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  • Voigt, H.-R. (International Symposium on Trace Elements and Health, 2007)
  • Lodenius, M. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 2003)
  • Lodenius, M.; Soltanpour-Gargari, A.; Tulisalo, E. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 2002)
  • Lodenius, Martin; Josefsson, Jussi; Heliövaara, Kari; Tulisalo, Esa; Nummelin, Matti (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009)
    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH, but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota. Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects (Formica ants, carabids and Coleopteran larvae from decaying wood) were investigated in southern Finland, where two plots were fertilized with wood ash, while two other plots represented unfertilized control plots. In ants, mean Cd concentration was 3.6 ± 1.4 mg/kg, with nest workers having significantly higher concentrations than workers trapped in pitfall traps. Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar. In carabid beetles, the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44 ± 0.36 mg/kg, with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots. In another carabid beetle, Pterostichus niger, mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots. We conclude that the variation of Cd concentrations in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.
  • Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (Public Library of Science, 2010)
  • Mogensen, Ditte; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G. (ELSEVIER BV, 2010)
  • Chatrchyan, S.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Klem, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Nysten, J.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; CMS Collaboration (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2010)
  • Kansanaho, H; Pietilä, K; Airaksinen, Marja (Pharmaceutical Press, 2003)
    Objective To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of a long-term continuing education (CE) course on their patient counselling skills. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the course participants (n = 17) during the last module of the CE course. Data were analysed using computer software for qualitative analysis. Key findings The focus groups revealed eight preliminary categories that were further categorised into four themes related to the learning process in patient counselling skills. The first theme related to achieving the learning objectives. The second related to personal development, understanding principles of two-way communication, and problems in their implementation in practice. The third theme related to actions taken by the participants in their work place, and the fourth involved the potential conflict between the new skills gained and the traditional communication culture in the participant's pharmacy. Conclusion The CE course provided the community pharmacists with new skills and knowledge in patient counselling and collective in-house training. The findings show that the greatest challenge is to change the communication culture of the pharmacy. To achieve this, it may be necessary for more than one pharmacist from the same pharmacy to participate in the training process at the same time.
  • Louhiala, Pekka; Hemilä, Harri (PHARMACEUTICAL PRESS, 2014)
    In this article, we first take a critical look at the definitions of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We then explore the question of whether there can be evidence-based forms of CAM. With the help of three examples, we show that EBM and CAM are not opposites, but rather concepts pointing at different dimensions. Each of the three examples is an evidence-based treatment according to three to five randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trials with consistent findings and narrow pooled confidence intervals. The most reasonable interpretation for the existence of evidence-based CAM treatments seems to be that the opposite of CAM is ‘mainstream medicine’, and the demarcation line between CAM and mainstream medicine is not simply defined by the question of whether a treatment works or not. Some effective treatments may belong to the CAM domain for historical reasons and because of preconceptions within mainstream medicine. Therefore, some treatments that currently lie outside mainstream medicine can be evidence-based.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Tomppo, E.; Ferm, A. (Kluwer, 1995)
  • Pylkkänen, Paavo (IMPRINT ACADEMIC, 2014)
    A number of researchers today make an appeal to quantum physics when trying to develop a satisfactory account of the mind,   an appeal still felt to be controversial by many. Often these "quantum approaches" try to explain some well-known features of conscious experience (or mental processes more generally), thus using quantum physics to enrich the explanatory framework or explanans used in consciousness studies and cognitive science. This paper considers the less studied question of whether quantum physical intuitions could help us to draw attention to new or neglected aspects of the mind in introspection, and in this way change our view about what needs explanation in the first place. Although prima facie implausible, it is suggested that this could happen, for example, if there were analogies between quantum processes and mental processes (e.g., the process of thinking). The naive idea is that such analogies would help us to see mental processes and conscious experience in a new way. It has indeed been proposed long ago that such analogies exist, and this paper first focuses at some length on David Bohm's formulation of them from 1951. It then briefly considers these analogies in relation to Smolensky's more recent analogies between cognitive science and physics, and Pylkk ö's aconceptual view of the mind. Finally, Bohm's early analogies will be briefly considered in relation to the analogies between quantum processes and the mind he proposed in his later work.
