Articles

Recent Submissions

  • Ribeiro, Sofia; Sejr, Mikael K.; Limoges, Audrey; Heikkila, Maija; Andersen, Thorbjorn Joest; Tallberg, Petra; Weckstrom, Kaarina; Husum, Katrine; Forwick, Matthias; Dalsgaard, Tage; Masse, Guillaume; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Rysgaard, Soren (Springer, 2017)
    In order to establish a baseline for proxy-based reconstructions for the Young Sound-Tyrolerfjord system (Northeast Greenland), we analysed the spatial distribution of primary production and sea ice proxies in surface sediments from the fjord, against monitoring data from the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring Programme. Clear spatial gradients in organic carbon and biogenic silica contents reflected marine influence, nutrient availability and river-induced turbidity, in good agreement with in situ measurements. The sea ice proxy IP25 was detected at all sites but at low concentrations, indicating that IP25 records from fjords need to be carefully considered and not directly compared to marine settings. The sea ice-associated biomarker HBI III revealed an open-water signature, with highest concentrations near the mid-July ice edge. This proxy evaluation is an important step towards reliable palaeoenvironmental reconstructions that will, ultimately, contribute to better predictions for this High Arctic ecosystem in a warming climate.
  • Holopainen, Saila; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Syrja, Pernilla; Arumilli, Meharji; Jarvinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rajamaki, Minna; Lohi, Hannes (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2017)
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of death in critical care medicine. The syndrome is typified by an exaggerated inflammatory response within the lungs. ARDS has been reported in many species, including dogs. We have previously reported a fatal familial juvenile respiratory disease accompanied by occasional unilateral renal aplasia and hydrocephalus, in Dalmatian dogs. The condition with a suggested recessive mode of inheritance resembles acute exacerbation of usual interstitial pneumonia in man. We combined SNP-based homozygosity mapping of two ARDS-affected Dalmatian dogs and whole genome sequencing of one affected dog to identify a case-specific homozygous nonsense variant, c.31C>T; p.R11* in the ANLN gene. Subsequent analysis of the variant in a total cohort of 188 Dalmatians, including seven cases, indicated complete segregation of the variant with the disease and confirmed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Low carrier frequency of 1.7% was observed in a population cohort. The early nonsense variant results in a nearly complete truncation of the ANLN protein and immunohistochemical analysis of the affected lung tissue demonstrated the lack of the membranous and cytoplasmic staining of ANLN protein in the metaplastic bronchial epithelium. The ANLN gene encodes an anillin actin binding protein with a suggested regulatory role in the integrity of intercellular junctions. Our study suggests that defective ANLN results in abnormal cellular organization of the bronchiolar epithelium, which in turn predisposes to acute respiratory distress. ANLN has been previously linked to a dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in human without pulmonary defects. However, the lack of similar renal manifestations in the affected Dalmatians suggest a novel ANLN-related pulmonary function and disease association.
  • Peura-Kapanen, Liisa Hannele; Jallinoja, Piia Tuuli; Kaarakainen, Minna Susanna (SAGE, 2017)
    Independent living in their own home is currently an ideal shared by many older people. However, weakening physical strength and illness are often associated with nutritional risks. Convenience food is one option to ensure that nutritional needs are met, but convenience food itself and its packaging face negative attitudes. This article analyzes the factors connected to acceptability of and obstacles to using convenience food among older people in Finland. The analysis was done by using three sets of data gathered using a qualitative research method for examining how older people relate to convenience food and food packaging. The methods used were empathy-based stories (2011 n = 114) and two rounds of focus group discussions (2012 n = 22, 2014 n = 32). By and large, the study participants associated negative meanings with convenience food. Some saw convenience food as an easy solution in certain situations. Our study showed that elderly individuals valued healthiness of food, freedom of choice, and right of self-determination in eating. Acceptability of convenience food requires an availability of meals matching taste preferences and sensory capabilities. Moreover, healthiness of food and easy-to-use and environmentally friendly packaging were valued by many interviewees.
