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  • Stenroos, Antti J; Handolin, Lauri E (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Selkäinaho, J.; Puttonen, P. (Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board, 1983)
  • Khriachtchev, Leonid; Lundell, Jan; Pettersson, Mika; Tanskanen, Hanna; Räsänen, Markku (American Institute of Physics, 2002)
  • Fischer, Johannes; Mäkinen, Veli; Navarro, Gonzalo (Springer-Verlag, 2008)
    Suffix trees are one of the most important data structures in stringology, with myriads of applications in fluorishing areas like bioinformatics. As their main problem is space usage, recent efforts have focused on compressed suffix tree representations, which obtain large space reductions in exchange for moderate slowdowns. Such a smaller suffix tree could fit in a faster memory, outweighting by far the theoretical slowdown. We present a novel compressed suffix tree. Compared to the current compressed suffix trees, it is the first achieving at the same time sublogarithmic complexity for the operations, and space usage which goes to zero as the entropy of the text does. Our development contains several novel ideas, such as compressing the longest common prefix information, and totally getting rid of the suffix tree topology, expressing all the suffix tree operations using range minimum queries and a new primitive called next/previous smaller value in a sequence.
  • Lyytikäinen, O.; Autio, T.; Maijala, R.; Ruutu, P.; Honkanen-Buzalski, T.; Miettinen, M.; Hatakka, M.; Mikkola, J.; Anttila, V.-J.; Johansson, T.; Rantala, L.; Aalto, T.; Korkeala, H.; Siitonen, A. (University of Chicago Press, 2000)
    In February 1999, an outbreak of listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a occurred in Finland. All isolates were identical. The outbreak strain was first isolated in 1997 in dairy butter. This dairy began delivery to a tertiary care hospital (TCH) in June 1998. From June 1998 to April 1999, 25 case patients were identified (20 with sepsis, 4 with meningitis, and 1 with abscess; 6 patients died). Patients with the outbreak strain were more likely to have been admitted to the TCH than were patients with other strains of L. monocytogenes (60% vs. 8%; odds ratio, 17.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.8136.8). Case patients admitted to the TCH had been hospitalized longer before cultures tested positive than had matched controls (median, 31 vs. 10 days; P = .008). An investigation found the outbreak strain in packaged butter served at the TCH and at the source dairy. Recall of the product ended the outbreak.
  • Nevas, M.; Korhonen, A.-R.; Lindström, M.; Turkki, P.; Korkeala, H. (International Association for Food Protection, 2004)
  • Väänänen, Minna; Airaksinen, Marja (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
    Viime aikoina on käyty runsaasti keskustelua Suomen apteekkijärjestelmää koskevista uudistusehdotuksista, kuten itsehoitolaakkeiden siirtämisestä paivittaistavarakauppoihin ja apteekkimaksun poistosta. Toteutuessaan uudistukset johtaisivat suuriin periaatteellisiin muutoksiin apteekkien toiminnan lähtökohdissa ja vaarantaisivat ammatillisuuden apteekkipalveluissa. Euroopan Unionin sisällä ei ole yhtenevaa käytäntöä apteekkien toiminnan saantelyssä. Osaksi tästä johtuen apteekkitoiminta on erilaista eri jäsenmaissa. Espanjassa, kuten suurimmassa osassa muitakin Euroopan maita, lääkkeitä saa myydä ainoastaan apteekeista. Espanjalaiset apteekit eivät kuitenkaan ole samassa määrin sitoutuneet terveyspoliittisiin tavoitteisiin kuin suomalaiset apteekit. Tämä johtunee osin siitä, että apteekkeja on Espanjassa tiheämmässä kuin Suomessa, ja niiden perustaminen poikkeaa Suomen apteekkilupamenettelysta. Tämän katsauksen tavoitteena on kuvata espanjalaista apteekkitoimintaa ja verrata sitä Suomen apteekkien tämänhetkisiin toimintaperiaatteisiin. Espanjassa asuu talvikaudet vakituisesti kymmeniä tuhansia suomalaisia, joilla on kokemuksia seka Suomen että Espanjan apteekkipalveluista. Aineistona tässä katsauksessa on käytetty Espanjassa asuville suomalaisille vuonna 2002 tehtyä kyselytutkimusta (n=533), jossa selvitettiin vastaajien lääkkeiden käyttöä, terveydentilaa sekä kokemuksia paikallisista apteekeista. Lisäksi on hyödynnetty omakohtaisia kokemuksia espanjalaisessa apteekissa työskentelystä. Espanjalaisissa apteekeissa reseptilaakkeiden ja itsehoitolaakkeiden valinen raja on häilyvä, sillä suuressa osassa apteekeista reseptilaakkeiden myyminen itsehoitolääkkeiden tapaan on yleinen käytäntö. Osasyynä tähän on apteekkien välinen kova kilpailu. Kilpailusta johtuen osa apteekeista on menettämässä statuksensa ammattitaitoisina, luotettavina ja puolueettomina lääkejakelijoina. Vaikka apteekkien toimintaperiaatteet eroavat Suomessa ja Espanjassa, koskettavat Euroopan Unionin yhteiset lääkepoliittiset tavoitteet molempia maita. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi tulisi kunkin jäsenmaan selvittää lääkehuollon tämänhetkinen tilanne ja ongelmakohdat niin, että kaikille Euroopan Unionin jasenvaltioiden asukkaille voitaisiin tarjota turvallinen, tehokas ja korkeatasoinen Iaakejakelu siihen liittyvine ammatillisine palveluineen.
