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Now showing items 1386-1405 of 3958
  • Björklund, Heidi Maaria Talvikki; Valkama, Jari Pentti Tapani; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100–4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992–2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.
  • Lehtonen, J.T.; Mustonen, O.; Ramiarinjanahary, H.; Niemelä, J.; Rita, H. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001)
    We used logistic and Poisson regression models to determine factors of forest and landscape structure that influence the presence and abundance of rodent species in the rain forest of Ranomafana National Park in southeastern Madagascar. Rodents were collected using live-traps along a gradient of human disturbance. All five endemic rodent species (Nesomys rufus, N. audeberti, Eliurus tanala, E. minor and E. webbi) and the introduced rat Rattus rattus were captured in both secondary and primary forests, but the introduced Mus musculus was only trapped in secondary forest. The abundance of R. rattus increased with the level of habitat disturbance, and it was most common in the heavily logged secondary forest. Furthermore, the probability of the presence of R. rattus increased with decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing canopy cover, while the probability of presence increased with increasing herbaceous cover, altitude and overstory tree height. The species was never observed farther than 500 m away from human habitation or camp-site. N. rufus prefered selectively-logged forest at altitudes above 900 m a.s.l. Its probability of presence increased with increasing canopy cover, herbaceous cover and distance from forest edge, and with decreasing density of fallen logs, overstory tree height and distance from human habitation. N. audeberti prefered heavily-logged areas, while E. tanala was the only species occurring along the entire range of forest disturbance. We suggest that in the Ranomafana National Park the spread of R. rattus is associated with deforestation.
  • Ridell, J.; Siitonen, A.; Paulin, L.; Mattila, L.; Korkeala, H.; Albert, M.J. (American Society for Microbiology, 1994)
    We found an epidemiological association of Hafnia alvei with diarrhea, because the organism was isolated from 12 of 77 (16%) adult Finnish tourists to Morocco who developed diarrhea and from 0 of 321 tourists without diarrhea (P < 0.001). From another group of 112 adult Finnish diarrheal patients, only 2 (2%) yielded H. alvei. In contrast to some Bangladeshi strains of H. alvei, the Finnish strains were negative for the attachment-effacement lesion by an in vitro fluorescent acting staining test and also did not show homology to the Escherichia coli attachment-effacement gene (eaeA) by PCR. These results suggest that a mechanism or mechanisms other than the attachment-effacement lesion may also be involved in the association of H. alvei with diarrhea.
  • Lodenius, M.; Seppänen, A. (Pergamon Press Ltd., 1982)
  • Vihavainen, Timo (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 1994)
  • Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Lähteenmäki, Ritva; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Partinen, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Benzodiazepines and related drugs affect physical functioning negatively and increase fall and fracture risk. As impaired muscle strength and balance are risk factors for falls, we examined the effects of hypnotic withdrawal on handgrip strength and balance in older adult outpatients during and after long-term use of temazepam, zopiclone and zolpidem (here collectively referred to as &#8220;benzodiazepines&#8221;). Methods Eighty-nine chronic users (59 women, 30 men) of temazepam, zopiclone or zolpidem aged &#8805;55&#160;years participated in a benzodiazepine withdrawal study. Individual physician-directed withdrawal was performed gradually over a one-month period and participants were followed up to six months. Handgrip strength was assessed using a handheld dynamometer, and balance using the Short Berg&#8217;s Balance Scale during the period of benzodiazepine use (baseline), and at 1, 2, 3 weeks, and 1, 2 and 6 months after initiating withdrawal. Withdrawal outcome and persistence were determined by plasma benzodiazepine-determinations at baseline and at four weeks (&#8220;short-term withdrawers&#8221;, n = 69; &#8220;short-term non-withdrawers&#8221;, n = 20), and by interviews at six months (&#8220;long-term withdrawers&#8221;, n = 34; &#8220;long-term non-withdrawers&#8221;, n = 55). Also most of the non-withdrawers markedly reduced their benzodiazepine use. Results Within three weeks after initiating withdrawal, handgrip strength improved significantly (P&#8201;&#8804;&#8201;0.005) compared to baseline values. Among women, long-term withdrawers improved their handgrip strength both when compared to their baseline values (P = 0.001) or to non-withdrawers (P =0.004). In men, improvement of handgrip strength from baseline was not significantly better in withdrawers than in non-withdrawers. However, men did improve their handgrip strength values compared to baseline (P = 0.002). Compared to balance test results at baseline, withdrawers improved starting from the first week after withdrawal initiation. There was, however, only a borderline difference (P = 0.054) in balance improvement between the long-term withdrawers and long-term non-withdrawers. Of note, the non-withdrawers tended to improve their handgrip strength and balance compared to baseline values, in parallel with their reduced benzodiazepine use. Conclusions Withdrawal from long-term use of benzodiazepines can rapidly improve muscle strength and balance. Our results encourage discontinuing benzodiazepine hypnotics, particularly in older women who are at a high risk of falling and sustaining fractures. Trial registration EU Clinical Trials Register: EudraCT2008000679530. Registered 31 October 2008
  • Kaartinen, Timo (University of Illinois Press, 2013)
    The topic of this article is the reproduction of tradition among the Bandanese, an Eastern Indonesian people. I analyze the style and rhetoric of songs that tell about ancestral sea voyages. The question I address is what happens to the value of the songs as tradition when they turn from oral performances into circulating texts. I explore several contexts of performance and transmission and argue that the songs can be embedded in lived realities in different ways. By writing the songs down, the Bandanese reorganize their tradition into new genres of text and performance. Their metadiscourse of tradition affirms that these genres represent the exemplary, complete language of the ancestors. Although singers and writers affirm the artistic, textual, and cultural completeness of their arts, they are reluctant to pass on their knowledge in an already integrated form.