  • Sundell, Taavi Kalevi; Teivainen, Teivo Lauri (World Economics Association, 2017)
    Privatization is often used as a self-evident concept, overlapping with corporatization, marketization, commodification and neoliberalization. Our analysis, focusing on changes in the legal status and decisionmaking procedures at the University of Helsinki, explores the fuzzy nature of privatization. One of our claims is that the fuzziness helped prevent efficient resistance and therefore also enabled less democratic forms of governance. We will explore the ambiguous nature of the privatization process. We will analyze argumentative strategies about the reforms, focusing on explicit and implicit references to the processes of privatization and corporatization. The role of fuzziness became less important once privatization had taken crucial steps. At that moment, the argument that in some important sense the university had become part of the sphere of private economy became a justification for transforming the decision-making system of the university. References to the university being increasingly private, financially autonomous, and economically responsible become justificatory tools for dismantling democratic elements of the university’s decision-making system. We will also analy
  • Demina, Tatiana; Pietilä, Maija Kaarina; Svirskaite, Julija; Ravantti, Janne Juhani; Atanasova, Nina Sofia; Bamford, Dennis Henry; Oksanen, Hanna Maarit (MDPI AG, 2017)
    Members of the virus family Sphaerolipoviridae include both archaeal viruses and bacteriophages that possess a tailless icosahedral capsid with an internal membrane. The genera Alpha-and Betasphaerolipovirus comprise viruses that infect halophilic euryarchaea, whereas viruses of thermophilic Thermus bacteria belong to the genus Gammasphaerolipovirus. Both sequence-based and structural clustering of the major capsid proteins and ATPases of sphaerolipoviruses yield three distinct clades corresponding to these three genera. Conserved virion architectural principles observed in sphaerolipoviruses suggest that these viruses belong to the PRD1-adenovirus structural lineage. Here we focus on archaeal alphasphaerolipoviruses and their related putative proviruses. The highest sequence similarities among alphasphaerolipoviruses are observed in the core structural elements of their virions: the two major capsid proteins, the major membrane protein, and a putative packaging ATPase. A recently described tailless icosahedral haloarchaeal virus, Haloarcula californiae icosahedral virus 1 (HCIV-1), has a double-stranded DNA genome and an internal membrane lining the capsid. HCIV-1 shares significant similarities with the other tailless icosahedral internal membrane-containing haloarchaeal viruses of the family Sphaerolipoviridae. The proposal to include a new virus species, Haloarcula virus HCIV1, into the genus Alphasphaerolipovirus was submitted to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 2016.
  • Ramage, Thibault; Martins-Simoes, Patricia; Mialdea, Gladys; Allemand, Roland; Duplouy, Anne; Rousse, Pascal; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K.; Charlat, Sylvain (Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, 2017)
    We report here on the taxonomic and molecular diversity of 10 929 terrestrial arthropod specimens, collected on four islands of the Society Archipelago, French Polynesia. The survey was part of the 'SymbioCode Project' that aims to establish the Society Islands as a natural laboratory in which to investigate the flux of bacterial symbionts (e.g., Wolbachia) and other genetic material among branches of the arthropod tree. The sample includes an estimated 1127 species, of which 1098 included at least one DNA-barcoded specimen and 29 were identified to species level using morphological traits only. Species counts based on molecular data emphasize that some groups have been understudied in this region and deserve more focused taxonomic effort, notably Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Some taxa that were also subjected to morphological scrutiny reveal a consistent match between DNA and morphology-based species boundaries in 90% of the cases, with a larger than expected genetic diversity in the remaining 10%. Many species from this sample are new to this region or are undescribed. Some are under description, but many await inspection by motivated experts, who can use the online images or request access to ethanol-stored specimens.
