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Now showing items 3920-3939 of 3976
  • Peltonen, Matti (1985)
    The writer discusses the use of alcohol in Finnish rural communities in the light of Marcel Mauss's theory of a system of reciprocal non-equivalent gift exchange. His views are based on a description written in the 1850s by a Virolahti merchant of peasant origin called Eljas Raussi. On the basis of this description and miscellaneous other sources, the writer claims that the institution of gift exchange still survived in the Finnish farming community in the 19th century. Nor were gift exchange relationships restricted to Finland; Finnish fishermen had similar relationships with Sweden via the Aland Islands and the Turku archipelago and with Estonia across the Gulf of Finland. These relationships show a remarkable affinity with Bronislaw Malinowski's description of the kula institution. The unusual feature of the Finnish gift exchange system was the gift itself, alcohol: beer in the 16th and 17th centuries (the first data are from this period), and distilled spirits with increasing frequency from the 18th century on. Alcohol thus acquired the role occupied by coral necklaces in the kula system and by blankets and copper ornaments in the potlach ceremonies. Alcohol became a gift. Three points are stressed in the conclusions of the article. In the first place, it is suggested that a more complex view should be adopted of the use of alcohol in the old rural communities; it comprised elements of which we may still be unaware. Secondly, the writer claims that our deficient knowledge of rural alcohol customs is due to the biased nature of our historical research. The earliest descriptions of the drinking habits Of the common people were generally written by clergymen or other members of the gentry. It is shown here that they had good reason to bear false witness against their neighbour. Historical research has focused on alcohol policy and the temperance movement, and the most prominent researchers have been teetotallers. Thirdly, the writer claims that Marcel Mauss's theory of gift exchange may help us understand some important aspects of the special attitude Finns — and perhaps other northern peoples —have to alcohol.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Centralförbundet för fiskerihushållning, 1970)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Nordenskiöld-samfundet, 1986)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Centralförbundet för Fiskerihushållning, 1994)
    Fiskeritidskrift för Finland
  • Syrjänen, Leo; Valanne, Susanna; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Tuomela, Tea; Sriram, Ashwin; Sanz, Alberto; Jacobs, Howard T; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. CAs are present as six structurally divergent enzyme families: α, β, γ, δ, ζ and η. β-CAs have a wide distribution across different species including invertebrates. Previously, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster β-CA is a highly active mitochondrial enzyme. In this study, we investigated the function of Drosophila β-CA by silencing the expression of the β-CA gene using UAS/GAL4-based RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila in vivo. Results Crossing β-CA RNAi lines over ubiquitous Actin driver flies did not produce any viable progeny, indicating that β-CA expression is required for fly development. RNAi silencing of β-CA ubiquitously in adult flies did not affect their survival rate or function of mitochondrial electron transport chain. Importantly, β-CA RNAi led to impaired reproduction. All β-CA knockdown females were sterile, and produced few or no eggs. Whole ovaries of knockdown females looked normal but upon cadherin staining, there was an apparent functional defect in migration of border cells, which are considered essential for normal fertilization. Conclusions These results indicate that although Drosophila β-CA is dispensable for survival of adult flies, it is essential for female fertility.
  • Syrjänen, Leo; Valanne, Susanna; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Tuomela, Tea; Sriram, Ashwin; Sanz, Alberto; Jacobs, Howard T; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. CAs are present as six structurally divergent enzyme families: α, β, γ, δ, ζ and η. β-CAs have a wide distribution across different species including invertebrates. Previously, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster β-CA is a highly active mitochondrial enzyme. In this study, we investigated the function of Drosophila β-CA by silencing the expression of the β-CA gene using UAS/GAL4-based RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila in vivo. Results Crossing β-CA RNAi lines over ubiquitous Actin driver flies did not produce any viable progeny, indicating that β-CA expression is required for fly development. RNAi silencing of β-CA ubiquitously in adult flies did not affect their survival rate or function of mitochondrial electron transport chain. Importantly, β-CA RNAi led to impaired reproduction. All β-CA knockdown females were sterile, and produced few or no eggs. Whole ovaries of knockdown females looked normal but upon cadherin staining, there was an apparent functional defect in migration of border cells, which are considered essential for normal fertilization. Conclusions These results indicate that although Drosophila β-CA is dispensable for survival of adult flies, it is essential for female fertility.
  • Gelman, Vladimir (European University at St.Petersburg Press, 2015)
    Препринт центра исследований модернизации ЕУСПб М-44/15
  • Tarasenko, Anna; Kulmala, Meri (European University at St. Petersburg, 2015)
    Серия препринтов; Центр исследований модернизации
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Starodubtsev, Andrey (European University at St.Petersburg Press, 2014)
  • Gashev, Sergey; Kurhinen, Juri (Tyumen State University, 2015)
    The paper shows that, in the past centuries, the anthropogenic transformation of the landscape against the climatic changes in Western Siberia favoured migration of one species of vertebrata and reduced areas of others, but with an obvious positive balance. Over the past 400 years, only 12 species of vertebrata (8 species of mammals and 4 species of birds) became extinct in Tyumen region, whereas 57 new species emerged (13 species of mammals and 27 species of birds). It is stated that the high rates of dynamics of fauna in Tyumen region fall within the last 50 years, and the highest of them account for the last 15 years, which primarily corresponds to the current trend of strengthening of continentality of the regional climate (due to the change of zonal circulation of air masses to meridional circulation) against the global warming in the north of the Northern Hemisphere of Earth because of the change of the axis of its rotation to the plane of the ecliptic.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Travin, Dmitrii (Новое литературное обозрение, 2013)
    The article aimed to explain changes of agenda of the Russian modernization in the late twentieth century through the impact of generation changes. While in 1985-1991 the generation of "sixtiers" pursuit their ideational priorities of political liberalization but paid less attention to economic reforms, in 1991-1998 the generation of "seventiers" focused on economic reforms rather than on democratization due to its ideational priorities
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (BHV-Peterburg, 2013)
    The book is devoted to analysis of causes and consequences of political regime changes in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The book systematically examine in theoretical and comparative perspective various factors which affect these changes and contributed to authoritarian drift of the country. The author focus on the role of agency and interests and strategies of political actors in the process of authoritarian state building as well as challenges and constrains they faced in Russia and beyond, and discuss possible trajectories of further regimes changes in Russia against the background of global political trends.
  • Mustajoki, Arto Samuel (Azyki slavanskoj kul'tury ,, 2015)
    Language and Reasoning