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  • Wikman, I.; Hokkanen, A.-H.; Pastell, M.; Kauppinen, T.; Valros, Anna; Hänninen, Laura (ACADEMIC JOURNALS INC., 2013)
    Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure performed on farm to ensure safer handling of cattle. A questionnaire on disbudding-related opinions and practices was sent to 1,000 Finnish dairy producers (response rate: 45%). Attitudes toward disbudding were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale and attitudes to cattle pain scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Principal components analysis was used to assess the loadings, which were further tested for differences between producer gender and housing systems with Mann-Whitney U-tests, and between herd milk yield, herd size, and age and work experience of producers with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Four main factors were identified: factor I (“taking disbudding pain seriously”), factor II (“sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases”), factor III (“ready to medicate calves myself”), and factor IV (“pro horns”). Female producers took disbudding pain more seriously, were more sensitive to pain caused to cattle by diseases, and were more ready to medicate disbudded calves than male producers. Producers with tie-stalls favored horns over producers with freestalls. Male producers with tie-stalls were sensitive to cattle pain and preferred horns over male producers with freestalls. Female producers with freestalls were more ready to medicate calves, but did not prefer horns more than female producers with tie-stalls. Taking disbudding seriously correlated with sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases. Producers with low-milk-yielding herds were less willing to medicate calves and more willing to keep cattle with horns than producers with higher-yielding herds. Older producers were more sensitive to cattle pain than middle-aged and younger producers. No effect was established for taking disbudding pain seriously: the pro-horn factor was associated with work experience, age, and herd size. Women rated pain higher and were more positive toward pain medication for animals than men. Maintaining horns are more important for producers with tie-stalls than for those with freestalls.
  • Hadley, Jonathan (Dream Catcher Oy, 2010)
    Argues that the balance of the UK's hung parliament resonates as much with Europe's darker past as the potential of a fairer future. Response to FIIA's briefing No. 60 'No Real Winner?' by Toby Archer.
  • Keus, Venus; King, Stephen F.; Moretti, Stefano; Sokolowska, Dorota (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2014)
    Following the discovery of a Higgs boson, there has been renewed interest in the general 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM). A model with One Inert Doublet plus One Higgs Doublet (I(1+1)HDM), where one of the scalar doublets is "inert" (since it has no vacuum expectation value and does not couple to fermions) has an advantage over the 2HDM since it provides a good Dark Matter (DM) candidate, namely the lightest inert scalar. Motivated by the existence of three fermion families, here we consider a model with two scalar doublets plus one Higgs doublet (I(2+1)HDM), where the two scalar doublets are inert. The I(2+1)HDM has a richer phenomenology than either the I(1+1)HDM or the 2HDM. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density in the I(2+1)HDM with simplified couplings and address the possibility of constraining the model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct detection experiments.
  • Keranen, V; Keski-Vakkuri, E; Nowling, S; Yogendran, K P (American Physical Society, 2009)
    We construct dark soliton solutions in a holographic model of a relativistic superfluid. We study the length scales associated with the condensate and the charge density depletion, and find that the two scales differ by a non-trivial function of the chemical potential. By adjusting the chemical potential, we study the variation of the depletion of charge density at the interface.
  • Lahti, Raimo (2008)
    Im Artikel ist ein Blick auf die Linie der Reformierung des finnischen strafrechtlichen Sanktionensystems und auf einzelne Gesetzesänderungen in den letzten 35 Jahren geworfen. Dabei sind die Auswirkungen der Reformen des Sanktionensystems beurteilt worden und kritische Gesichtspunkte zur Überprüfung der Kriminal- und Sanktionspolitik sowie zur Weiterentwicklung des Systems vorgebracht worden. Zugleich ist es ein Ziel gewesen, der gemeineuropäischen Diskussion über diesen Themenbereich Anstösse zu geben.
