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  • Bhandage, Amol K.; Jin, Zhe; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R.; Birnir, Bryndis (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014)
  • Vashchinkina, Elena; Panhelainen, Anne; Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R. (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2014)
  • Amorim, Diana; Viisanen, Hanna; Wei, Hong; Almeida, Armando; Pertovaara, Antti; Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    Activation of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) by galanin (GAL) induces behavioural hyperalgesia. Since DMH neurones do not project directly to the spinal cord, we hypothesized that the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), a pronociceptive region projecting to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and/or the serotoninergic raphe-spinal pathway acting on the spinal 5-HT3 receptor (5HT(3)R) could relay descending nociceptive facilitation induced by GAL in the DMH. Heat-evoked paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) and activity of SDH neurones were assessed in monoarthritic (ARTH) and control (SHAM) animals after pharmacological manipulations of the DMH, DRt and spinal cord. The results showed that GAL in the DMH and glutamate in the DRt lead to behavioural hyperalgesia in both SHAM and ARTH animals, which is accompanied particularly by an increase in heat-evoked responses of wide-dynamic range neurons, a group of nociceptive SDH neurones. Facilitation of pain behaviour induced by GAL in the DMH was reversed by lidocaine in the DRt and by ondansetron, a 5HT(3)R antagonist, in the spinal cord. However, the hyperalgesia induced by glutamate in the DRt was not blocked by spinal ondansetron. In addition, in ARTH but not SHAM animals PWL was increased after lidocaine in the DRt and ondansetron in the spinal cord. Our data demonstrate that GAL in the DMH activates two independent descending facilitatory pathways: (i) one relays in the DRt and (ii) the other one involves 5-HT neurones acting on spinal 5HT(3)Rs. In experimental ARTH, the tonic pain-facilitatory action is increased in both of these descending pathways.
  • Mäntylä, Jorma Allan (Matemaattisten aineiden opettajien liitto MAOL ry, 2009)
    Tarkastelun kohteena on Galileo Galilein ja John Miltonin tapaaminen 1638 sekä Galilein inkvisitio-oikeudenkäynnin vaikutus John Miltonin käsitykseen sananvapaudesta. Artikkelia on täydennetty 2009.
  • Copenhagen, D.R.; Donner, K.; Reuter, T. (Blackwell, 1987)
    1. The performance of ganglion cells in detecting flashes of light near the absolute threshold was studied in an isolated eye-cup preparation of toad retina. Retinal ganglion cells, through which all visual information from the rods must flow to the brain, are in a key position for evaluating the still unproven hypothesis that the absolute light sensitivity is limited by rod noise (Barlow, 1956). 2. The dark-adapted threshold intensity for these cells, which were selected on the basis of their high sensitivity, averaged 0.029 Rh* flash-1 (range 0.008- 0.062), where Rh* signifies one photoisomerization per rod. On average, 46 photoisomerizations were needed per receptive field per flash to evoke a threshold response (range 16-84). 3. In the threshold region, frequency of responses versus mean flash intensity was determined. Threshold performance could be described by theoretical frequency of response curves, allowing intrinsic noise to be estimated in terms of an equivalent rate of photoisomerization-like (dark) events. In two completely characterized cells the rate of dark events corresponded to 0.03 and 0.06 Rh*DS-1, where Rh*D signifies one dark event per rod. 4. Threshold elevations produced by dim backgrounds were studied. The results of these experiments are consistent with a dark event rate equivalent to 0.046 Rh*DS-1, or 0.037 Rh*DS-1 after correcting for a probable decrease in summation time. 5. The rate of actual dark events (0.028 Rh*DS-1, 20 degrees C) measured in Bufo rods (Baylor, Lamb & Yau, 1980) is close to the equivalent rates determined here. Thus, for the ganglion cells signalling the dimmest lights, the dark events in rods appear to be the most significant intrinsic retinal noise source limiting detection.
  • Koivula, M.; Niemelä, J. (Blackwell, 2003)
    In order to study the ecological effects of logging combined with mechanical soil preparation, we sampled carabid beetles with pitfall trapping in nine spruce-dominated stands in central Finland in 1995–1998. Three of the stands were left intact as controls. Three 1600-m2 openings per stand were logged in the winter 1995–1996 into six stands. In three of these stands, light soil preparation was applied. Logging affected the species assemblages, but soil preparation per se had no clear effects. Open-habitat species increased in abundance in the openings one year after logging, but catches of generalist species in the different treatments did not differ from each other. A forest species, Calathus micropterus, was least abundant in the prepared openings. The amounts of logging residue, exposed mineral soil and aggregated humus, as well as the abundance of red wood ants, significantly explained variation in carabid assemblages.
