Articles

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  • Perälä, Mika (2019)
    Modern logicians have complained that Aristotelian logic lacks a distinction between predication (including negation) and assertion, and that predication, according to the Aristotelians, implies assertion. The present paper addresses the question of whether this criticism can be levelled against Aristotle’s logic. Based on a careful study of the De interpretatione, the paper shows that even if Aristotle defines what he calls simple assertion in terms of predication, he does not confound predication and assertion. That is because, first, he does not understand compound assertion in terms of predication, and secondly, he acknowledges non-assertive predicative thoughts that are truth-evaluable. Therefore, the implications of Aristotle’s ‘predication theory of assertion’ are not as devastating as the critics believe.
  • Hnatič, Michal; Honkonen, Juha; Lučivjanský, Tomáš (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Symmetries play paramount roles in dynamics of physical systems. All theories of quantum physics and microworld including the fundamental Standard Model are constructed on the basis of symmetry principles. In classical physics, the importance and weight of these principles are the same as in quantum physics: dynamics of complex nonlinear statistical systems is straightforwardly dictated by their symmetry or its breaking, as we demonstrate on the example of developed (magneto)hydrodynamic turbulence and the related theoretical models. To simplify the problem, unbounded models are commonly used. However, turbulence is a mesoscopic phenomenon and the size of the system must be taken into account. It turns out that influence of outer length of turbulence is significant and can lead to intermittency. More precisely, we analyze the connection of phenomena such as behavior of statistical correlations of observable quantities, anomalous scaling, and generation of magnetic field by hydrodynamic fluctuations with symmetries such as Galilean symmetry, isotropy, spatial parity and their violation and finite size of the system.
  • Arar, Sharif; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Masad, Mohanad H.; Maragkidou, Androniki; Wraith, Darren; Hussein, Tareq (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    In this study, we performed elemental analysis for floor dust samples collected in Jordanian microenvironments (dwellings and educational building). We performed intercorrelation and cluster analysis between the elemental, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and microorganism concentrations. In general, the educational building workshops had the highest elemental contamination. The age of the dwelling and its occupancy played a role on the elemental contamination level: older and more occupied dwellingshad greater contamination. The elemental contamination at a dwelling entrance was observed to be higher than in the living room. We found exceptionally high concentrations for Fe and Mn in the educational workshop and additionally, Hg, Cr, and Pb concentrations exceeded the limits set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. According to the cluster analysis, we found three major groups based on location and contamination. According to the enrichment factor (<i>EF</i>) assessment, Al, Co, Mn, Ti, and Ba had <i>EF</i> &lt; 2 (i.e., minimal enrichment) whereas P, S, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Hg, and Cu had <i>EF</i> &gt; 40 (i.e., extremely enriched). In contrast, Ca and P were geogenically enriched. Furthermore, significant Spearman correlations indicated nine subgroups of elemental contamination combined with PAHs and microbes.
  • Tischmann, Lea; Drummen, Mathijs; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Raben, Anne; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Mensink, Ronald P.; Joris, Peter J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.; Adam, Tanja C. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 &plusmn; 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 &plusmn; 3.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (&minus;56.6% compared to MP, <i>p</i> &lt; 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (<i>p</i> &lt; 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = &minus;0.7, <i>p</i> &lt; 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.
  • KS, Salminen; MH, Suominen; H, Kautiainen; HM, Roitto; KH, Pitkala (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Our aim was to investigate how energy intake modifies the association of the stage of dementia with health related quality of life (HRQoL) among institutionalized older people. A cross-sectional sample of 538 older long-term care residents with dementia in Helsinki, Finland were assessed with HRQoL (15D), energy intake (from one to two days), and the stage of dementia by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. The energy intakes were standardized by <i>z</i>-scores to include both men and women in the same analyses. Severity of dementia was associated with HRQoL (15D index in CDR 0.5&ndash;1: 0.65 (0.11), CDR 2: 0.60 (0.10), CDR 3: 0.52 (0.10)). When the three groups of dementia severity were divided according to their energy intake quartiles, there was an association between the HRQoL and the stage of dementia (<i>p</i> &lt; 0.001) and energy intake (<i>p</i> = 0.013); however, no interaction was observed (<i>p</i> = 0.30). While partial correlation analysis showed that energy intake correlated with HRQoL among residents with very mild/mild or moderate dementia, this was not observed among those with severe dementia. In moderate dementia, the dimensions of mobility and usual activities correlated significantly with higher energy intake. Both energy intake and severity of dementia are associated with HRQoL.