  • University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science; Münch, Jürgen; (University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, 2014)
    There is a need in many software-based companies to evolve their software development practices towards continuous integration and continuous deployment. This allows a company to frequently and rapidly integrate and deploy their work and in consequence also opens opportunities for getting feedback from customers on a regular basis. Ideally, this feedback is used to support design decisions early in the development process, e.g., to determine which features should be maintained over time and which features should be skipped. In more general terms, the entire R&D system of an organization should be in a state where it is able to respond and act quickly based in instant customer feedback and where actual deployment of software functionality is seen as a way of fast experimenting and testing what the customer needs. Experimentation refers here to fast validation of a business model or more specifically validating a value hypothesis. Reaching such a state of continuous experimentation implies a lot of challenges for organizations. Selected challenges are how to develop the "right" software while developing software "right", how to have an appropriate tool infrastructure in place, how to measure and evaluate customer value, what are appropriate feedback systems, how to improve the velocity of software development, how to increase the business hit rate with new products and features, how to integrate such experiments into the development process, how to link knowledge about value for users or customers to higher-level goals of an organization. These challenges are quite new for many software-based organizations and not sufficiently understood from a software engineering perspective. These proceedings contain selected seminar papers of the student seminar Data- and Value-Driven Software Engineering with Deep Customer Insight that was held at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Helsinki. The seminar was held during the fall semester of 2014 from September 1st to December 8th. Papers in the seminar cover a wide range of topics related to the creation of value in software engineering. An interview of startups shows that emerging companies face a number of key decision points that shape their future. Value has a different meaning in different contexts. Embedded devices can be used to gather data and provide more value to the users through analysis and adaptation to circumstances. In entertainment, metrics can provide content creators the chance to react to user behavior and provide a more meaningful user experience. Value creation needs an active approach to software development from the companies: software engineering processes need to be incorporated with proper mechanisms to find the correct stakeholders, elicit requirements that provide the highest value and successfully implement the necessary changes with short development cycles. When the right building blocks are in place, companies are able to quickly deliver new software and leverage data from their products and services to continuously improve the perceived value of software.
  • Muggerud, Aslaug Aamodt; Edgren, Henrik; Wolf, Maija; Kleivi, Kristine; Dejeux, Emelyne; Tost, Jörg; Sorlie, Therese; Kallioniemi, Olli (BIOMED CENTRAL., 2009)
    Background: Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), a large number of deleted genomic regions have been identified in human cancers. However, subsequent efforts to identify target genes selected for inactivation in these regions have often been challenging. Methods: We integrated here genome-wide copy number data with gene expression data and non-sense mediated mRNA decay rates in breast cancer cell lines to prioritize gene candidates that are likely to be tumour suppressor genes inactivated by bi-allelic genetic events. The candidates were sequenced to identify potential mutations. Results: This integrated genomic approach led to the identification of RIC8A at 11p15 as a putative candidate target gene for the genomic deletion in the ZR-75-1 breast cancer cell line. We identified a truncating mutation in this cell line, leading to loss of expression and rapid decay of the transcript. We screened 127 breast cancers for RIC8A mutations, but did not find any pathogenic mutations. No promoter hypermethylation in these tumours was detected either. However, analysis of gene expression data from breast tumours identified a small group of aggressive tumours that displayed low levels of RIC8A transcripts. qRT-PCR analysis of 38 breast tumours showed a strong association between low RIC8A expression and the presence of TP53 mutations (P = 0.006). Conclusion: We demonstrate a data integration strategy leading to the identification of RIC8A as a gene undergoing a classical double-hit genetic inactivation in a breast cancer cell line, as well as in vivo evidence of loss of RIC8A expression in a subgroup of aggressive TP53 mutant breast cancers.
