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  • Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Karimäki, Veikko; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampen, Pekka Tapio; Lehti, Sami Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Wendland, Lauri Andreas (2010)
  • Björkroth, Johanna; Vandamme, Peter; Korkeala, Hannu (American Society for Microbiology (ASM), 1998)
    Leuconostoc carnosum was shown to be the specific spoilage organism in vacuum-packaged, sliced, cooked ham showing spoilage during 3 weeks of shelf life. Identification of the specific spoilage organism was done by use of phenotypic data and ClaI, EcoRI, and HindIII reference strain ribopatterns. One hundred L. carnosum isolates associated with the production and spoilage of the ham were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), together with some meat-associated Leuconostoc species: L. citreum, L. gelidum, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum, and L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. ApaI and SmaI digests divided the industrial L. carnosum strains into 25 different PFGE types, ApaI and SmaI types being consistent. Only one specific PFGE type was associated with the spoiled packages. This type also was detected in air and raw-meat mass samples. The spoilage strain did not produce bacteriocins. Only seven isolates belonging to three different PFGE types produced bacteriocins. Similarity analysis of the industrial L. carnosum strains revealed a homogeneous cluster which could be divided into eight subclusters consisting of strains having at most three-fragment differences. The L. carnosum cluster was clearly distinguished from the other meatassociated leuconostoc clusters, with the exception of the L. carnosum type strain. Ribotyping can be very helpful in the identification of L. carnosum, but its discriminatory power is too weak for strain characterization. PFGE provides good discrimination for studies dealing with the properties of homogeneous L. carnosum strains.
  • Chatrchyan, Serguei; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti; Lampen, Pekka Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Katri Marjaana; Lehti, Sami Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo H; Nysten, Jukka Sakari; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri Andreas; CMS Collaboration (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2010)
  • Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Kupiainen, K. (American Geophysical Union, 2002)
  • Keto-Timonen, R.; Heikinheimo, A.; Eerola, E.; Korkeala, H. (American Society for Microbiology, 2006)
    An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied to 129 strains representing 24 different Clostridium species, with special emphasis on pathogenic clostridia of medical or veterinary interest, to assess the potential of AFLP for identification of clostridia. In addition, the ability of the same AFLP protocol to type clostridia at the strain level was assessed by focusing on Clostridium perfringens strains. All strains were typeable by AFLP, so the method seemed to overcome the problem of extracellular DNase production. AFLP differentiated all Clostridium species tested, except for Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium limosum, which clustered together with a 45% similarity level. Other Clostridium species were divided into species-specific clusters or occupied separate positions. Wide genetic diversity was observed among Clostridium botulinum strains, which were divided into seven species-specific clusters. The same AFLP protocol was also suitable for typing C. perfringens at the strain level. A total of 29 different AFLP types were identified for 37 strains of C. perfringens; strains initially originating from the same isolate showed identical fingerprinting patterns and were distinguished from unrelated strains. AFLP proved to be a highly reproducible, easy-to-perform, and relatively fast method which enables high throughput of samples and can serve in the generation of identification libraries. These results indicate that the AFLP method provides a promising tool for the identification and characterization of Clostridium species.
  • Lyhs, Ulrike; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2002)
    A total of 296 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from spoiled, vacuum-packaged ‘gravad’ rainbow trout stored at 3ºC and 8ºC were characterised and identified using a molecular approach. The isolates were initially grouped according to their HindIII restriction endonuclease profiles and further identified to species level using a rRNA gene restriction pattern (ribotype) identification database. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Carnobacterium piscicola were the three main species detected. Only one isolate was identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Most of the carnobacteria were found in the samples stored at 3ºC. The relative proportion of L. sakei was higher in the samples stored at 8ºC.
  • Oza, Nilay; Münch, Jürgen; Garbajosa, Juan; Yague, Agustin; Gonzalez Ortega, Eloy (2013)
    Cloud-based infrastructure has been increasingly adopted by the industry in distributed software development (DSD) environments. Its proponents claim that its several benefits include reduced cost, increased speed and greater productivity in software development. Empirical evaluations, however, are in the nascent stage of examining both the benefits and the risks of cloud-based in-frastructure. The objective of this paper is to identify potential benefits and risks of using cloud in a DSD project conducted by teams based in Helsinki and Ma-drid. A cross-case qualitative analysis is performed based on focus groups con-ducted at the Helsinki and Madrid sites. Participants’ observations are used to supplement the analysis. The results of the analysis indicated that the main ben-efits of using cloud are rapid development, continuous integration, cost savings, code sharing, and faster ramp-up. The key risks determined by the project are dependencies, unavailability of access to the cloud, code commitment and inte-gration, technical debt, and additional support costs. The results revealed that if such environments are not planned and set up carefully, the benefits of using cloud in DSD projects might be overshadowed by the risks associated with it.