  • Haapoja, A.; Korkeala, H. (BioMed Central, 1984)
  • Keto-Timonen, R; Tolvanen, R; Lunden, J; Korkeala, H (2007)
    Contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes were examined in a chilled food processing plant that produced ready-to-eat and ready-to-reheat meals during an 8-year period by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 319 L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from raw materials (n=18), the environment (n=77), equipment (n=193), and products (n=31), and 18 different AFLP types were identified, five of which were repeatedly found to be persistent types. The three compartments (I to III) of the plant showed markedly different contamination statuses. Compartment I, which produced cooked meals, was heavily contaminated with three persistent AFLP types. AFLP type A1 dominated, and it comprised 93% of the isolates of the compartment. Compartment II, which produced uncooked chilled food, was contaminated with four persistent and five nonpersistent AFLP types. The equipment of compartment III, which produced cooked ready-to-reheat meals, was free of contamination. In compartments that produced cooked meals, the cleaning routines, product types, and lack of compartmentalization seemed to predispose production lines to persistent contamination. The most contaminated lines harbored L. monocytogenes in coolers, conveyors, and packing machines. Good compartmentalization limited the flow of L. monocytogenes into the postheat -treatment area and prevented the undesired movement of equipment and personnel, thus protecting the production lines from contamination. In compartment II, grated cheese was shown to cause product contamination. Therefore, special attention should be paid to continuous quality control of raw ingredients when uncooked ready-to-eat foods are produced. In compartment II, reconstruction of the production line resulted in reduced prevalence rates of L. monocytogenes and elimination of two persistent AFLP types.
  • Li, Rui; Xie, Jinglin; Kantor, Carmela; Koistinen, Vesa; Altieri, Dario C.; Nortamo, Pekka; Gahmberg, Carl G. (Rockefeller University Press, 1995)
    β2 integrin (CDlla,b,c/CD18)-mediated cell adhesion is required for many leukocyte functions. Under normal circumstances, the integrins are nonadhesive, and become adhesive for their cell surface ligands, the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), or soluble ligands such as fibrinogen and iC3b, when leukocytes are activated. Recently, we defined a peptide derived from ICAM-2, which specifically binds to purified CDlla/CD18. Furthermore, this peptide strongly induces T cell aggregation mainly mediated by CDlla/CD18-ICAM-1 interaction, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that the same ICAM-2 peptide also avidly binds to purified CDllb/CD18, but not to CDllc/CD18. This binding can be blocked by the CD1 lb antibody OKM10. The peptide strongly stimulates CDllb/CD18-ICAM-l-mediated cell aggregations of the monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937. The aggregations are energy and divalent cation-dependent. The ICAM-2 peptide also induces CDllb/CD18 and CDllc/CD18-mediated binding of THP-1 cells to fibrinogen and iC3b coated on plastic. These findings indicate that in addition to induction of CDlla/CD18- mediated cell adhesion, the ICAM-2 peptide may also serve as a "trigger" for high avidity ligand binding of other β2 integrins.