  • Strandin Tomas; Hepojoki Jussi; Wang Hao; Vaheri Antti; Lankinen Hilkka (2008)
    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the apathogenic Tula hantavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 epithelial cells. To assess the molecular mechanisms behind the induced apoptosis we studied the effects of hantavirus infection on cellular signaling pathways which promote cell survival. We previously also observed that the Tula virus-induced cell death process is augmented by external TNF-a ... [More]
  • HaploRec 
    Eronen, Lauri; Geerts, Floris; Toivonen, Hannu (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2006)
  • Palta, Priit; Kaplinski, Lauris; Nagirnaja, Liina; Veidenberg, Andres; Moels, Maert; Nelis, Mari; Esko, Tonu; Metspalu, Andres; Laan, Maris; Remm, Maido (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    DNA copy number variants (CNVs) that alter the copy number of a particular DNA segment in the genome play an important role in human phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. A number of CNVs overlapping with genes have been shown to confer risk to a variety of human diseases thus highlighting the relevance of addressing the variability of CNVs at a higher resolution. So far, it has not been possible to deterministically infer the allelic composition of different haplotypes present within the CNV regions. We have developed a novel computational method, called PiCNV, which enables to resolve the haplotype sequence composition within CNV regions in nuclear families based on SNP genotyping microarray data. The algorithm allows to i) phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes in the copy number variable regions, ii) resolve the allelic copies of rearranged DNA sequence within the haplotypes and iii) infer the heritability of identified haplotypes in trios or larger nuclear families. To our knowledge this is the first program available that can deterministically phase null, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraploid genotypes in CNV loci. We applied our method to study the composition and inheritance of haplotypes in CNV regions of 30 HapMap Yoruban trios and 34 Estonian families. For 93.6% of the CNV loci, PiCNV enabled to unambiguously phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes and follow their transmission in the corresponding families. Furthermore, allelic composition analysis identified the co-occurrence of alternative allelic copies within 66.7% of haplotypes carrying copy number gains. We also observed less frequent transmission of CNV-carrying haplotypes from parents to children compared to normal haplotypes and identified an emergence of several de novo deletions and duplications in the offspring.
  • Mälksoo, Maria (University of Cambridge (Memory at War-research group), 2012)
  • Roinila, Markku (Eurooppalaisen filosofian seura, 2009)
  • Toivanen, Jukka; Järvisalo, Matti; Toivonen, Hannu (2013)
  • Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Oliver-De-La-Cruz, Jorge; Mirabet, Vicente; Gandia, Carolina; Villagrasa, Alejandro; Sodupe, Enrique; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen (Cambridge University Press, 2015)
    Heart disease, including valve pathologies, is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the progress made thanks to improving transplantation techniques, a perfect valve substitute has not yet been developed: once a diseased valve is replaced with current technologies, the newly implanted valve still needs to be changed some time in the future. This situation is particularly dramatic in the case of children and young adults, because of the necessity of valve growth during the patient's life. Our review focuses on the current status of heart valve (HV) therapy and the challenges that must be solved in the development of new approaches based on tissue engineering. Scientists and physicians have proposed tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) as the most promising solution for HV replacement, especially given that they can help to avoid thrombosis, structural deterioration and xenoinfections. Lastly, TEHVs might also serve as a model for studying human valve development and pathologies.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Estonian Marine Institute, 2004)
  • Heliövaara, K.; Väisänen, R.; Kemppi, E.; Lodenius, M. (Entomologica Fennica ry., 1990)