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Now showing items 1489-1508 of 2673
  • Autio-Sarasmo, Sari (SLAVICA PUBLISHERS, INC., 2013)
    Reviewed books: Stephen Brain, Song of the Forest: Russian Forestry and Stalinist Enviromentalism 1905-1953 Tricia Cusack, Riverscapes and National Identities: Space, Place, and Society Anthony Heywood, Engineer of Revolutionary Russia: Iurii V. Lomonosov (1876-1952)
  • Keskitalo, Esa-Pekka (NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND,, 2009)
  • Kaasinen, Eevi; Aavikko, Mervi; Vahteristo, Pia; Patama, Toni; Li, Yilong; Saarinen, Silva; Kilpivaara, Outi; Pitkänen, Esa; Knekt, Paul; Laaksonen, Maarit; Lehtonen, Rainer; Artama, Miia; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Pukkala, Eero (Public Library of Science, 2013)
    Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001). We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions found in this study.
  • Lehvävirta, S.; Rita, H. (Opulus Press, 2002)
  • Hulden, Lena; Hulden, Larry; Heliövaara, Kari (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD., 2008)
  • Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Sundberg, Markku R. (NATURFAGSENTERET, 2009)
    The aim of this study was to discover how current chemistry syllabi in the frame curricula for up- per secondary education in three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden) take into account topics related to the nature of chemistry. By qualitative content analysis, the statements related to the nature of chemistry were divided into categories. Conclusions and implications for improving the frame curricula under study were made by comparing results with research into the nature of science. Chemistry syllabi from the Nordic frame curricula analyzed take into account the aims related to the nature of chemistry in a very similar manner. The ideas that should be made more explicit in all of the analyzed curricula are: i) the limits of the chemical models and theories, ii) the relationship between chemistry and other natural sciences, iii) the importance of creativity in chemical research, iv) the concepts of evidence in science texts, v) the social nature of chemical research, and vi) chemistry as a technological practice.
  • Vesterinen, Veli-Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Nature of science (NOS) describes what science is, how it works, how scientists operate, and the interaction between science and society. As a crucial element of scientific literacy, knowledge about NOS is widely recognized as one of the key aims of chemistry education. To enhance students understanding of NOS, teachers need adequate understanding of NOS as well as sufficient pedagogical content knowledge related to NOS for translating their understanding of NOS into classroom practice. This thesis reports an educational design research project on the design and development of a pre-service chemistry teacher education course on NOS instruction. Educational design research is the systematic study of the design and development of educational interventions for addressing complex educational problems. It advances the knowledge about the characteristics of designed interventions and the processes of design and development. The thesis consists of four interconnected studies and documents two iterative design research cycles of problem analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation. The first two studies describe how NOS is presented in the national frame curricula and upper secondary school chemistry textbooks. These studies provide a quantitative method for analysis of representations of NOS in chemistry textbooks and curricula, as well as describe the components of domain-specific NOS for chemistry education. The other two studies document the design, development, and evaluation of the goals and instructional practices used on the course. Four design solutions were produced: (i) description of central dimensions of domain-specific NOS for chemistry education, (ii) research group visits to prevent the diluting of relevance to science content and research, (iii) a teaching cycle for explicit and structured opportunities for reflection and discussion, and (iv) collaborative design assignments for translating NOS understanding into classroom practice. The evaluations of the practicality and effectiveness of the design solutions are based on the reflective essays and interviews of the pre-service teachers, which were collected during the course, as well as on the four in-depth interviews of selected participants, collected a year after they had graduated as qualified teachers. The results suggest that one critical factor influencing pre-service chemistry teachers commitment to teach NOS was the possibility to implement NOS instruction during the course. Thus, the use of collaborative peer teaching and integrating student teaching on NOS instruction courses is suggested as a strategy to support the development of the attitudes, beliefs, and skills necessary for teaching NOS. And even though the outside forces of school culture (e.g. school community, curriculum, textbooks) tend to constrain rather than support novice teachers efforts to implement new practices, the results also demonstrate that a pre-service teacher education course can be successful in producing innovators or early adopters of NOS instruction. Thus it might be one of the first steps in the challenging task of injecting NOS instruction into the chemistry curriculum for enhancing students understanding of NOS and strengthening their scientific literacy.
  • Enroth, Johannes (2012)
    Neckera inopinata Enroth (Neckeraceae) is described as a new species from Hunan Province and Zhejiang Province, China. It can be distinguished by the following suite of characters: plants of relatively small stature; leaves variably undulate, shortly decurrent, ovate-lingulate to ovate; costa reaching to midleaf or above; leaf margins very sharply serrulate; and upper laminal cells solid-walled. An identification key to the species of Neckera s.l. in China is provided.
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (Foris, 1984)
  • Toivonen, Hannu (Springer, 2012)
  • Zhou, Fang; Mahler, Sebastien Jean; Toivonen, Hannu (2010)
  • Hemilä, Harri (JOHN WILEY & SONS., 2013)
    Feedback to the following Cochrane review: Jefferson T, et al.: Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1:CD008965
  • Castren, Eero (American Medical Association, 2013)
  • Castren, Eero; Hen, Rene (ELSEVIER LTD., 2013)
  • Khriachtchev, Leonid; Lignell, Antti; Räsänen, Markku (American Institute of Physics, 2005)
  • Pettersson, Mika; Lundell, Jan; Räsänen, Markku (American Institute of Physics, 1995)
    Ultraviolet-irradiation of hydrogen halide containing rare gas matrices yields the formation of linear centrosymmetric cations of type (XHX)⁺, (X=Ar, Kr, Xe). Annealing of the irradiated doped solids produces, along with thermoluminescence, extremely strong absorptions in the 1700–1000 cm⁻¹ region. Based on isotopic substitution and halogen dependence of these bands, the presence of hydrogen and halogen atom(s) in these species is evident. In the present paper we show the participation of rare gas atom(s) in these new compounds. The evidence is based on studies of the thermally generated species in mixed rare gas matrices. The new species are assigned as neutral charge-transfer molecules HX⁺Y⁻ (Y=halogen), and their vibrational spectra are discussed and compared with those calculated with ab initio methods. This is the first time hydrogen and a rare gas atom has been found to make a chemical bond in a neutral stable compound. The highest level ab initio calculations on the existence of compounds of type HXY corroborate the experimental observations. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these species is also discussed. PACS: 61.80.Ba, 33.15.Fm, 81.40.Ef, 78.50.-w