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Now showing items 1771-1790 of 2658
  • Varhimo, Antero; Kojola, Soili; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2003)
    The inherent structural dynamics of drained peatland forests may result in a great variation in various wood and fi ber properties. We examined variation in fi ber and pulp properties i) among stands, ii) among trees within stands, and iii) within trees in young stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The stands, selected to cover a maximal range of the potential variation, were all at a stage of development where the fi rst commercial thinnings would be feasible. Differences in the processability of the thinning removals were small. In similar kraft cooking conditions, a 5-unit variation in the kappa number of unbleached pulp was observed among the stands. Stand origin had no effect on pulp bleaching. The wood formed prior to drainage had a higher density, shorter fi bers, was slightly slower delignifi ed by cooking, and its yield was slightly lower than that of post-drainage wood. These properties, except for high density, are typical for juvenile wood in general, and at stand level they did not correlate with the proportion of pre-drainage wood. When the variation in fi ber and pulp properties was broken down into its components, most of it was derived from tree-level in all the cases. On average, the fi ber and pulp properties did not differ from those observed for fi rst-thinning pulpwood from upland sites. Consequently, peatland-grown pulpwood may be mixed with other pulpwood in industrial processes. It would probably be best suited as the raw material for pulps with high bonding requirements, e.g. in the top ply of multi-ply board grades or in some specialty grades.
  • Meller, Laura; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Cabeza, Mar (SPRINGER, 2013)
    The role of bioenergy in climate change mitigation is a topic of heated debate, as the demand for land may result in social and ecological conflicts. Biodiversity impacts are a key controversy, given that biodiversity conservation is a globally agreed goal under pressure due to both climate change and land use. Impact assessment of bioenergy in various socio-economic and policy scenarios is a crucial basis for planning sound climate mitigation policy. Empirical studies have identified positive and negative local impacts of different bioenergy types on biodiversity, but ignored indirect impacts caused by displacement of other human activities. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) provide land-use scenarios based on socio-economic and policy storylines. Global scenarios capture both direct and indirect land-use change, and are therefore an appealing tool for assessing the impacts of bioenergy on biodiversity. However, IAMs have been originally designed to address questions of a different nature. Here, we illustrate the properties of IAMs from the biodiversity conservation perspective and discuss the set of questions they could answer. We find IAMs are a useful starting point for more detailed regional planning and assessment. However, they have important limitations that should not be overlooked. Global scenarios may not capture all impacts, such as changes in forest habitat quality or small-scale landscape structure, identified as key factors in empirical studies. We recommend increasing spatial accuracy of IAMs through region-specific, complementary modelling, including climate change into predictive assessments, and considering future biodiversity conservation needs in assessments of impacts and sustainable potentials of bioenergy.
  • Paalasmaa, Joonas; Leppäkorpi, Lasse; Partinen, Markku (2011)
    Measuring the variation of the respiratory rate makes it possible to analyze the structure of sleep. The variation is high when awake or in REM sleep, and decreases in deep sleep. With sleep apnea, the respiratory variation is disturbed. We present a novel method for extracting respiratory rate variation from indirect measurements of respiration. The method is particularly suitable for force sensor signals, because, in addition to the respiratory phenomenon, they typically contain also other disturbing features, which makes the accurate detection of the respiratory rate difficult. Respiratory variation is calculated by low-pass filtering a force sensor signal at different cut-off frequencies and, at every time instant, selecting one of them for the determination of respiration cycles. The method was validated with a single-night reference recording, which showed that the proposed method detects the respiratory variation accurately. Of the 3421 calculated respiration cycle lengths, 95.9% were closer than 0.5 seconds to the reference.
  • Hotchkiss, Shaun (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2011)
  • Leinonen, Merja Riitta; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Biller, David S.; O’Brien, Robert T. (2010)
  • Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Sievänen, Risto (2013)
  • Leamy, Larry J.; Elo, Kari; Nielsen, Merlyn K.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; Valdar, William; Pomp, Daniel (PeerJ. Ltd., 2014)
    Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits) and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.
  • Vainio, Martti; Aalto, Daniel; Järvikivi, Juhani; Suni, Antti (2006)
    This paper presents results from a study on the tonal aspects of quantity in Finnish lexically stressed syllables. Fourteen speakers produced a set of 66 utterances where the quantity and structure of the lexically stressed syllable was system- atically varied. The tonal aspects of the syllable nucleus and nucleus and coda in case of closed syllables was stud- ied in the framework of the Target Approximation theory as formulated by Yi Xu. The results show a clear tendency to- wards the quantity distinction and bimoracity in general in Finnish to be signalled tonally by a dynamic falling tone as opposed to a static high tone in short (one mora) nuclei.