  • Heikkilä, Maria; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Autio, Ossi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Valve, Raisa (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Athletes often have significant gaps in their nutrition knowledge. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether young Finnish endurance athletes&rsquo; nutrition knowledge and dietary intake can be improved through an education intervention with or without a mobile food application. Seventy-nine endurance athletes, 18.0 years (SD: 1.4), participated in this randomized, controlled intervention. We compared the effects of participatory nutrition education sessions alone (group EDU) to those including the use of a mobile food application (group EDU + APP) for four days after each session. Both groups attended three 90-min education sessions fortnightly. The participants completed a validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire in Weeks 0, 5, and 17, and a three-day food diary in Weeks 0 and 17. The education plan was based on the Self-Determination Theory and the concept of meaningful learning process. The EDU group&rsquo;s nutrition knowledge scores were: 78 (week 0), 85 (week 5), and 84 (week 17) and the EDU + APP group&rsquo;s 78, 86, and 85, respectively. Nutrition knowledge increased significantly (main effect of time (<i>p</i> &lt; 0.001)), but we observed no significant group &times; time interaction (<i>p</i> = 0.309). The changes in dietary intakes were minor (<i>p</i> &gt; 0.05). The amount of carbohydrates was below endurance athletes&rsquo; recommendations throughout the intervention. The reported energy intakes were also below the estimated energy expenditures. In conclusion, nutrition knowledge improved significantly after only three education sessions and food diary feedback, but the mobile app did not improve learning further. However, the nutrition education intervention alone was not enough to change dietary intake.
  • Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Trolle, Ellen; Eneroth, Hanna; Fogelholm, Mikael; Ydersbond, Trond Arild; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    &ldquo;The Nordic diet&rdquo; is an umbrella term that encompasses any interpretation that combines Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) with local Nordic foods. The five Nordic countries have collaborated on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for forty years, including FBDGs, so their national guidelines are similar. The countries also share similar public health issues, including widespread nonconformity to the guidelines, although in different ways. The aim of this concept paper is to discuss environmental sustainability aspects of the Nordic diet, describe the status of and make suggestions for the inclusion of sustainability in future work on the Nordic diet. We exploit the sustainability&ndash;health synergy. A food intake more in line with the current FBDGs, which emphasises more plant-based and less animal-based foods, is necessary for high environmental sustainability. In turn, sustainability is an important motivator for health-promoting dietary shifts. Policy development requires long-term efforts. Since the Nordic diet can be considered a further development and improvement of old, traditional diets, there is huge potential to formulate a Nordic diet that benefits both human and planetary health. It is time for concerted engagement and actions&mdash;a new Nordic nutrition transition.
  • Suur-Uski, Johanna; Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mänty, Minna (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries with clear socioeconomic differences. Higher occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but with better survival from the disease, whereas lower occupational class is associated with higher risk of sickness absence. We are not aware of previous studies examining changes over time in occupational class differences in sickness absence due to breast cancer. This paper focuses on occupational class differences in the incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer over the period of 2005&ndash;2013. Age-adjusted occupational class differences in the cumulative incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer were calculated utilising a nationally representative 70% random sample of employed Finnish women aged 35&ndash;64 years (yearly N varying between 499,778 and 519,318). The results show that higher occupational class was associated with higher annual cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to breast cancer. Lower occupational class was associated with longer duration of absence. Occupational class differences in both cumulative incidence and duration of absence remained broadly stable. As a conclusion, these results suggest that measures should be targeted particularly to promotion of work capacity among employees with breast cancer in lower occupational classes.
  • Ahonen, Linda; Jäntti, Sirkku; Suvitaival, Tommi; Theilade, Simone; Risz, Claudia; Kostiainen, Risto; Rossing, Peter; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Several small molecule biomarkers have been reported in the literature for prediction and diagnosis of (pre)diabetes, its co-morbidities, and complications. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel, quantitative method for the determination of a selected panel of 34 metabolite biomarkers from human plasma. We selected a panel of metabolites indicative of various clinically-relevant pathogenic stages of diabetes. We combined these candidate biomarkers into a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and optimized it, prioritizing simplicity of sample preparation and time needed for analysis, enabling high-throughput analysis in clinical laboratory settings. We validated the method in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity (<i>R</i><sup>2</sup>), and intra- and inter-day repeatability of each metabolite. The method&rsquo;s performance was demonstrated in the analysis of selected samples from a diabetes cohort study. Metabolite levels were associated with clinical measurements and kidney complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Specifically, both amino acids and amino acid-related analytes, as well as specific bile acids, were associated with macro-albuminuria. Additionally, specific bile acids were associated with glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medication, statin medication, and clinical lipid measurements. The developed analytical method is suitable for robust determination of selected plasma metabolites in the diabetes clinic.
