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  • Peltonen, Matti (Stakes, 2006)
    Tiedon arkeologia (L’archéologie du savoir, 1969) tunnetaan Michel Foucault’n ”metodikirjana”, jossa hän esitteli diskurssianalyysinsä periaatteita. Kuivakkaan oloinen työ on hänen vaikein teoksensa. Se kuului Foucault’n 1960-luvun jälkipuoliskon kahden ”poikkeuskirjan” sarjaan. Myöhemmin 1970- luvulla hän totesi usein kokeilleensa näissä teoksissa tilapäisesti yksinkertaisempaa lähestymistapaa. Hän keskittyi tarkastelussaan vain diskursiiviseen ja sivuutti lähes kokonaan ei-diskursiivisen. Siksi Tiedon arkeologia kädessä ei pysty lukemaan esimerkiksi seuraavaa tutkimusta Tarkkailla ja rangaista (1975), mutta teos avaa lähes klassikon aseman jo saaneen tutkijan yleistä tutkimusfi losofi aa pitkälti diskurssianalyysin yli.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Skärgårdsinstitutet vid Åbo Akademi, 2001)
  • Aarrevaara, Timo (Cambridge University Press, 2010)
    This article considers the academic profession and academic freedom in light of the results of the Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey in Finland and four other European countries. Academic freedom is examined as a phenomenon that provides a setting for goal determination by members of the academic profession. It has a bearing on both institutional autonomy and individual academic freedom, i.e. the freedom of research and teaching. Academic freedom can be examined on the basis of material from the CAP survey through the questions about the freedom of teaching, the definition of work, working as a member of a community, the power of influence, funding, and the evaluation of quality. The concept of academic freedom varies slightly between countries, in part because of the growth of higher education systems and because of the increasing demand for ‘relevance’ being imposed on universities.
  • Lodenius, M.; Seppänen, A.; Herranen, M. (D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1983)
  • Metsälä, M; Schmidt, F; Skyttä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L (IOP Publishing, 2010)
  • Alcamo, J.; Amann, M; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Holmberg, M.; Hordijk, L.; Kämäri, J.; Kauppi, L.; Kauppi, P.; Kornai, G.; Mäkelä, A. (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1987)
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Kämäri, J.; Posch, M.; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E. (Elsevier, 1986)
  • Alcamo, J.; Kauppi, P.E.; Posch, M.; Runca, E. (IIASA, 1984)
  • Kylä-Puhju, Maria; Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2005)
    The activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) was studied in relation to pH value and temperature in porcine masseter and longissimus dorsi muscles. A glycogen limit dextrin was used as the substrate for GDE, and the enzyme was derived from raw meat extracts. In both muscles, the pH only weakly affected on activity of GDE at the pH values found in carcasses post-slaughter. However, the activity of GDE decreased strongly (P < 0.001) when the temperature decreased from values of 39 °C and 42 °C found just after slaughter to values of 4 °C and 15 °C found during cooling. In both muscles the activity of GDE began to fall at temperatures below 39 °C and was almost zero when the temperature decreased to below 15 °C. Thus, the activity of GDE may control the rate of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, but does not block rapid glycolysis and pH decrease when the temperature is high. This may be important in PSE meat, where the pH decreases rapidly at high temperatures, but rapid cooling could limit the activity of GDE and thus glycogenolysis. As expected, GDE was more active in the light longissimus dorsi muscle than in the dark masseter muscle.
  • Donner, K.; Djupsund, K.; Reuter, T.; Väisänen, I. (Elsevier, 1991)
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Hari, P.; Kellomäki, S. (Blackwell, 1978)
  • Candolin, Ulrika; Reynolds, John D. (Royal Society of London, 2002)
    Game theory models of sperm competition predict that within species, males should increase their sperm expenditure when they have one competitor, but decrease expenditure with increasing numbers of competitors. So far, there have been few tests or support for this prediction. Here, we show that males of a freshwater sh, the European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus, do indeed adjust their ejaculation rate to the number of male competitors by rst increasing and then decreasing their ejaculation rates as the number of competitors increases. However, this occurred only under restricted conditions. Speci cally, the prediction was upheld as long as no female had deposited eggs in the live mussels that are used as spawning sites. After one or more females had spawned, males did not decrease their ejaculation rates with the number of competitors, but instead they became more aggressive. This indicates that decreased ejaculation rate and increased aggression are alternative responses to increased risk of sperm competition.