  • Kikuchi, R. (Elsevier Science B.V., 1999)
    The rapid increase in population and economic growth have led to an increase in energy demand. Coal reserves are distributed worldwide, and coal is now known to be the most stable and available energy source. However, utilization of coal as an energy source involves the generation of a great amount of coal ash, and the recycling rate of the ash is rather low. Coal ash is mainly used in civil construction materials, and there is a limit to the demand for coal ash by construction industries: therefore, the increasing amount of coal ash will be a serious problem in the near future. Different applications should be considered. In this paper, three environmentally-friendly methods for coal ash recycling are described. Firstly, alkali treatment can transform coal ash to zeolite, which is used in deodorant and for wastewater treatment and soil improvement. Secondly, potassium silicate fertilizer is produced from coal ash and has a higher retentivity in the soil than that of conventional fertilizers. Thirdly, emission of sulfur dioxide is controlled by flue gas desulfurization using coal ash. It is considered that environmentally-friendly use of coal ash is important from the viewpoints of energy, economy, and environmental strategy in order to realize the concept of sustainable development.
  • Salmela, Leena; Tarhio, Jorma (Heidelberg, Berlin, Springer Verlag,, 2010)
  • Pouttu, Petri; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2004)
    An attempt was made to determine the water-binding capacity of each individual trimming in a multicomponent system. Three types of experimental cooked sausages (finely chopped luncheon sausage, coarsely chopped sausage and ring sausage with potato starch) were made of five different meat trimmings: two pork trimmings and two beef trimmings, and one beef trimming used as a replacer. The water-binding was determined by the Tuominen-Honkavaara method by stepwise addition of water (basic formulation and four water additions) to the formulations and determining the firmness by a consistometer. The water-binding of each trimming was obtained by replacing the trimming by an additional trimming. A total of 3 sausage types x 5 meat trimmings x 5 water levels giving 75 experimental batches of five kg each were made. The average water-binding values of the same meat trimming combination in each sausage type were practically the same, and therefore the total averages for the same meat trimming combinations of each of the three sausage types were used for the subsequent calculations. The determination of the water-binding values of the meat trimmings were solved by forming five equations with four unknowns each, and then solving the unknowns using Microsoft Excel's ‘Solver’ function. By this procedure it was possible to determine the water-binding of individual meat trimmings in sausage systems. This procedure can be used for the determination of the technological properties of meats for linear programming.
  • Airaksinen, Marja; Puumalainen, Inka (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
    Väestön terveydenhoidon kokonaisuudessa itsehoidolla ja itselaakinnalla on oma keskeinen merkityksensä. Väestö hoitaa suurimman osan kokemistaan oireista itse ilman yhteydenottoa terveydenhuollon ammattilaisiin. Kuitenkin itsehoito on jäänyt huomiotta keskustelussa suomalaisen terveydenhuollon kehittämisestä ja olemassa olevien resurssien tarkoituksenmukaisesta jakamisesta. Jos itsehoidon merkitystä halutaan lisätä hoitomuotona, apteekit ovat avainasemassa itsehoidon ohjaamisessa: oireiden arvioinnissa, Iaakkeettöman tai Iaakkeellisen hoidon valinnassa tai henkilön ohjaamisessa lääkäriin. Tämän katsauksen tavoitteena on tarkastella suomalaisten apteekkien mahdollisuuksia ja edellytyksiä toimia rationaalisen itselaakinnan ohjaajina. Katsaus tarkastelee asiaa lääkepoliittisten linjausten, lainsäädännön ja ammattieettisten ohjeiden seka nykykaytannöista olevan tutkimustiedon valossa.
  • Karisto, Antti (Sisäasiainministeriö, 2004)
    Kaupungit ovat kiristyvässä kilpailutilanteessa toistensa kanssa. Kilpaillaan yrityksistä, työpaikoista ja asukkaista; kamppaillaan matkailijoiden sieluista. Yhdeksi kilpailukeinoksi on tullut kaupunkilaisten arkinen viihtyvyys, josta tässä kirjoituksessa on kyse. Kaupunkikeskustat ja - kulttuuri ovat nykyisin paljon esillä puhuttaessa kaupunkien attraktiivisuudesta.
  • Mukherjee, A.B.; Bhattacharya, P. (NRC Research Press, 2001)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Yhtyneet Kuvalehdet, 1976)