  • Kangas, Annika; Räty, Minna; Korhonen, Kari T.; Vauhkonen, Jari; Packalen, Tuula (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Forest information is needed at global, national and local scales. This review aimed at providing insights of potential of national forest inventories (NFIs) as well as challenges they have to cater to those needs. Within NFIs, the authors address the methodological challenges introduced by the multitude of scales the forest data are needed, and the challenges in acknowledging the errors due to the measurements and models in addition to sampling errors. Between NFIs, the challenges related to the different harmonization tasks were reviewed. While a design-based approach is often considered more attractive than a model-based approach as it is guaranteed to provide unbiased results, the model-based approach is needed for downscaling the information to smaller scales and acknowledging the measurement and model errors. However, while a model-based inference is possible in small areas, the unknown random effects introduce biased estimators. The NFIs need to cater for the national information requirements and maintain the existing time series, while at the same time providing comparable information across the countries. In upscaling the NFI information to continental and global information needs, representative samples across the area are of utmost importance. Without representative data, the model-based approaches enable provision of forest information with unknown and indeterminable biases. Both design-based and model-based approaches need to be applied to cater to all information needs. This must be accomplished in a comprehensive way In particular, a need to have standardized quality requirements has been identified, acknowledging the possibility for bias and its implications, for all data used in policy making.
  • Bonet, José; Lusky, Wolfgang; Taskinen, Jari (2019)
    We consider the classical Cauchy problem for the linear heat equation and integrable initial data in the Euclidean space $${\mathbb {R}}^N$$RN. We show that given a weighted $$L^p$$Lp-space $$L_w^p({\mathbb {R}}^N)$$Lwp(RN)with $$1 \le p <\infty $$1≤p 0$$nm>0such that, if the initial data f belong to the closed linear space of $$e_n$$enwith $$n \ge n_m$$n≥nm, then the decay rate of the solution of the heat equation is at least $$t^{-m}$$t-m. Such a basis can be constructed as a perturbation of any given Schauder basis. The proof is based on a construction of a basis of $$L_w^p( {\mathbb {R}}^N)$$Lwp(RN), which annihilates an infinite sequence of bounded functionals.
  • Bonabi, Ashkan; Tähkä, Sari; Ollikainen, Elisa; Jokinen, Ville; Sikanen, Tiina (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Organically modified ceramic polymers (ORMOCERs) have attracted substantial interest in biomicrofluidic applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and high optical transparency even in the near-ultraviolet (UV) range. However, the processes for metallization of ORMOCERs as well as for sealing of metallized surfaces have not been fully developed. In this study, we developed metallization processes for a commercial ORMOCER formulation, Ormocomp, covering several commonly used metals, including aluminum, silver, gold, and platinum. The obtained metallizations were systematically characterized with respect to adhesion (with and without adhesion layers), resistivity, and stability during use (in electrochemical assays). In addition to metal adhesion, the possibility for Ormocomp bonding over each metal as well as sufficient step coverage to guarantee conductivity over topographical features (e.g., over microchannel edges) was addressed with a view to the implementation of not only planar, but also three-dimensional on-chip sensing elements. The feasibility of the developed metallization for implementation of microfluidic electrochemical assays was demonstrated by fabricating an electrophoresis separation chip, compatible with a commercial bipotentiostat, and incorporating integrated working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes for amperometric detection of an electrochemically active pharmaceutical, acetaminophen.
  • Juurikka, Krista; Butler, Georgina S.; Salo, Tuula; Nyberg, Pia; Åström, Pirjo (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have traditionally been considered as tumor promoting enzymes as they degrade extracellular matrix components, thus increasing the invasion of cancer cells. It has become evident, however, that MMPs can also cleave and alter the function of various non-matrix bioactive molecules, leading to both tumor promoting and suppressive effects. We applied systematic review guidelines to study MMP8 in cancer including the use of MMP8 as a prognostic factor or as a target/anti-target in cancer treatment, and its molecular mechanisms. A total of 171 articles met the inclusion criteria. The collective evidence reveals that in breast, skin and oral tongue cancer, MMP8 inhibits cancer cell invasion and proliferation, and protects patients from metastasis via cleavage of non-structural substrates. Conversely, in liver and gastric cancers, high levels of MMP8 worsen the prognosis. Expression and genetic alterations of MMP8 can be used as a prognostic factor by examination of the tumor and serum/plasma. We conclude, that MMP8 has differing effects on cancers depending on their tissue of origin. The use of MMP8 as a prognostic factor alone, or with other factors, seems to have potential. The molecular mechanisms of MMP8 in cancer further emphasize its role as an important regulator of bioactive molecules.