  • Rizzo, A.F.; Korkeala, H.; Mononen, I. (American Society for Microbiology, 1987)
    Cellular fatty acids and monosaccharides in a group of 14 lactobacilli were analyzed by gas chromatography and the identity of the components was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the same bacterial sample, both monosaccharides and fatty acids were liberated by methanolysis, and in certain experiments, fatty acids alone were released by basic hydrolysis. The results indicate that basic hydrolysis gave more comprehensive information about the fatty acids, but the analysis of monosaccharides was found to be much more useful in distinguishing between different species of lactobacilli. The method described allowed differentiation of 11 of 14 Lactobacillus species, and even single colonies isolated from agar plates could be used for analysis without subculturing.
  • Ylä-Ajos, Maria; Tuominen, Satu; Hänninen, Laura; Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero; Valros, Anna (Taylor & Francis, 2012)
    1. Investigations were made into the breast and leg muscle energy metabolism, and the quality of breast meat of turkeys after controlled atmosphere stunning or stun-killing (CAS) with various gas mixtures. In addition, the effect on meat quality of an increase in the chilling rate of turkey breast meat after hypercapnic or anoxic stun-killing was studied. 2. A total of 35 turkey toms within two replicate pens were individually stunned during consecutive weeks using one of 4 CAS methods. The stunning gases tested were high CO2 concentration (60% CO2 in air), high N2 concentration (98% N2, 2% O2), a mixture of 76% N2 and 24% CO2, and a biphasic method (first minute in mixture containing 40% CO2, 30% N2, and 30% O2; followed by two minutes in a mixture containing 60% CO2 in air). 3. The birds stunned with N2 displayed the highest initial reduction in muscle pH, but after 4 h post mortem there were no differences in pH values associated with the various CAS methods. 4. The CAS method alone had no statistically significant effect on the quality of turkey breast muscle when the chilling speed was rapid (0°C for 4 h, followed by storage at 4°C). When the chilling rate was slowed (20°C for4 h followed by storage at 4°C), a significant decrease in cooking loss and in Warner-Bratzler shear force was recorded for birds stun-killed with CO2. 5. This study shows that anoxic stun-killing with N2 had no adverse effects on meat quality despite the rapid post mortem pH decrease. The CAS with N2 allows rapid cooling of carcases without the risk of cold shortening, whereas with CO2-stun-killing of turkeys, the rate of chilling should be slower. Concerning meat quality, all the CAS methods tested were suitable for stunning turkeys.
  • Väliverronen, Esa (Viestinnän laitos, 2007)
    13
    Tässä kirjassa tutkin sitä, millaisten tarinoiden, kuvien ja vertauskuvien kautta biotekniikasta ja geenitutkimuksen sovelluksista on kerrottu mediassa. Tärkeimpänä aineistoa ovat YLE:n ja MTV3: n geeniperimää ja biotekniikkaa käsittelevät tv-uutiset vuosilta 1985–2000. Nämä runsaat 200 uutisjuttuja antavat kiinnostavan läpileikkauksen aiheen käsittelystä ja muutoksista runsaan kymmenen vuoden aikana. Televisiouutisten lisäksi käytän aiheen taustoituksessa ja kahdessa tapausanalyysissa laajempaa media-aineistoa kuten sanoma- ja aikakauslehtiä ja tv-dokumentteja. Nämä tapaukset ovat paljon julkisuutta saaneet siirtogeeninen Huomen -lehmä sekä ihmisen geeniperimää kartoittanut Human Genome -projekti. Satunnaisemmin viittaan myös muutamiin elokuviin ja mainoksiin.
  • Helenius, I.; Keskinen, H.; Syvanen, J.; Lukkarinen, H.; Mattila, Mikko; Valipakka, J.; Pajulo, O. (British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery, 2016)
    Aims In a multicentre, randomised study of adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis, we investigated the effect of adding gelatine matrix with human thrombin to the standard surgical methods of controlling blood loss. Patients and Methods Patients in the intervention group (n = 30) were randomised to receive a minimum of two and a maximum of four units of gelatine matrix with thrombin in addition to conventional surgical methods of achieving haemostasis. Only conventional surgical methods were used in the control group (n = 30). We measured the intra-operative and total blood loss (intra-operative blood loss plus post-operative drain output). Results Each additional hour of operating time increased the intra-operative blood loss by 356.9 ml (p <0.001) and the total blood loss by 430.5 ml (p <0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the intervention significantly decreased the intra-operative (-171 ml, p = 0.025) and total blood loss (-177 ml, p = 0.027). The decrease in haemoglobin concentration from the day before the operation to the second post-operative day was significantly smaller in the intervention group (-6 g/I, p = 0.013) than in the control group. Conclusion The addition of gelatine matrix with human thrombin to conventional methods of achieving haemostasis reduces both the intra-operative blood loss and the decrease in haemoglobin concentration post-operatively in adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. Take home message: A randomised clinical trial showed that gelatine matrix with human thrombin decreases intra-operative blood loss by 30% when added to traditional surgical haemostatic methods in adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut; Mckie, Linda (SAGE, 2012)
  • Kivikangas, J. Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2014)
  • Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M. H.; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M. Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta R.; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P.; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Reinders, Marcel J. T. (Springer, 2016)
    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.
