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  • Lahti, Raimo (2008)
    Im Artikel ist ein Blick auf die Linie der Reformierung des finnischen strafrechtlichen Sanktionensystems und auf einzelne Gesetzesänderungen in den letzten 35 Jahren geworfen. Dabei sind die Auswirkungen der Reformen des Sanktionensystems beurteilt worden und kritische Gesichtspunkte zur Überprüfung der Kriminal- und Sanktionspolitik sowie zur Weiterentwicklung des Systems vorgebracht worden. Zugleich ist es ein Ziel gewesen, der gemeineuropäischen Diskussion über diesen Themenbereich Anstösse zu geben.
  • Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Helminen, Mika; Marttunen, Mauri (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples.
  • Steffen, Kari T.; Hatakka, Annele; Hofrichter, Martin (American Society for Microbiology, 2003)
    The litter-decomposing basidiomycete Stropharia coronilla, which preferably colonizes grasslands, was found to be capable of metabolizing and mineralizing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. Manganese(II) ions (Mn2+) supplied at a concentration of 200 {micro}M stimulated considerably both the conversion and the mineralization of BaP; the fungus metabolized and mineralized about four and twelve times, respectively, more of the BaP in the presence of supplemental Mn2+ than in the basal medium. This stimulating effect could be attributed to the ligninolytic enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP), whose activity increased after the addition of Mn2+. Crude and purified MnP from S. coronilla oxidized BaP efficiently in a cell-free reaction mixture (in vitro), a process which was enhanced by the surfactant Tween 80. Thus, 100 mg of BaP liter-1 was converted in an in vitro reaction solution containing 1 U of MnP ml-1 within 24 h. A clear indication was found that BaP-1,6-quinone was formed as a transient metabolite, which disappeared over the further course of the reaction. The treatment of a mixture of 16 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as model standards for PAH analysis (total concentration, 320 mg liter-1) with MnP resulted in concentration decreases of 10 to 100% for the individual compounds, and again the stimulating effect of Tween 80 was observed. Probably due to their lower ionization potentials, poorly bioavailable, high-molecular-mass PAHs such as BaP, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene were converted to larger extents than low-molecular-mass ones (e.g., phenanthrene and fluoranthene).
  • Steffen, Kari T.; Hatakka, Annele; Hofrichter, Martin (American Society for Microbiology, 2002)
    The basidiomycete Collybia diyophila K209, which colonizes forest soil, was found to decompose a natural humic acid isolated from pine-forest litter (LHA) and a synthetic C-14-Iabeled humic acid (14 C-HA) prepared from [U-C-14] catechol in liquid culture. Degradation resulted in the formation of polar, lower-molecular-mass fulvic acid (FA) and carbon dioxide. RA decomposition was considerably enhanced in the presence of Mn 21 (200 muM), leading to 75% conversion of LHA and 50% mineralization of C-14-HA (compared to 60% and 20%, respectively, in the absence of Mn 21). There was a strong indication that manganese peroxidase (MnP), the production of which was noticeably increased in Mn2+-supplemented cultures, was responsible for this effect. The enzyme was produced as a single protein with a pI of 4.7 and a molecular mass of 44 kDa. During solid-state cultivation, C diyophila released substantial amounts of water-soluble FA (predominantly of 0.9 kDa molecular mass) from insoluble litter material. The results indicate that basidiomycetes such as C diyophila which colonize forest litter and soil are involved in humus turnover by their recycling of highmolecular-mass humic substances. Extracellular MnP seems to be a key enzyme in the conversion process.
  • Leonowicz, A.,; Lundell, T.K.; Rogalski, J.; Hatakka, A.I. (Polish society of microbiologists, 1991)
  • Ojanen, Mikko; Suominen, Jari; Kallio, Titti; Lassfolk, Kai (New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 2007)
    This paper presents a line of historic electronic musical instruments designed by Erkki Kurenniemi in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Kurenniemi’s instruments were influenced by digital logic and an experimental attitude towards user interface design. The paper presents an overview of Kurenniemi’s instruments and a detailed description of selected devices. Emphasis is put on user interface issues such as unconventional interactive real-time control and programming methods.
  • Korkeala, H.; Mäki-Petäys, O. (BioMed Central, 1984)
  • Puolanne, Eero; Kivikari, Riitta (Elsevier, 2000)
    Since 1938 several studies on buffering capacity of postrigor meat have been presented. As the methods used have varied considerably it is important to know how to compare the results. The method of titration, mainly the amount of dilution used, has a significant effect on the shape of the obtained buffering capacity curve. When a dilute solution is used, the curve has distinct maximum and minimum points. With less dilution, the buffering capacity curve approaches a shape with no distinct minimum and maximum points in pH range 5.5-7.0. However, it seems possible to estimate the buffering capacity of meat from data based on titrations made with different dilutions. A mean value for buffering capacity valid in pH range 5.5-7.0 can be estimated from titrations made with dilution ratios 1:10 and 1:1. The mean buffering capacity values in pH range 5.5-7.0 were for beef m. longissimus muscle 51 mmol H+/(pH*kg), for pork m. longissimus 52 mmol H+/(pH*kg), for beef m. triceps brachii 48 mmol H+/(pH*kg) and for pork m. triceps brachii 45 mmol H+/(pH*kg). For broiler breast and broiler leg-thigh muscles the corresponding values were 58 and 41 mmol H+/(pH*kg).
  • Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; DECIDE Consortium (BioMed Central Ltd, 2013)
    Abstract Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.
  • Merivirta, Lauri; Koort, Joanna; Kivisaari, Meija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2005)
    Microbiological and sensory changes in vacuum-packaged charcoal-broiled river lampreys from three lamprey processing plants were monitored as a function of time at 8°C. The lampreys were examined every 7 days up to 8 weeks for aerobic plate count (APC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The highest mean APC and LAB were 6.01 log CFU/g and 4.86 log CFU/g, respectively. Only 6 out of 15 lots reached an APC value of 7.0 log CFU/g during storage. The sensory scores remained at the baseline levels after 8 weeks´ storage. Twenty-seven isolates were randomly picked from MRS agar and identified to species level using a 16S and 23S rDNA HindIII RFLP (ribotyping) database and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene if no database match was obtained. Twelve of the 27 isolates were identified as Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. curvatus, and two Leuconostoc mesenteroides and one Weissella halotolerans strain were also detected. Twelve isolates were not identified by the LAB database. However, they possessed very high (99.9%) 16S gene sequence similarity with either Staphylococcus warneri or Staphylococcus pasteuri type strains. The LAB detected, with the exception of W. halotolerans, have commonly been associated with spoilage of fishery products, but in these vacuum-packaged lampreys they were not the dominant organisms within the developing spoilage population.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Nieminen, Marko; O'Hara, Bob; Suomi, Johanna (2007)
    The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) in Finland feeds on the plants Plantago lanceolata and Veronica spicata. These two plant species are distributed heterogeneously and both vary spatially and temporally in iridoid glycoside concentrations. We investigated the associations of plant species and iridoid glycoside (aucubin and catalpol) concentrations with weight, development rate and survival of larvae of the Glanville fritillary under laboratory conditions. In one experiment we compared the performance of split brood groups of larvae feeding on the two plant species collected from natural populations. In the second experiment larvae were fed P. lanceolata lines laboratory selected for high and low aucubin and catalpol concentrations. Larvae fed V. spicata performed better in terms of survival, weight and growth rate than those feeding on P. lanceolata, regardless of iridoid glycoside concentration. However, in the second experiment iridoid glycoside concentration in P. lanceolata was positively associated with larval performance. High iridoid glycoside concentrations retarded development rate of the first instar larvae, whereas later on the development was accelerated by higher concentrations of these compounds. The spatial and temporal variation of plant species suitability and iridoid glycoside content, and larval family level effects of plant chemistry on performance convey a dynamic ecological and evolutionary relationship between these host plants and their specialized herbivore.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Nieminen, Marko; O'Hara, Bob; Suomi, Johanna (2007)
    The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) in Finland feeds on the plants Plantago lanceolata and Veronica spicata. These two plant species are distributed heterogeneously and both vary spatially and temporally in iridoid glycoside concentrations. We investigated the associations of plant species and iridoid glycoside (aucubin and catalpol) concentrations with weight, development rate and survival of larvae of the Glanville fritillary under laboratory conditions. In one experiment we compared the performance of split brood groups of larvae feeding on the two plant species collected from natural populations. In the second experiment larvae were fed P. lanceolata lines laboratory selected for high and low aucubin and catalpol concentrations. Larvae fed V. spicata performed better in terms of survival, weight and growth rate than those feeding on P. lanceolata, regardless of iridoid glycoside concentration. However, in the second experiment iridoid glycoside concentration in P. lanceolata was positively associated with larval performance. High iridoid glycoside concentrations retarded development rate of the first instar larvae, whereas later on the development was accelerated by higher concentrations of these compounds. The spatial and temporal variation of plant species suitability and iridoid glycoside content, and larval family level effects of plant chemistry on performance convey a dynamic ecological and evolutionary relationship between these host plants and their specialized herbivore.
  • Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika IA; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. Methods The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Results Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. Conclusions The developed protocol can be utilized to assess welfare status in an intensive pig farming system. Although further improvements are still needed, this study is a first step in developing a pig welfare assessment protocol that combines animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.