  • Herron, David A.; Meyer, Daniel (UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE MADRID, 2012)
    We construct a catalog, of snowflake type metric circles, that describes allmetric quasicircles up to \bl\ equivalence. This is a metric space analog of aresult due to Rohde. Our construction also works for all bounded turning metriccircles; these need not be doubling. As a byproduct, we show that a metricquasicircle with Assouad dimension strictly less than two is bi-Lipschitzequivalent to a planar quasicircle.
  • Bays, Martin; Hart, Bradd; Hyttinen, Tapani; Kesälä, Meeri; Kirby, Jonathan (OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2014)
  • Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Results Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 – 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek’s disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). Conclusions This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.
  • Saarinen, Risto (Suomalainen teologinen kirjallisuusseura, 2003)
  • Virokannas, Elina (2003)
    Artikkeli käsittelee nuorten kertomuksia viranomaisten kanssa toimimisesta. Siinä tarkastellaan nuorten toimintastrategioita ja strategioiden toteuttamisessa rakentuvia identiteettejä nuorten ja heidän asioissaan tekemisissä olevien viranomaisten välisessä vuorovaikutuksessa. Hahmotan nuorten kertomuksista neljä erilaista strategiatyyppiä viranomaisten kanssa toimimiseen: vastustamisen, kohteeksi asettumisen, pelaamisen ja asiakkaaksi sopeutumisen. Viranomaisten kanssa toimiminen tapahtuu kertomuksissa melko ahtaissa raameissa, joissa nuorten omiksi toimintamahdollisuuksiksi jää ennemminkin tilannekohtainen taktikointi kuin pitkäjänteisempi strategianmuodostus Tämän artikkelin sijoitan lähimmäksi sosiaalityön tutkimusta, silla tarkasteltavana on nuoren asiakkuus virallisten organisaatioiden edustajien kanssa. Vaikka vain muutamissa kertomuksissa organisaationa on sosiaalitoimisto tai kohdattavana viranomaisena sosiaalityöntekijä, nuoren ja hänta auttamaan pyrkivän viranomaisen välinen kohtaaminen on kuitenkin problematiikaltaan yhteneväinen sosiaalityössa tapahtuvien auttaja—asiakas-kohtaamisten kanssa.
  • Andersson, Maria; Salo, Johanna; Lipponen, Olli; Salonen, Pauliina; Viljanen, Martti; Ojamo, Heikki; Mikkola, Raimo; Sistonen, Esko; Gasik, Michael; Teplova, Vera V; Salin, Mikko; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka (2014)
    Antimikrobisia biosideja ja muita bioreaktiivisia kemikaaleja sisältyy rakennus tuotteisiin ja käytetään rakennusten ylläpidossa, huollossa, siivouksessa ja (home)saneerauksessa. Käytetyt aineet ovat pääosin pitkävaikutteisia biosideja, jotka sisätiloissa käytettyinä kertyvät muodostaen tilojen käyttäjille pysyvän kemiallisen rasitteen, koska mekanismit (luonnonvalo, sade, tuuli, biohajottavat mikrobit, jotka niitä hävittäisivät, puuttuvat. Selvitimme kokeellisesti ja kirjallisuudesta näiden kemikaalien: 1) antimikrobista tehoa terveyshaitallisiksi tunnettuihin, toksiineja tuottaviin mikrobilajeihin; 2) herkistävyyttä ja muita vaikutuksia ihmisen ja muiden lämminveristen soluihin; 3) tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat mikrobien haitta-aine päästöihin ja läpäisevyyteen rakennuksessa.
  • Heikkinen, Barbara; Heinonen, Oskari; Jaakkola, Jani; Kilpeläinen, Pekka; Lindén, Greger; Niemi, Jyrki Antero; Paasiala, Kimmo (1998)
  • Katainen, Elina (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2002)
    Aleksandra Kollontain uuden moraalin tulkintoja Suomen työveäenliikkeen piirissä 1910- ja 1920-luvulla.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Suomen Ympäristö- ja Terveysalan Kustannus, 2005)
  • Zinchenko, Vadim; Chernenko, Anton; Chernenko, Roman (KMK SCIENTIFIC PRESS, 2002)