  • Karinen, Sirkku; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (Public Library of Science, 2011)
  • Toivonen, H T T; Onkamo, P; Vasko, K; Ollikainen, V; Sevon, P; Mannila, H; Herr, M; Kere, J (CELL PRESS, 2000)
  • Varga, Ildiko; Keresztes, Balázs; Poczai, Péter (AGROINFORM Kiadó és Nyomda Kft., 2012)
    The European mistletoe (Viscum album) is an evergreen, perennial, epiphytic, hemiparasitic shrub, which is widely distributed in Europe. Its occurrence induces extremely sensitive health of host trees further contributing to the phenomenon of forest decline spiral. Besides mechanical pruning a hyperparasitic fungus (Phaeobotryosphaeria visci) could be a successful candidate to develop an effective biocontrol agent against V. album. We were extensively aware of the insect community of European mistletoe in light of finding another potential agent. We collected and identified 22 insect species (4 Sternorrhyncha, 5 Heteroptera, 5 Coleoptera, 5 Hymenoptera, 2 Lepidoptera, 1 Diptera) from which eight are specialists restricted only to European mistletoe (Cacopsylla visci, Carulaspis visci, Hypseloecus visci, Pinalitus viscicola, Ixapion variegatum, Liparthrum bartschti, Synanthedon loranthi, Celypha woodiana). Species associations with this plant are reported here for the first time for two Heteroptera (Campyloneura virgula, Pentatoma rufipes), one Coleoptera (Sericoderus lateralis), one ant species (Lasius brunnes) as well as for an aphid belonging to the Aphis fabae sensu stricto group, respectively. Species assotiation with this plant is reported for the first time in Hungary for the Leptophloeus hypobori species. Based on our observations and literature review only the mass occurrence of different pests would have the potential to effectively control this hemiparasite. From the pests of the green plant parts the mistletoe associated psyllid (Cacopsylla visi), mistletoe scale (Carulaspis visci) and the mistletoe bug, Hypseloecus visci, while from the pests of the woody parts a clearwing moth, Synanthedon loranthi and a bark beetle, Liparthrum bartschti look perspective in light if biological control.
  • Pylkkänen, Paavo (Carlsson, 2010)
  • Valitutti, Alessandro; Toivonen, Hannu; Gross, Oskar; Toivanen, Jukka (2012)
  • Vauramo, Saara; Setälä, Heikki Martti (Springer New York LLC, 2010)
  • Vavrova, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (ELSEVIER BV, 2009)
    "Litter quality and environmental effects on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) fine woody debris (FWD) decomposition were examined in three forestry-drained peatlands representing different site types along a climatic gradient from the north boreal (Northern Finland) to south (Southern Finland) and hemiboreal (Central Estonia) conditions. Decomposition (percent mass loss) of FWD with diameter <= 10 mm (twigs) and FWD with diameter > 10 mm (branches) was measured using the litter bag method over 1-4-year periods. Overall, decomposition rates increased from north to south, the rate constants (k values) varying from 0.128 to 0.188 year(-1) and from 0.066 to 0.127 year(-1) for twigs and branches, respectively. On average, twigs had lost 34%, 19% and 19%, and branches 25%, 17% and 11% of their initial mass after 2 years of decomposition at the hemiboreal, south boreal and north boreal sites, respectively. After 4 years at the south boreal site the values were 48% for twigs and 42% for branches. Based on earlier studies, we suggest that the decomposition rates that we determined may be used for estimating Scots pine FWD decomposition in the boreal zone, also in upland forests. Explanatory models accounted for 50.4% and 71.2% of the total variation in FWD decomposition rates when the first two and all years were considered, respectively. The variables most related to FWD decomposition included the initial ash, water extractives and Klason lignin content of litter, and cumulative site precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration. Simulations of inputs and decomposition of Scots pine FWD and needle litter in south boreal conditions over a 60-year period showed that 72 g m(-2) of organic matter from FWD vs. 365 g m(-2) from needles accumulated in the forest floor. The annual inputs varied from 5.7 to 15.6 g m(-2) and from 92 to 152 g m(-2) for FWD and needles, respectively. Each thinning caused an increase in FWD inputs, Up to 510 g m(-2), while the needle inputs did not change dramatically. Because the annual FWD inputs were lowered following the thinnings, the overall effect of thinnings on C accumulation from FWD was slightly negative. The contribution of FWD to soil C accumulation, relative to needle litter, seems to be rather minor in boreal Scots pine forests. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."
  • Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Helminen, Mika; Marttunen, Mauri (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002&#8211;2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004&#8211;2005 (T2) (N&#8201;=&#8201;2070, mean age 17.6&#160;years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples.