  • Lodenius, Martin; Raukola, Timo; Soltanpour-Gargari, Ali; Tulisalo, Esa; Voigt, Heinz-Rudolf (Universitas Carolinae, 2008)
    A sediment sequence of 52 cm in length was cored from the deepest point (1.5 m) of Lake Sandöträsket, SW Finland (59° 52’ N, 23° 10’ E) close to a steel plant. The frequency of diatom species and the concentrations of ten elements (Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and organic matter were studied. The isolation from the Litorina Sea (now the Baltic Sea) about 3100 years ago was clearly seen in the distribution of diatom species. However, the Cs dating revealed that the upper sediment layers were mixed. The diatom stratigraphy indicates small or moderate changes in pH and trophic status of the lake. The metal distribution was similar for many metals with many fold higher concentrations near the surface compared to the lowest layers. There were strong correlations between metals except for Ca and Mg. Metal concentrations were compared to other lacustrine and marine sediments from the same area. The diatom and metal stratigraphies indicate anthropogenic influence.
  • Schmidt, F.; Vaittinen, O.; Metsälä, M.; Kraus, P.; Halonen, L. (SPRINGER, 2010)
  • Tapio, P. (Elsevier Science Inc., 2003)
    A critical phase of scenario making is the choosing of scenarios. In the worst case, a futures researcher creates scenarios according to his/her subjective views and cannot see the real quality of the study material. Oversimplification is a typical example of this kind of bias. In this study, an attempt towards a more data sensitive method was made using Finnish transport policy as an example. A disaggregative Delphi method as opposed to traditional consensual Delphi was applied. The article summarises eight Delphi pitfalls and gives an example how to avoid them. A tworounded disaggregative Delphi was conducted, the panelists being representatives of interest groups in the traffic sector. Panelists were shown the past development of three correlating key variables in Finland in 1970–1996: GDP, road traffic volume and the carbon dioxide emissions from road traffic. The panelists were invited to give estimates of their organisation to the probable and the preferable futures of the key variables for 1997–2025. They were also asked to give qualitative and quantitative arguments of why and the policy instruments of how their image of the future would occur. The first round data were collected by a fairly open questionnaire and the second round data by a fairly structured interview. The responses of the quantitative three key variables were grouped in a disaggregative way by cluster analysis. The clusters were complemented with respective qualitative arguments in order to form wider scenarios. This offers a relevance to decision-making not afforded by a nonsystematic approach. Of course, there are some problems of cluster analysis used in this way: The interviews revealed that quantitatively similar future images produced by the panelists occasionally had different kind of qualitative background theory. Also, cluster analysis cannot ultimately decide the number of scenarios, being a choice of the researcher. Cluster analysis makes the choice well argued, however.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (University of Helsinki, 1992)
  • Kemppainen, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Kikuchi, R. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    The purpose of this work was to study the distribution of airborne particles in the surroundings of an iron and steel factory in southern Finland. Several sources of particulate emissions are lying side by side, causing heavy dust loading to the environment. This complicated multi-pollutant situation was studied mainly by SEM/EDX methodology. Particles accumulated on Scots pine bark were identified and quantitatively measured according to their element content, size and shape. As a result, distribution maps of particulate elements were drawn and the amount of different particle types along the study lines was plotted. Particulate emissions from the industrial or energy production processes were not the main dust source. Most emissions were produced from the clinker crusher. Numerous stockpiles of the industrial wastes and raw materials also gave rise to particulate emissions as a result of wind erosion. It was concluded that SEM/EDXmethodology is a useful tool for studying the distribution of particulate pollutants.
  • Heliölä, J.; Koivula, M.; Niemelä, J. (Blackwell Science, Inc., 2001)
  • Nevas, M.; Lindström, M.; Hielm, S.; Björkroth, K.J.; Peck, M.; Korkeala, H. (American Society for Microbiology, 2005)
    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to the study of the similarity of 55 strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum group I) types A, AB, B, and F. Rare-cutting restriction enzymes ApaI, AscI, MluI, NruI, PmeI, RsrII, SacII, SmaI, and XhoI were tested for their suitability for the cleavage of DNA of five proteolytic C. botulinum strains. Of these enzymes, SacII, followed by SmaI and XhoI, produced the most convenient number of fragments for genetic typing and were selected for analysis of the 55 strains. The proteolytic C. botulinum species was found to be heterogeneous. In the majority of cases, PFGE enabled discrimination between individual strains of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. The different toxin types were discriminated at an 86% similarity level with both SacII and SmaI and at an 83% similarity level with XhoI. Despite the high heterogeneity, three clusters at a 95% similarity level consisting of more than three strains of different origin were noted. The strains of types A and B showed higher diversity than the type F organisms which formed a single cluster. According to this survey, PFGE is to be considered a useful tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. However, epidemiological conclusions based on PFGE data only should be made with discretion, since highly similar PFGE patterns were noticed, especially within the type B strains.