are typically noisy, with low sampling frequency and overall small number of samples. This paper develops a method called BINGO to specifically deal with these issues. Bench-marked with both real and simulated time-series data covering many different gene regulatory networks, BINGO clearly and consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The novelty of BINGO lies in a nonparametric approach featuring statistical sampling of continuous gene expression profiles. BINGO's superior performance and ease of use, even by non-specialists, make gene regulatory network inference available to any researcher, helping to decipher the complex mechanisms of life.

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