  • Enroth, Johannes (Puutarhaliitto, 2012)
  • Joensuu, Tarja; Tegelberg, Saara; Reinmaa, Eva; Segerstrale, Mikael; Hakala, Paula; Pehkonen, Heidi; Korpi, Esa R.; Vesterinen, Jaana; Taira, Tomi; Hovatta, Iiris; Kopra, Outi; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2014)
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Siitonen, H. A; Nuutila, Kristo; Tervaniemi, Mari H; Vuola, Jyrki; Johnsson, Anna; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten; Elomaa, Outi; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Keratinocytes (KCs) are the most frequent cells in the epidermis, and they are often isolated and cultured in vitro to study the molecular biology of the skin. Cultured primary cells and various immortalized cells have been frequently used as skin models but their comparability to intact skin has been questioned. Moreover, when analyzing KC transcriptomes, fluctuation of polyA+ RNA content during the KCs’ lifecycle has been omitted. Results We performed STRT RNA sequencing on 10 ng samples of total RNA from three different sample types: i) epidermal tissue (split-thickness skin grafts), ii) cultured primary KCs, and iii) HaCaT cell line. We observed significant variation in cellular polyA+ RNA content between tissue and cell culture samples of KCs. The use of synthetic RNAs and SAMstrt in normalization enabled comparison of gene expression levels in the highly heterogenous samples and facilitated discovery of differences between the tissue samples and cultured cells. The transcriptome analysis sensitively revealed genes involved in KC differentiation in skin grafts and cell cycle regulation related genes in cultured KCs and emphasized the fluctuation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs associated to sample types. Conclusions The epidermal keratinocytes derived from tissue and cell culture samples showed highly different polyA+ RNA contents. The use of SAMstrt and synthetic RNA based normalization allowed the comparison between tissue and cell culture samples and thus proved to be valuable tools for RNA-seq analysis with translational approach. Transciptomics revealed clear difference both between tissue and cell culture samples and between primary KCs and immortalized HaCaT cells.
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Siitonen, H. A; Nuutila, Kristo; Tervaniemi, Mari H; Vuola, Jyrki; Johnsson, Anna; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten; Elomaa, Outi; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Keratinocytes (KCs) are the most frequent cells in the epidermis, and they are often isolated and cultured in vitro to study the molecular biology of the skin. Cultured primary cells and various immortalized cells have been frequently used as skin models but their comparability to intact skin has been questioned. Moreover, when analyzing KC transcriptomes, fluctuation of polyA+ RNA content during the KCs’ lifecycle has been omitted. Results We performed STRT RNA sequencing on 10 ng samples of total RNA from three different sample types: i) epidermal tissue (split-thickness skin grafts), ii) cultured primary KCs, and iii) HaCaT cell line. We observed significant variation in cellular polyA+ RNA content between tissue and cell culture samples of KCs. The use of synthetic RNAs and SAMstrt in normalization enabled comparison of gene expression levels in the highly heterogenous samples and facilitated discovery of differences between the tissue samples and cultured cells. The transcriptome analysis sensitively revealed genes involved in KC differentiation in skin grafts and cell cycle regulation related genes in cultured KCs and emphasized the fluctuation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs associated to sample types. Conclusions The epidermal keratinocytes derived from tissue and cell culture samples showed highly different polyA+ RNA contents. The use of SAMstrt and synthetic RNA based normalization allowed the comparison between tissue and cell culture samples and thus proved to be valuable tools for RNA-seq analysis with translational approach. Transciptomics revealed clear difference both between tissue and cell culture samples and between primary KCs and immortalized HaCaT cells.
  • Majumder, Mamun; Kumar, Ashwini; Heckman, Caroline; Kankainen, Matti; Pesonen, Sari; Jäger , Elke; Karbach , Julia; Joensuu, Timo; Kairemo, Kalevi; Partanen, Kaarina; Alanko, Tuomo; Hemminki, Akseli; Backman, Charlotta; Dienel, Kasper; von Euler, Mikael; Hakonen, Tiina; Juhila, Juuso; Ranki, Tuuli; Vassilev, Lotta; Vuolanto, Antti; Jaderberg, Magnus (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
  • Tiraboschi, Ettore; Guirado, Ramon; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Jose; Maffei, Lamberto; Castren, Eero (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013)