  • Ylöstalo, Pasi; Seppälä, Jukka; Kaitala, Seppo; Maunula, Petri; Simis, Stefan (Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co, 2016)
    We studied the loadings of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nutrients from the Neva River into the Eastern Gulf of Finland, as well as their distribution within the salinity gradient. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 390 to 840 mu M, and were related to absorption of colored DOM (CDOM) at 350 nm, a(CDOM)(350), ranging from 2.70 to 17.8 m(-1). With increasing salinity both DOC and a(CDOM) decreased, whereas the slope of a(CDOM) spectra, S-CDOM(300-700), ranging from 14.3 to 21.2 mu m(-1), increased with salinity. Deviations of these properties from conservative mixing models were occasionally observed within the salinity range of approximately 1-4, corresponding to the region between 27 and 29 degrees E. These patterns are suggested to mostly reflect seasonal changes in properties of river end-member and hydrodynamics of the estuary, rather than non-conservative processes. On the other hand, observed nonlinear relationships observed between a(CDOM)*(350) and S-CDOM(275-295) emphasized the importance of photochemistry among various transformation processes of DOM. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen was effectively transformed in the estuary into particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), of which DON was mostly exported from the estuary, enhancing productivity in nitrogen limited parts of the Gulf of Finland. DON concentrations ranged from 12.4 to 23.5 mu M and its estuarine dynamics were clearly uncoupled from DOC. In contrast to DOC, estuarine DON dynamics suggest that its production exceeds losses in the estuary. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) loadings from the Neva River and St. Petersburg were estimated as 73.5 Gg N yr(-1) and 4.2 Gg P yr(-1), respectively. Approximately 59% of TN and 53% of TP loads were in organic forms. DOC and DON loadings were estimated as 741.4 Gg C yr(-1) and 19.0 Gg N yr(-1), respectively. Our estimate for DOC loading was evaluated against a previously published carbon budget of the Baltic Sea. According to the updated model, the Baltic Sea could be identified as a weak source of carbon into the atmosphere. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hietanen, Lenita; Ruismäki, Heikki (C-crcs´publication, 2017)
  • Jokela, Niko; Järvelä, Jarkko; Ramallo, Alfonso V. (Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co, 2017)
    We study generic types of holographic matter residing in Lifshitz invariant defect field theory as modeled by adding probe D-branes in the bulk black hole spacetime characterized by dynamical exponent z and with hyperscaling violation exponent theta. Our main focus will be on the collective excitations of the dense matter in the presence of an external magnetic field. Constraining the defect field theory to 2 + 1 dimensions, we will also allow the gauge fields become dynamical and study the properties of a strongly coupled anyonic fluid. We will deduce the universal properties of holographic matter and show that the Einstein relation always holds. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Brauner, Tomas; Tenkanen, Tuomas V. I.; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi; Weir, David J. (Springer, 2017)
    We derive an effective dimensionally reduced theory for the Standard Model augmented by a real singlet scalar. We treat the singlet as a superheavy field and integrate it out, leaving an effective theory involving only the Higgs and SU(2)(L) x U(1)(y) gauge fields, identical to the one studied previously for the Standard Model. This opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the order and strength of the electroweak phase transition, numerically and nonperturbatively, in this extension of the Standard Model. Understanding the phase diagram is crucial for models of electroweak baryogenesis and for studying the production of gravitational waves at thermal phase transitions.
  • Zhou, Derong; Li, Bing; Huang, Xin; Virkkula, Aki; Wu, Haisuo; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Feng; Yuan, Siyu; Qiao, Yuezhen; Shen, Guofeng; Ding, Aijun (TAIWAN ASSOC AEROSOL RES-TAAR, 2017)
    Highly time-resolved measurements of water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon concentrations in the particle diameter size range D-p <2.5 mu m (PM2.5) were performed at a downwind urban site in Nanjing in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG). In this study, we discuss the impacts of emission control in Nanjing and the surrounding areas during the YOG and regional/long-range transport on PM2.5 pollution in Nanjing. The average concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were 12.1 +/- 9.9, 16.5 +/- 9.2, 9.0 +/- 5.4 mu g m(-3) during the YOG, and increased 34.3%, 53.7%, 43.9% after the YOG, respectively. The control of construction or on-road soil dust and control of industry led to the decrease of Ca2+ concentration by 55% and SO2 concentration by 46%. However, SO42- concentrations remained at relatively high levels, suggesting a significant impact of regional pollution to secondary fine particles in Nanjing. Strong correlations between OC and EC were observed during and after the YOG. A higher percentage (41%) of secondary organic carbon in Nanjing during the YOG periods was consistent with high potential photochemistry and low contributions from coal combustion. Lagrangian dispersion modelling results proved that the city clusters along the Nanjing and Shanghai axis were the major source region for high PM2.5 pollution in upwind Nanjing. This work shows that short-term strict control measures could improve the air quality, especially that affected by the primary pollutants; however, regional collaborative control strategy across administrative borders in the YRD is needed for a substantial improvement of air quality.
  • Di Chiara, Stefano; Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo (Springer, 2017)
    We consider a model where the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by strong dynamics, resulting in an electroweak doublet scalar condensate, and transmitted to the standard model matter fields via another electroweak doublet scalar. At low energies the effective theory therefore shares features with a type-I two Higgs doublet model. However, important differences arise due to the rich composite spectrum expected to contain new vector resonances accessible at the LHC. We carry out a systematic analysis of the vector resonance signals at LHC and find that the model remains viable, but will be tightly constrained by direct searches as the projected integrated luminosity, around 200 fb(-1), of the current run becomes available.
