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  • Voigt, H.-R. (International Symposium on Trace Elements and Health, 2007)
  • Lodenius, M. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 2003)
  • Lodenius, M.; Soltanpour-Gargari, A.; Tulisalo, E. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 2002)
  • Lodenius, Martin; Josefsson, Jussi; Heliövaara, Kari; Tulisalo, Esa; Nummelin, Matti (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009)
    Insect Science
    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH, but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota. Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects (Formica ants, carabids and Coleopteran larvae from decaying wood) were investigated in southern Finland, where two plots were fertilized with wood ash, while two other plots represented unfertilized control plots. In ants, mean Cd concentration was 3.6 ± 1.4 mg/kg, with nest workers having significantly higher concentrations than workers trapped in pitfall traps. Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar. In carabid beetles, the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44 ± 0.36 mg/kg, with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots. In another carabid beetle, Pterostichus niger, mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots. We conclude that the variation of Cd concentrations in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.
  • Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2010)
  • Mogensen, Ditte; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G. (ELSEVIER BV, 2010)
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (Russian Analytical Digest, 2015)
  • Chatrchyan, S.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Klem, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Nysten, J.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; CMS Collaboration (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2010)
  • Preston, Anne; Balaam, Madeline; Seedhouse, Paul; Kurhila, Salla; Kotilainen, Lari; Rafiev, Ashur; Jackson, Daniel; Olivier, Patrick (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015)
    Abstract Smart learning environments offer rich opportunities for language learners. In particular, context-aware systems which allow learners’ progress to be sensed within and across an activity, enable instructed language learning to move beyond the traditional confines of the classroom walls. In this paper we present the European Kitchen, a real-world task-based environment for cooking and language learning. In doing so, we demonstrate how specific design decisions, in the development of this longer-term iterative design project, conjoin Human Computer Interaction practice and learning theory for situated language learning. We also show how this approach is combined with Conversation Analysis, which is used as a tool to measure the impact of these decisions on the interactions taking place in and with the kitchen. Our work reveals that in order to design for and evaluate effective and meaningful language learning, there should be more balance between technologically-driven theory and theory driven research which has a strong pedagogical foundation. Our work has implications for a transferable, interdisciplinary model of task-based, situated learning which can be applied and adapted to different skill and knowledge sets.
  • Kansanaho, H; Pietilä, K; Airaksinen, Marja (Pharmaceutical Press, 2003)
    Objective To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of a long-term continuing education (CE) course on their patient counselling skills. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the course participants (n = 17) during the last module of the CE course. Data were analysed using computer software for qualitative analysis. Key findings The focus groups revealed eight preliminary categories that were further categorised into four themes related to the learning process in patient counselling skills. The first theme related to achieving the learning objectives. The second related to personal development, understanding principles of two-way communication, and problems in their implementation in practice. The third theme related to actions taken by the participants in their work place, and the fourth involved the potential conflict between the new skills gained and the traditional communication culture in the participant's pharmacy. Conclusion The CE course provided the community pharmacists with new skills and knowledge in patient counselling and collective in-house training. The findings show that the greatest challenge is to change the communication culture of the pharmacy. To achieve this, it may be necessary for more than one pharmacist from the same pharmacy to participate in the training process at the same time.
  • Louhiala, Pekka; Hemilä, Harri (Pharmaceutical Press, 2014)
    In this article, we first take a critical look at the definitions of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We then explore the question of whether there can be evidence-based forms of CAM. With the help of three examples, we show that EBM and CAM are not opposites, but rather concepts pointing at different dimensions. Each of the three examples is an evidence-based treatment according to three to five randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trials with consistent findings and narrow pooled confidence intervals. The most reasonable interpretation for the existence of evidence-based CAM treatments seems to be that the opposite of CAM is ‘mainstream medicine’, and the demarcation line between CAM and mainstream medicine is not simply defined by the question of whether a treatment works or not. Some effective treatments may belong to the CAM domain for historical reasons and because of preconceptions within mainstream medicine. Therefore, some treatments that currently lie outside mainstream medicine can be evidence-based.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Tomppo, E.; Ferm, A. (Kluwer, 1995)
  • Hanninen, Reetta L.; Ahonen, Saija; Marquez, Merce; Myohanen, Maarit J.; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (Company of Biologists Ltd, 2015)
    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) are often serious autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by tissue-specific mtDNA copy number reduction. Many genes, including MPV17, are associated with the hepatocerebral form of MDS. MPV17 encodes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with a poorly characterized function. Several MPV17 mutations have been reported in association with a heterogeneous group of early-onset manifestations, including liver disease and neurological problems. Mpv17-deficient mice present renal and hearing defects. We describe here a MPV17 truncation mutation in dogs. We found a 1-bp insertion in exon 4 of the MPV17 gene, resulting in a frameshift and early truncation of the encoded protein. The mutation halves MPV17 expression in the lymphocytes of the homozygous dogs and the truncated protein is not translated in transfected cells. The insertion mutation is recurrent and exists in many unrelated breeds, although is highly enriched in the Boxer breed. Unexpectedly, despite the truncation of MPV17, we could not find any common phenotypes in the genetically affected dogs. The lack of observable phenotype could be due to a late onset, mild symptoms or potential tissue-specific compensatory mechanisms. This study suggests species-specific differences in the manifestation of the MPV17 defects and establishes a novel large animal model to further study MPV17 function and role in mitochondrial biology.
