Articles

Recent Submissions

  • Abraham, Ibrahim (Dept. of Theology and Religion, University of Otago, 2014)
  • Hakala, Emma (Taylor & Francis, 2013)
  • Aula, Pekka; Laaksonen, Salla; Ravaja, Niklas; Salminen, Mikko; Falco, Alessio (Viestinnän tutkimuskeskus CRC, Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
  • Stok, Marijn; König, Laura; Nurmi, Johanna; Müller, Andre Matthias (European Health Psychology Society, 2015)
  • Korhonen, Anu (Transcript Verlag, 2015)
  • Nylund, Jan-Erik; Kröger, Markus (TAYLOR & FRANCIS A S, 2012)
    “Sustainability” is used as a catchword, with different meanings depending on the actor. This paper examines how the term “sustainability” is used by the Brazilian pulp maker Veracel Cellulose, and other major cellulose pulp producers in South America, and the cleavage between the companies and the local communities in their understanding of the term sustainability. The analysis was based on annual or sustainability reports from companies in Brazil (Aracruz, Fibria, Suzano and Veracel) and Chile (Arauco and CPMC), and Nordic Stora Enso and UPM. The main emphasis is on Veracel for 2008 and 2009, which is contrasted with a letter to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) from the local Bahian NGO, CEPEDES. Although the companies use “sustainability” as a catchword, in the actual reporting the wording “environmental and social responsibility” is preferred. A new reporting standard, GRI, encourages a narrower focus on selected business-related indicators, rather than a broader view in accordance with the Brundtland and Rio definitions. The cleavage between business- and a livelihood-oriented understanding of “sustainability” reflects a difference in understanding of the underlying concept of “development”. To ensure long-term sustainability of company operations, sustainable business development of the pulp and paper industry should include local livelihood perspectives to a greater extent than at present.
  • Kröger, Markus; Nylund, Jan-Erik (ELSEVIER BV, 2011)
    The large-scale pulp investment model, with its pressure on land, has created conflict and caused major disagreements and open hostility amongst the social movement and NGO networks, state actors, and the pulp and paper companies in Brazil. In this article, Ethical Analysis was applied in the assessment of the dynamics and possibilities of conflict resolution related to the expansion of pulpwood plantations in Brazil's Bahia State, particularly near Veracel Celulose. Ethical Analysis as a tool identifies the complex dynamics of contention through identifying bridges and rifts in the social, ecological and economic viewpoints of the main actors. The analysis was based on field research, interviews, and a review of existing literature. The results indicated that the conflict is marked by politics of power, and as long as this stage continues, the politics of cooperation and conflict resolution would be hard to achieve. The key actors have diverging interests, values and principles, and different ways of presenting their viewpoints. The current investment context is economically and institutionally peripheral and socially weak. Without a radical rethinking and emphasis on ethical and structural reworking of the investment model, the conflict will likely continue to deepen, aggravating investment risk for large-scale business and industrial forestry.
  • Kröger, Markus (ROUTLEDGE, 2011)
    The recent scholarship on social movement outcomes has called for explanations about how movements influence economic outcomes. This article demonstrates in practice how a dynamic and relational approach, coupled with a Bourdieuian analysis of social, symbolic, and territorial space, can be utilized in explaining the influence of movements in contentious politics around investment projects. Based on participant observation and comparison across the Brazilian Landless Movement (MST) groups in areas of paper industry expansion, I assess the different movement strategies and their influence on pulp project outcomes. I reinterpret the ideal ‘MST model’ as constructed by specific strategies promoting contentious agency: organizing and politicizing, campaigning by heterodox framing, protesting, networking, and embedded autonomy vis-a-vis the state. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis comparing the expansion of 13 pulp holdings between 2004–2008 shows how these strategies influence investment pace. When both contentious and conventional strategies were used, movements managed to slow pulpwood plantation expansion.
  • Kröger, Markus (Suomen rauhantutkimusyhdistys, 2007)
    English abstract: The pulp investment conflict of Argentina and Uruguay as a Latin American land and forest dispute
  • Kröger, Markus (WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD., 2012)
    The recent expansion of tree plantations is the most important agrarian change in many parts of Brazil. This article uses the results of extensive field research to analyse the different ways paper and pulp companies assure their land base for eucalyptus plantations. The mechanisms of land access have changed little over the decades, amounting to a process of primitive accumulation which seems to be controlled by the ways the pulp industry influences land markets and prices, the strength of any resistance, and particularly the government support enjoyed by industry. Many paper and steel companies, either directly or indirectly, are increasingly relying on eucalyptus plantations, with negative impacts in many places. The expansion of tree monocultures with rural exclusion is characteristic of the wider phenomenon of land grab which is driven by the dominating financial logic of current capitalism.
  • Kröger, Markus (ELSEVIER BV, 2013)
    In November 2013, Suzano Papel e Celulose, a Brazilian paper company, is projected to inaugurate the world's largest pulp mill in Imperatriz in the remote state of Maranhão, Eastern Amazon. This investment will further consolidate Brazil's position as the leading exporter of wood-pulp coming from vast, corporate-controlled industrial plantations. These inland forestry investments are a feature of the second wave of large pulp projects, extending inland from the best lands in the coastal belt via accessible rivers and railroad networks. This globally significant inland expansion has been poorly studied, if at all. No publications exist on this Suzano pulp project. Empirically, this article provides a baseline study on the political economic dynamics. The case is highly relevant for conflict theory. Generally, industrial tree plantation expansion has boosted grievances, but the resistance and conflicts have varied depending on the social actors' agency. In comparison to the high-intensity conflicts between the rural social movements such as the Brazilian Landless Movement (MST) and the pulp companies in most other new investments, there has been a rare absence of conflict in this case, as no movement has seized on local grievances. Conflicts cannot be studied in-depth by focusing only on conflict cases. Absence-cases open up an opportunity to revisit the question why conflicts arise. An analysis of this case allows an empirically rooted theoretical discussion on conflict causalities, which can answer several vexing questions in the study of conflicts. A new and generally applicable typology of different types of grievances is offered, and the grievances' causal relation to conflicts is examined. The importance of political dynamics and inter-personal relations in investment conflicts is emphasized. The way culture influences conflict dynamics is pondered upon by ethnography of the Brazilian conflict culture, where personal relations are more relevant in explaining conflict escalation than in the political systems with a stronger (impersonal) rule of law. The role of third parties such as other industries in the investment area is discussed. A qualitative comparative analysis of the major pulp project conflicts and their causes in Latin America is offered. Mobilization and thus conflict causality is explainable only when taking into account the types of grievances and the local, inter-personal, and organizational (state–business–movement) relations by which these are remediated and negotiated.
  • Kröger, Markus (ROUTLEDGE, 2013)
    The article presents the findings of a long-term incorporated comparison of forestry capitalism's globalization process. Primary data was collected by participant observation in pulp investment areas in Brazil between 2004 and 2011 and semi-structured interviews with key industry personnel, particularly in Finland. It is argued that the key cyclic change in industrial forestry from innovation–capitalization to material–territorial accumulation explains why and how the industry has globalized to the south via industrial tree plantations. The interlinked northern (Finnish) and southern (Brazilian) cases reveal that industry trajectories are influenced by who controls the supply chains of commodities. The findings are relevant for theorizing about the globalization of natural resource exploitation sectors. Changes in agrarian political economies and agency of state, business, and social movement actors—that is, socio-ecological relations and landscapes—help to explain how and why national and global capitalism and its developmental–environmental impacts are transformed.
  • Kröger, Markus (ROUTLEDGE, 2014)