  • Argente, Jesus; Flores, Raquel; Gutierrez-Arumi, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel A.; Cusco, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A.; Frilander, Mikko J.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A. ' (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2014)
    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences.
  • Ahtiainen, Laura; Mirantes, Cristina; Jahkola, Tiina; Escutenaire, Sophie; Diaconu, Iulia; Osterlund, Pamela; Kanerva, Anna; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (Public Library of Science, 2010)
  • Mikola, Juha; Setälä, Heikki; Virkajärvi, P; Saarijärvi, K; Ilmarinen, K; Voigt, W; Vestberg, M (Duke University Press, 2009)
    Large herbivores can influence plant and soil properties in grassland ecosystems, but especially for belowground biota and processes, the mechanisms that explain these effects are not fully understood. Here, we examine the capability of three grazing mechanisms-plant defoliation, dung and urine return, and physical presence of animals (causing trampling and excreta return in patches)-to explain grazing effects in Phleum pratense-Festuca pratensis dairy cow pasture in Finland. Comparison of control plots and plots grazed by cows showed that grazing maintained original plant-community structure, decreased shoot mass and root N and P concentrations, increased shoot N and P concentrations, and had an inconsistent effect on root mass. Among soil fauna, grazing increased the abundance of fungivorous nematodes and Aporrectodea earthworms and decreased the abundance of detritivorous enchytraeids and Lumbricus earthworms. Grazing also increased soil density and pH but did not affect average soil inorganic-N concentration. To reveal the mechanisms behind these effects, we analyzed results from mowed plots and plots that were both mowed and treated with a dung and urine mixture. This comparison revealed that grazing effects on plant attributes were almost entirely explained by defoliation, with only one partly explained by excreta return. Among belowground attributes, however, the mechanisms were more mixed, with effects explained by defoliation, patchy excreta return, and cow trampling. Average soil inorganic-N concentration was not affected by grazing because it was simultaneously decreased by defoliation and increased by cow presence. Presence of cows created great spatial heterogeneity in soil N availability and abundance of fungivorous nematodes. A greenhouse trial revealed a grazing-induced soil feedback on plant growth, which was explained by patchiness in N availability rather than changes in soil biota. Our results show that grazing effects on plant attributes can be satisfactorily predicted using the effects of defoliation, whereas those on soil fauna and soil N availability need understanding of other mechanisms as well. The results indicate that defoliation-induced changes in plant ecophysiology and the great spatial variation in N availability created by grazers are the two key mechanisms through which large herbivores can control grassland ecosystems.
  • Steffen, Kari T.; Hatakka, Annele; Hofrichter, Martin (American Society for Microbiology, 2003)
    The litter-decomposing basidiomycete Stropharia coronilla, which preferably colonizes grasslands, was found to be capable of metabolizing and mineralizing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. Manganese(II) ions (Mn2+) supplied at a concentration of 200 {micro}M stimulated considerably both the conversion and the mineralization of BaP; the fungus metabolized and mineralized about four and twelve times, respectively, more of the BaP in the presence of supplemental Mn2+ than in the basal medium. This stimulating effect could be attributed to the ligninolytic enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP), whose activity increased after the addition of Mn2+. Crude and purified MnP from S. coronilla oxidized BaP efficiently in a cell-free reaction mixture (in vitro), a process which was enhanced by the surfactant Tween 80. Thus, 100 mg of BaP liter-1 was converted in an in vitro reaction solution containing 1 U of MnP ml-1 within 24 h. A clear indication was found that BaP-1,6-quinone was formed as a transient metabolite, which disappeared over the further course of the reaction. The treatment of a mixture of 16 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as model standards for PAH analysis (total concentration, 320 mg liter-1) with MnP resulted in concentration decreases of 10 to 100% for the individual compounds, and again the stimulating effect of Tween 80 was observed. Probably due to their lower ionization potentials, poorly bioavailable, high-molecular-mass PAHs such as BaP, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene were converted to larger extents than low-molecular-mass ones (e.g., phenanthrene and fluoranthene).