  • Piirainen, Timo (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 1994)
  • Alaruikka, D.; Kotze, D.J.; Matveinen, K.; Niemelä, J. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    To investigate the effects of urbanization on carabid beetles (Carabidae) and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae) a study was completed along a 20 kmurban–rural forest gradient in the Helsinki–Espoo area of southern Finland. To study changes in assemblage structure, abundance and species richness, these taxa were collected in the year 2000 using pitfall traps, which had been placed in four forest sites within each of the urban, suburban and rural zones.We expected to find changes in the abundances and species richnesses in the two taxa across the urban–rural gradient, but did not find any. Our second and third hypotheses, stating that generalist species and small-bodied species should gain dominance along the gradient from rural to urban sites, were partly supported as carabid specialists were more characteristic of suburban and rural environments whereas generalists were more likely to be collected from rural areas compared to suburban or urban sites. Furthermore, medium to large-sized carabid individuals were more likely to be collected in the rural sites compared to urban forests. We found no evidence for significant changes in spider abundance or species richness across the urban–rural gradient in relation to body size or habitat specialization. We suggest that urbanization does not have significant effects on the total abundances and species richnesses in these two taxa. However, individual species responded differently to urbanization, and there were significant differences in the specialization and body sizes of carabids across the gradient.
  • Niemelä, J.; Kotze, J.; Venn, S.; Penev, L.; Stoyanov, I.; Spence, J.; Hartley, D.; Montes de Oca, H. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002)
    We studied communities of carabid beetles in residual forest patches along urban-suburban-rural gradients in three cities (Helsinki, Finland; Sofia, Bulgaria and Edmonton, Canada) to examine their responses to urbanisation. Only Finnish carabids showed a marked division of community structure along the gradient. In Bulgaria and Canada, carabids did not separate into distinct urban, suburban and rural communities. Our results provide some support for the predictions that species richness will decrease, that opportunistic species will gain dominance, and that small-sized species will become more numerous under disturbance such as that provided by urbanisation. The rather weak and varied response of carabids to this disturbance suggests that local factors and their interaction are of primary importance for community composition. Occurrence of reasonably similar carabid communities across the gradient at each of the three levels of urbanisation suggests that habitat changes commonly associated with urbanisation have not affected the ecological integrity of carabid assemblages in residual urban forest patches.
  • Pösö, A. Reeta; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2005)
    Oxidative energy production is by far dominant in living animal muscles, with the exception the short periods of severe stress, where the aerobic capacity is exceeded, and formation of large amounts of lactic acid will take place. Energy consumption in muscle cells continues post mortem with formation of large amounts of lactate and formation of protons, because the aerobic processes for energy production are not available. Post mortem, the fall in pH is delayed only by buffering capacity of the muscle fibres. In living animals, in addition to buffering capacity, both respiration and transport of lactate and protons out of the muscle fibres by monocarboxylate transporters participate in the regulation of muscle fibre pH which never falls as low as the ultimate pH of the meat. Understanding the regulation of pH in muscle is important both for the welfare of living animals and from the technological point of view as a factor influencing meat quality.
  • Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Tdra, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014)
    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of “PAMP, MAMP and DAMP type” oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure / activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora.
  • Heikkinen, J.E.P; Virtanen, T.; Huttunen, J.T.; Elsakov, V.; Martikainen, P.J. (American Geophysical Union, 2004)
    [1] We studied the carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from early June to mid-September 2001 in the Russian tundra of northeast Europe. Gas fluxes were measured with chamber techniques to determine the seasonal (100 days) carbon gas balance for terrestrial ecosystems representing various vegetation types. Also, the gas balance for aquatic ecosystems in the region was measured. The 2001 fluxes were compared to colder and wetter season fluxes from 1999. The Sphagnum sp. dominated peat plateau fen and Carex sp. and Sphagnum sp. dominated intermediate flarks were carbon sinks of 106 and 110 g C m2, respectively. In addition, methane emissions were highest from these sites. Other terrestrial surfaces lost carbon to the atmosphere (28-118 g C m2). The thermokarst lake and the river had seasonal carbon losses of 15 and 34 g C m2, respectively. For areal integration, the distributions of the various functional surfaces were classified based on Landsat TM satellite image and on-site validation. This data was used to integrate the carbon fluxes for the entire Lek Vorkuta catchment. The upscaling indicated that the catchment (114 km2) lost 4 (±3.5) Gg C to the atmosphere in summer 2001. The results suggest that predicted warming in the tundra region would induce a substantial loss of carbon. In the warm summer of 2001, the carbon gas released from the whole northeast European tundra (area 205,000 km2) was 8 Tg C when calculated from the Lek Vorkuta data.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Mielikäinen, K.; Kuusela, K. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1992)
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Hooijer, A.; Page, S.E. (Copernicus GmbH, 2012)
    Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emission caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 emission was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the total emissions, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic emissions. We found daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha−1 y−1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha−1 y−1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation emissions. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of agricultural land management. It is the first to purposefully quantify heterotrophic CO2 emissions resulting from tropical peat decomposition by separating these from autotrophic emissions. It also provides the most scientifically- and statistically-rigorous study to date of CO2 emissions resulting from anthropogenic modification of this globally significant carbon rich ecosystem. Our findings indicate that past studies have underestimated emissions from peatland plantations, with important implications for the scale of greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change, particularly in the light of current, rapid agricultural conversion of peatlands in the Southeast Asian region.