  • Kervinen, Anttoni (LUMA Centre Finland, 2017)
    Luonnontieteen opetuksen tutkimuksessa on viime vuosikymmeninä havaittu, että luonnontieteellisen tutkimuksen käytäntöjen soveltaminen opetuksessa edistää oppilaiden kiinnostusta luonnontieteitä kohtaan, luonnontieteellisen ja kriittisen ajattelun kehittymistä sekä ilmiöiden oppimista. Myös suomalaisissa uusissa opetussuunnitelmien perusteissa ohjataan entistä voimakkaammin pienten tutkimusten tekemiseen. Viime vuosina kansainvälisessä kirjallisuudessa tutkimisen pedagogisia tavoitteita on jäsennetty puhumalla luonnontieteellisistä käytännöistä opetuksessa. Tässä artikkelissa esitellään kaksi pientä tutkimusta ja kuvataan niiden soveltamista opetuksessa luonnontieteellisten käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Artikkelissa esitellyt tutkimukset ovat osa LUMA-Suomi-ohjelmaan ja Koulutuksesta kouluun -hankkeeseen kuuluvassa LumaLähetit-hankkeessa kehitettyjä opetusjaksoja.
  • Suominen, Anna L; Helminen, Sari; Lahti, Satu; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Knuuttila, Matti; Varsio, Sinikka; Nordblad, Anne (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background During the 2000s, two major legislative reforms concerning oral health care have been implemented in Finland. One entitled the whole population to subsidized care and the other regulated the timeframes of access to care. Our aim was, in a cross-sectional setting, to assess changes in and determinants of use of oral health care services before the first reform in 2000 and after both reforms in 2011. Methods The data were part of the nationally representative Health 2000 and 2011 Surveys of adults aged ≥ 30 years and were gathered by interviews and questionnaires. The outcome was the use of oral health care services during the previous year. Determinants of use among the dentate were grouped according to Andersen’s model: predisposing (sex, age group), enabling (education, recall, dental fear, habitual use of services, household income, barriers of access to care), and need (perceived need, self-rated oral health, denture status). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were used for statistical evaluation. Results No major changes or only a minor increase in overall use of oral health care services was seen between the study years. An exception were those belonging to oldest age group who clearly increased their use of services. Also, a significant increase in visiting a public sector dentist was observed, particularly in the age groups that became entitled to subsidized care in 2000. In the private sector, use of services decreased in younger age groups. Determinants for visiting a dentist, regardless of the service sector, remained relatively stable. Being a regular dental visitor was the most significant determinant for having visited a dentist during the previous year. Enabling factors, both organizational and individual, were emphasized. They seemed to enable service utilization particularly in the private sector. Conclusions Overall changes in the use of oral health care services were relatively small, but in line with the goals set for the reform. Older persons increased use of services in both sectors, implying growing need. Differences between public and private sectors persisted, and recall, costs of care and socioeconomic factors steered choices between the sectors, sustaining inequity in access to care.
  • Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Pihlatie, Mari; Launiainen, Samuli; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Heinonsalo, Jussi (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2017)
    Alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in the boreal forest atmosphere. To better understand the behavior and sources of two alkylamines, dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA), we estimated the magnitudes of soil-atmosphere fluxes of DMA and DEA using a gradient-diffusion approximation based on measured concentrations in soil solution and in the canopy air space. The ambient air concentration of DMA used in this study was a sum of DMA and ethylamine. To compute the amine fluxes, we first estimated the soil air space concentration from the measured soil solution amine concentration using soil physical (temperature, soil water content) and chemical (pH) state variables. Then, we used the resistance analogy to account for gas transport mechanisms in the soil, soil boundary layer, and canopy air space. The resulting flux estimates revealed that the boreal forest soil with a typical long-term mean pH 5.3 is a possible source of DMA (170 +/- 51 nmolm(-2) day(-1)) and a sink of DEA (-1.2 +/- 1.2 nmolm(-2) day(-1)). We also investigated the potential role of fungi as a reservoir for alkylamines in boreal forest soil. We found high DMA and DEA concentrations both in fungal hyphae collected from field humus samples and in fungal pure cultures. The highest DMA and DEA concentrations were found in fungal strains belonging to decay and ectomycorrhizal fungal groups, indicating that boreal forest soil and, in particular, fungal biomass may be important reservoirs for these alkylamines.