  • Kleemola, Katri; Hyytinen, Heidi (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    As Finnish university admissions are reformed, more information is needed on the relationship between performance in prior education and later academic achievement. Transition to university is a critical period, and low performance in prior education is associated with challenges in later study. In the present study, law students&rsquo; (n = 426) performance in the National Matriculation Examination was investigated in relation to later academic achievement at university. Quantitative methods were used. Findings showed that prior performance was not only associated with study success but also with study progress. The results also showed that law students who had grades in the advanced mathematics course were faster and more successful at university. This work contributes to the existing knowledge of university admissions ahead of the Finnish reform by providing new insights into prior performance and how it is related to academic achievement at university.
  • Inglis, David; Thorpe, Chris (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    In Fellini-Roma (1972), the film director Federico Fellini includes a sequence about an imaginary ecclesiastical fashion show, a display of ever more outlandish clerical clothing designs. Fellini brought together various elements that, in conventional cultural coding, do not seem to fit together: secular fashion design and catwalks, and Catholic practice and ceremonial. The sequence juxtaposes and intermingles these apparent incompatibles. Surprisingly little scholarly attention has been paid to the nature and significance of this sequence. Yet it is complex, being simultaneously satirical and empathetic, as well as camp and carnivalesque. The paper reaches back in time, reviewing the history of Catholic vestments, to show that the sequence also dramatizes the fact that sartorial fashion and Church garb have overlapped and informed each other historically. The appeal of the sequence for various types of audience has been enhanced in the internet age, and the paper considers how it has become an increasingly ubiquitous reference-point for the fashion industry, bloggers, and cultural critics, especially when the latter want to thematize controversies about male homosexuality in the Church today. Fellini&rsquo;s presentation of catwalk Catholicism is both a rich object of scholarship, and a multivalent vehicle used by actors for various contemporary purposes.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Saleh, Shatha Suleiman Ali; dos Santos, Vanessa N.; Boor, Brandon E.; Koivisto, Antti J.; Löndahl, Jakob (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 10<sup>10</sup>–10<sup>11</sup> particles/h (10<sup>1</sup>–10<sup>2</sup> µg/h). The PM<sub>10</sub> dose rate was 49–439 µg/h for males and 36–381 µg/h for females. While resting, the PM<sub>10</sub> deposited in the head airways was 67–77% and 8–12% in the tracheobronchial region. When exercising, the head airways received 37–44% of the PM<sub>10</sub>, whereas the tracheobronchial region received 31–35%. About 8% (exercise) and 14–16% (rest) of the PM<sub>2.5</sub> was received in the head airways, whereas the alveolar received 74–76% (exercise) and 54–62% (rest). Extending the results for common exposure scenarios in the city revealed alarming results for service workers and police officers; they might receive PM2.5 and 220 µg/h PM<sub>10</sub> while doing their duty on main roads adjacent to traffic. This is especially critical for a pregnant police officer. Outdoor athletic activities (e.g., jogging along main roads) are associated with high PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> dose rates (100 µg/h and ~425 µg/h, respectively).
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Omidi, Mansoor; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Mehrabi, Ali Ashraf; Poczai, Peter; Bayat, Hamid (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Wild relatives of wheat serve as an extraordinary source of variability for breeding programs due to their capabilities to respond to various environmental stresses. Here, we investigated some species possessing a D genome (<i>T. aestivum</i>, <i>Ae. tauschii</i>, <i>Ae. crassa</i> and <i>Ae. cylindrica</i>) in terms of relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (<i>Gs</i>), relative chlorophyll content, initial fluorescence (<i>Fo</i>), maximum quantum yield of PSII (<i>Fv</i>/<i>Fm</i>), maximum primary yield of PSII photochemistry (<i>Fv</i>/<i>Fo</i>), as well as shoot fresh and dry biomasses under control and water deficit conditions. Our results revealed that water deficit negatively affected all traits; shoot fresh weight, <i>Gs</i> and RWC showed the highest reduction compared to the control condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified two PCs that accounted for 53.36% of the total variation in the water deficit conditions. Correlation analysis and PCA-based biplots showed that stress tolerance index (STI) is significantly associated with <i>Fv</i>/<i>Fm</i> and <i>Fv</i>/<i>Fo</i> under water stress conditions, suggesting that these are the best parameters to evaluate when screening for tolerant samples at the seedling stage. We identified 19 accessions from <i>Ae. crassa</i> and one from <i>Ae. tauschii</i> as the most tolerant samples. In conclusion, <i>Ae. crassa</i> might provide an ideal genetic resource for drought-tolerant wheat breeds.