  • Pylkkänen, Paavo (Imprint Academic, 2014)
    A number of researchers today make an appeal to quantum physics when trying to develop a satisfactory account of the mind,   an appeal still felt to be controversial by many. Often these "quantum approaches" try to explain some well-known features of conscious experience (or mental processes more generally), thus using quantum physics to enrich the explanatory framework or explanans used in consciousness studies and cognitive science. This paper considers the less studied question of whether quantum physical intuitions could help us to draw attention to new or neglected aspects of the mind in introspection, and in this way change our view about what needs explanation in the first place. Although prima facie implausible, it is suggested that this could happen, for example, if there were analogies between quantum processes and mental processes (e.g., the process of thinking). The naive idea is that such analogies would help us to see mental processes and conscious experience in a new way. It has indeed been proposed long ago that such analogies exist, and this paper first focuses at some length on David Bohm's formulation of them from 1951. It then briefly considers these analogies in relation to Smolensky's more recent analogies between cognitive science and physics, and Pylkk ö's aconceptual view of the mind. Finally, Bohm's early analogies will be briefly considered in relation to the analogies between quantum processes and the mind he proposed in his later work.
  • Godenhielm, Mats; Kultti, Klaus (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2014)
  • Piirainen, Timo (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 1994)
  • Alaruikka, D.; Kotze, D.J.; Matveinen, K.; Niemelä, J. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    To investigate the effects of urbanization on carabid beetles (Carabidae) and ground dwelling spiders (Araneae) a study was completed along a 20 kmurban–rural forest gradient in the Helsinki–Espoo area of southern Finland. To study changes in assemblage structure, abundance and species richness, these taxa were collected in the year 2000 using pitfall traps, which had been placed in four forest sites within each of the urban, suburban and rural zones.We expected to find changes in the abundances and species richnesses in the two taxa across the urban–rural gradient, but did not find any. Our second and third hypotheses, stating that generalist species and small-bodied species should gain dominance along the gradient from rural to urban sites, were partly supported as carabid specialists were more characteristic of suburban and rural environments whereas generalists were more likely to be collected from rural areas compared to suburban or urban sites. Furthermore, medium to large-sized carabid individuals were more likely to be collected in the rural sites compared to urban forests. We found no evidence for significant changes in spider abundance or species richness across the urban–rural gradient in relation to body size or habitat specialization. We suggest that urbanization does not have significant effects on the total abundances and species richnesses in these two taxa. However, individual species responded differently to urbanization, and there were significant differences in the specialization and body sizes of carabids across the gradient.
  • Niemelä, J.; Kotze, J.; Venn, S.; Penev, L.; Stoyanov, I.; Spence, J.; Hartley, D.; Montes de Oca, H. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002)
    We studied communities of carabid beetles in residual forest patches along urban-suburban-rural gradients in three cities (Helsinki, Finland; Sofia, Bulgaria and Edmonton, Canada) to examine their responses to urbanisation. Only Finnish carabids showed a marked division of community structure along the gradient. In Bulgaria and Canada, carabids did not separate into distinct urban, suburban and rural communities. Our results provide some support for the predictions that species richness will decrease, that opportunistic species will gain dominance, and that small-sized species will become more numerous under disturbance such as that provided by urbanisation. The rather weak and varied response of carabids to this disturbance suggests that local factors and their interaction are of primary importance for community composition. Occurrence of reasonably similar carabid communities across the gradient at each of the three levels of urbanisation suggests that habitat changes commonly associated with urbanisation have not affected the ecological integrity of carabid assemblages in residual urban forest patches.
  • Pösö, A. Reeta; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2005)
    Oxidative energy production is by far dominant in living animal muscles, with the exception the short periods of severe stress, where the aerobic capacity is exceeded, and formation of large amounts of lactic acid will take place. Energy consumption in muscle cells continues post mortem with formation of large amounts of lactate and formation of protons, because the aerobic processes for energy production are not available. Post mortem, the fall in pH is delayed only by buffering capacity of the muscle fibres. In living animals, in addition to buffering capacity, both respiration and transport of lactate and protons out of the muscle fibres by monocarboxylate transporters participate in the regulation of muscle fibre pH which never falls as low as the ultimate pH of the meat. Understanding the regulation of pH in muscle is important both for the welfare of living animals and from the technological point of view as a factor influencing meat quality.