  • Unknown author (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2003)
  • Piirainen, Timo (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 1994)
  • Kopomaa, Timo (2010)
    Kännykän käyttöä kartoittavissa tutkimuksissa on meillä toistaiseksi keskitytty pääosin työikäiseen väestöön sekä nuoriin ja jopa lapsiin. Tämä pilottiluonteinen selvitys kuvaa ikäihmisten kännykkätottumuksia.
  • Li, Y.; Gao, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, S.; Niemelä, J. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000)
    The Himalayan region of China, with its rich biodiversity, used to be important for hunting and collecting of medicinal plants. In the past decades, conservation attitudes and legislation for wildlife conservation have developed rapidly in China. Increasing numbers of species are listed in the state protection list and local protection lists. In the Himalayan region, the area of natural reserves is high accounting for 70% of total area of natural reserves in China. However, wildlife in Himalayan region is suffering from illegal hunting and trade even after China has enforced the China Wildlife Protection Law (CWPL). The illegal wildlife trade and smuggling across Sino-neighbouring country borders and illegal wildlife trade related to domestic use flourish in the region. Although domestic illegal trade has declined in the past ten years, international illegal trade and smuggling continue, and are even expanding, thereby threatening survival of many endangered species such as the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni), Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Illegal wildlife trade in the region is attributed to four factors. First, the CWPL is still imperfect, especially concerning illegal trade and smuggling across borders. Second, CWPL is not fully enforced. Third, infrastructure in many nature reserves is undeveloped and human resources are lacking. Fourth, protection is hampered by differences in the laws of neighbouring countries, differences in penalties and in degrees of protection. Furthermore, national legislation is often not fully enforced in areas that are inhabited mainly by tribal and minority communities.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Lehtonen, A.; Liski, J. (Sanoma, 2008)
  • Akl, Elie A; Kahale, Lara A; Agarwal, Arnav; Al-Matari, Nada; Ebrahim, Shanil; Alexander, Paul E; Briel, Matthias; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Busse, Jason W; Diab, Batoul; Iorio, Alfonso; Kwong, Joey; Li, Ling; Lopes, Luciane C; Mustafa, Reem; Neumann, Ignacio; Tikkinen, Kari AO; Vandvik, Per O; Zhang, Yuqing; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Guyatt, Gordon (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background There is no consensus on how authors conducting meta-analysis should deal with trial participants with missing outcome data. The objectives of this study are to assess in Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews: (1) which categories of trial participants the systematic review authors consider as having missing participant data (MPD), (2) how trialists reported on participants with missing outcome data in trials, (3) whether systematic reviewer authors actually dealt with MPD in their meta-analyses of dichotomous outcomes consistently with their reported methods, and (4) the impact of different methods of dealing with MPD on pooled effect estimates in meta-analyses of dichotomous outcomes. Methods/Design We will conduct a methodological study of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Eligible systematic reviews will include a group-level meta-analysis of a patient-important dichotomous efficacy outcome, with a statistically significant effect estimate. Teams of two reviewers will determine eligibility and subsequently extract information from each eligible systematic review in duplicate and independently, using standardized, pre-piloted forms. The teams will then use a similar process to extract information from the trials included in the meta-analyses of interest. We will assess first which categories of trial participants the systematic reviewers consider as having MPD. Second, we will assess how trialists reported on participants with missing outcome data in trials. Third, we will compare what systematic reviewers report having done, and what they actually did, in dealing with MPD in their meta-analysis. Fourth, we will conduct imputation studies to assess the effects of different methods of dealing with MPD on the pooled effect estimates of meta-analyses. We will specifically calculate for each method (1) the percentage of systematic reviews that lose statistical significance and (2) the mean change of effect estimates across systematic reviews. Discussion The impact of different methods of dealing with MPD on pooled effect estimates will help judge the associated risk of bias in systematic reviews. Our findings will inform recommendations regarding what assumptions for MPD should be used to test the robustness of meta-analytical results.