  • Krekola, Joni (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2003)
    Maanalainen puolue on tässä artikkelissa pelkistynyt verkostoiksi, joiden toimivuus on viime kädessä riippunut henkilöiden välisestä luottamuksesta. Tulkinnat eivät ole yleistettävissä julkisiin ja laillisiin puolueisiin, joissa instituutiot eivät järky, vaikka jäsenistön keskinäinen luottamus ajoittain pettäisikin. Poikkeuksellista maanalaisen Skp:n tapauksessa oli myös jatkuvuus, joka rakentui saman taustan omaavien toverien keskinäisen luottamuksen varaan. Ja kääntäen – se ehdottomuus, jolla pettureihin suhtauduttiin, kesti läpi koko elämänkaaren, jopa neuvostokommunismin lopullisen romahduksen: kun lainasin 1990-luvun puolivälissä Kallion kirjastosta “Poika” Tuomisen elämäkerran, 74 sivujen marginaalit oli täytetty – kuin opiksi meille nuoremmille – iäkkään kommunistin laatimilla, Tuomisen petturuutta avoimesti halveksivilla reunahuomautuksilla.
  • Rahkio, T.; Korkeala, H. (International Association for Food Protection, 1997)
  • Myneni, R. B.; Dong, J.; Tucker, C. J.; Kaufmann, R. K.; Kauppi, P. E.; Zhou, L.; Liski, J.; Alexeyev, V.; Hughes, M. K. (National Academy of Sciences, 2001)
    The terrestrial carbon sink, as of yet unidentified, represents 15–30% of annual global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels and industrial activities. Some of the missing carbon is sequestered in vegetation biomass and, under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, industrialized nations can use certain forest biomass sinks to meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitments. Therefore, we analyzed 19 years of data from remote-sensing spacecraft and forest inventories to identify the size and location of such sinks. The results, which cover the years 1981–1999, reveal a picture of biomass carbon gains in Eurasian boreal and North American temperate forests and losses in some Canadian boreal forests. For the 1.42 billion hectares of Northern forests, roughly above the 30th parallel, we estimate the biomass sink to be 0.68 ± 0.34 billion tons carbon per year, of which nearly 70% is in Eurasia, in proportion to its forest area and in disproportion to its biomass carbon pool. The relatively high spatial resolution of these estimates permits direct validation with ground data and contributes to a monitoring program of forest biomass sinks under the Kyoto protocol.
  • Chatrchyan, Serguei; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Klem, J.; Kortelainen, M.J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, T.; Nysten, J.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; CMS Collaboration (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2010)
  • Alaranta, A.; Alaranta, H.; Heliövaara, M.; Alha, P.; Palmu, P.; Helenius, I. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005)
    Introduction: Only a few studies have examined the occurrence of atopy and clinically apparent allergic disease and their pharmacological management in elite athletes. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication within the subgroups of elite athletes as compared with a representative sample of young adults of the same age. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002. All the athletes (N = 494) financially supported by the National Olympic Committee comprised the study group. Of them, 446 (90.3%) filled in a structured questionnaire concerning asthma and allergies, the use of medication, characteristics of sport activities, and smoking habits. A representative sample of Finnish young adults (N = 1504) served as controls. Results: The endurance athletes reported physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis more often (36.1%) than other athletes (23.4%) or control subjects (20.2%). The use of antiallergic medication was reported by 33.3, 15.7, and 15.6% of those, respectively. Among both athletes and controls, females reported the use of antiallergic medication more often than males. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis had used antiallergic medication during the past year. After adjusting for age and sex, OR (95% CI) for allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication were 2.24 (1.48-3.39) and 2.79 (1.82-4.28), respectively, in endurance athletes as compared with the controls. Conclusions: Endurance athletes have physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, and they use antiallergic medication more often than athletes in other events or control subjects. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis take antiallergic medication. More attention needs to be paid to the optimal management of allergic rhinitis, especially in highly trained endurance athletes.
  • Åstrand, Matti; Floreen, Patrik; Polishchuk, Valentin; Rybicki, Joel; Suomela, Jukka; Uitto, Jara (2009)
    We present a distributed 2-approximation algorithm for the minimum vertex cover problem. The algorithm is deterministic, and it runs in (Δ + 1)2 synchronous communication rounds, where Δ is the maximum degree of the graph. For Δ = 3, we give a 2-approximation algorithm also for the weighted version of the problem.