  • Pärnänen, Pirjo; Nikula-Ijäs, Pirjo; Sorsa, Timo (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019)
    Fermented lingonberry juice was designed to be used as a mouthwash. Our aim was to study the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of the mouthwash in the oral cavity. A clinical study of 30 adult participants was performed. A total of 20 participants used 10 mL of the mouthwash twice daily for two weeks and 10 participants used 20 mL twice daily for one week. <i>Streptococcus mutans</i>, <i>Candida</i> and <i>Lactobacilli</i> were cultivated at the beginning, after the mouthwash period and after a washout period. At the same timepoints an additional oral mouthrinse was collected for chair-side/point-of-care (POC)-PerioSafe<sup>&reg;</sup>/OraLyzer<sup>&reg;</sup> aMMP-8 quantitative on-line evaluation, and an oral clinical investigation was performed. Mean <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> and <i>Candida</i> counts, visible plaque index (VPI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were reduced, and <i>Lactobacilli</i> counts increased during the lingonberry mouthwash period. The aMMP-8 mouthrinses showed reduced values in both test groups when compared to the startpoint. The mouthrinse aMMP-8 reduction correlated with the reductions in microbial counts, VPI and BOP. Based on the results, fermented lingonberry juice seems a promising aid in oral homecare, diminishing the microbial and related proinflammatory burden by balancing the oral microbial flora and gradually lowering the inflammatory load in the oral cavity.
  • Juhola, Tytti; Henry, Amanda G.; Kirkinen, Tuija; Laakkonen, Juha; Väliranta, Minna (2019)
    Our understanding of subsistence strategies, resources and lifeways of Finnish Iron Age populations remains incomplete despite archaeological, osteological, macrobotanical, and palynological investigations. This is due in part to poor preservation of organic macroremains in the acidic boreal sediments. To address this problem, here we present the first data from microscopic remains preserved in prehistoric dental calculus from Finland. We extracted and analysed both plant and animal microremains from human calculus and burial site sediment samples, originating from Luistari cemetery in southwestern Finland (samples from c. 600–1200 calAD). We recovered phytoliths, parasites, fibers and feathers. While in Finland few previous archaeological studies have investigated phytoliths, our study confirms the importance of these microremains for interpretating dietary patterns. It is also the first time that intestinal parasites have been reported in Finland. Our study demonstrates that, especially when working with acidic sediments typical for boreal environments, microremain studies can considerably increase the information value of archaeological samples, and that dental calculus and phytolith analysis are important new methods in the research of prehistorical lifestyles. This combined microremain analysis should be more broadly applied in contexts where other dietary records do not remain.
  • Nevalainen, Maisa Katariina; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Helle, Inari (2019)
    Risk of an Arctic oil spill has become a global matter of concern. Climate change induced opening of shipping routes increases the Arctic maritime traffic which exposes the area to negative impacts of potential maritime accidents. Still, quantitative analyses of the likely environmental impacts of such accidents are scarce, and our understanding of the uncertainties related to both accidents and their consequences is poor. There is an obvious need for analysis tools that allow us to systematically analyze the impacts of oil spills on Arctic species, so the risks can be taken into account when new sea routes or previously unexploited oil reserves are utilized. In this paper, an index‐based approach is developed to study exposure potential (described via probability of becoming exposed to spilled oil) and sensitivity (described via oil‐induced mortality and recovery) of Arctic biota in the face of an oil spill. First, a conceptual model presenting the relevant variables that contribute to exposure potential and sensitivity of key Arctic marine functional groups was built. Second, based on an extensive literature review, a probabilistic estimate was assigned for each variable, and the variables were combined to an index representing the overall vulnerability of Arctic biota. The resulting index can be used to compare the relative risk between functional groups and accident scenarios. Results indicate that birds have the highest vulnerability to spilled oil, and seals and whales the lowest. Polar bears’ vulnerability varies greatly between seasons, while ice seals’ vulnerability remains the same in every accident scenario. Exposure potential of most groups depends strongly on type of oil, whereas their sensitivity contains less variation.

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