  • Suominen, O.; Niemelä, J.; Martikainen, P.; Niemelä, P.; Kojola, I. (Blackwell, 2003)
    Reindeer Rangifer tarandus L. grazing shapes forest vegetation, microclimate, and soil respiration in Lapland, especially due to grazing on lichens (Cladina). We studied how these changes and their magnitude affect ground-dwelling species of beetle families Carabidae (predators) and Curculionidae (herbivores), by using pitfall traps to collect invertebrates from pairs of grazed and ungrazed study plots over a wide range of site types. Changes in abundance, composition, richness and diversity of beetle assemblage were tested in relation to magnitude of the impacts on vegetation. The species compositions of Carabidae and Curculionidae differed between grazed and ungrazed plots in all sites. The relative difference between grazed and ungrazed plots in the number of individuals increased linearly with the impact of reindeer on vegetation cover. Carabid beetles, as a family, were more common in grazed plots in all sites. Curculionid beetles were more common in ungrazed plots in the birch dominated sites. This difference was mainly due to the species that feeds on deciduous leaves. In the pine dominated sites with high Cladina cover and more changes in ground vegetation, the number of curculionids feeding on conifers was higher in grazed plots. Species richness and diversity (H’) of both families were higher in grazed plots. Of the total 27 species, 11 were found only in grazed plots, while not a single species was found only in ungrazed plots. The relative difference between plots in diversity and evennes (H’/H’max) had humped response to the difference in Cladina cover. The diversity values were greater in grazed plots at the intermediate levels of grazing impact, and only in sites with very low or extremely high Cladina cover difference was the diversity higher in ungrazed plots. The response of beetle diversity resembled the hypotheses suggested for the relationship between grazing and vegetation diversity: greatest positive effect at intermediate grazing intensity and negative effects at unproductive sites.
  • Kojola, Soili; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2004)
    Drained peatlands in northern Europe comprise more than 10 million ha of forestland and thus constitute a considerable production potential in forestry. Much of this area consists of stands dominated by Scots pine and close to maturity regarding commercial thinning. The trees within these stands typically vary in terms of age, size, and growth rate. The impacts of silvicultural cuttings on these uneven-structured stands are inadequately known. We simulated the impacts of a control regime with no thinnings, and three different thinning regimes, involving different thinning intensities, on the development of fifteen pine-dominated stands in Finland. The simulations started from the first thinnings and were continued until regeneration maturity. The predicted total yields ranged from 244 to 595 m3ha-1, depending on site and thinning regime. The highest total yields were observed for the control regime in which 18-38% of the yield was, however, predicted to self-thin by the end of the simulation. Thus, the differences in the yields of merchantable wood were fairly small among the compared regimes. However, the regimes involving thinnings generally needed less time than the control regime to reach regeneration maturity. The mean annual increment of total stem volume was at its highest in the control regime. The highest mean annual increment of merchantable wood was obtained in the regime involving two moderate thinnings, but excluding the most low-productive sites where thinnings did not increase the yield of merchantable wood.
  • Mayer, A.L.; Kauppi, P.E.; Angelstam, P.K.; Zhang, Y.; Tikka, P.M. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2005)
    Covering 32% of the planet, boreal forests are one of the last relatively intact terrestrial biomes, and are a critical carbon sink in global climate dynamics. Mature and old-growth boreal forests provide a large number of products that are culturally and economically important, from wood-based lumber, pulp, and fuel wood, to numerous nonwood products. Intensive wood harvest and conservation of naturally dynamic intact forests tend to be mutually exclusive; where biodiversity is highly valued, wood harvests are limited or banned outright. The authors of this Policy Forum advise that increasing domestic forest protection without decreasing demand for wood necessitates an increase in foreign imports, which introduces a negative impact on forest biodiversity elsewhere. In some cases, exporting impact across the border may cause negative impacts to boomerang back into the country's protected forests.
  • Louhiala, Pekka; Puustinen, Raimo; Hemilä, Harri (Public Library of Science, 2013)
    Howick et al. have reported the findings of a survey that addressed the use of placebos among primary care practitioners in the United Kingdom. They adopted methodology similar to that used in previous studies performed in other countries; however, the use of this approach also means that they repeated the conceptual confusion of the previous surveys. Therefore the findings are not useful. ... The paper’s main finding “placebos are commonly used in UK primary care” is not correct. Only 0.9% of the responding general practitioners reported using pure placebos frequently. The frequency with which impure placebos are used is irrelevant because the concept is useless, as described above. Misleading a patient by administering inert substances without the explicit consent of the patient is unethical. The authors' proposal to “develop ethical and cost-effective placebos” is not possible because saving money by misleading patients is unethical. There is substantial conceptual confusion in the area of placebo and placebo-effect research, and the paper by Howick et al. does not help to reduce this confusion.