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  • Varhimo, Antero; Kojola, Soili; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2003)
    The inherent structural dynamics of drained peatland forests may result in a great variation in various wood and fi ber properties. We examined variation in fi ber and pulp properties i) among stands, ii) among trees within stands, and iii) within trees in young stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The stands, selected to cover a maximal range of the potential variation, were all at a stage of development where the fi rst commercial thinnings would be feasible. Differences in the processability of the thinning removals were small. In similar kraft cooking conditions, a 5-unit variation in the kappa number of unbleached pulp was observed among the stands. Stand origin had no effect on pulp bleaching. The wood formed prior to drainage had a higher density, shorter fi bers, was slightly slower delignifi ed by cooking, and its yield was slightly lower than that of post-drainage wood. These properties, except for high density, are typical for juvenile wood in general, and at stand level they did not correlate with the proportion of pre-drainage wood. When the variation in fi ber and pulp properties was broken down into its components, most of it was derived from tree-level in all the cases. On average, the fi ber and pulp properties did not differ from those observed for fi rst-thinning pulpwood from upland sites. Consequently, peatland-grown pulpwood may be mixed with other pulpwood in industrial processes. It would probably be best suited as the raw material for pulps with high bonding requirements, e.g. in the top ply of multi-ply board grades or in some specialty grades.
  • Leinonen, Merja Riitta; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Biller, David S.; O’Brien, Robert T. (2010)
  • Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Results Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 – 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek’s disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). Conclusions This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.
  • Virokannas, Elina (2003)
    Artikkeli käsittelee nuorten kertomuksia viranomaisten kanssa toimimisesta. Siinä tarkastellaan nuorten toimintastrategioita ja strategioiden toteuttamisessa rakentuvia identiteettejä nuorten ja heidän asioissaan tekemisissä olevien viranomaisten välisessä vuorovaikutuksessa. Hahmotan nuorten kertomuksista neljä erilaista strategiatyyppiä viranomaisten kanssa toimimiseen: vastustamisen, kohteeksi asettumisen, pelaamisen ja asiakkaaksi sopeutumisen. Viranomaisten kanssa toimiminen tapahtuu kertomuksissa melko ahtaissa raameissa, joissa nuorten omiksi toimintamahdollisuuksiksi jää ennemminkin tilannekohtainen taktikointi kuin pitkäjänteisempi strategianmuodostus Tämän artikkelin sijoitan lähimmäksi sosiaalityön tutkimusta, silla tarkasteltavana on nuoren asiakkuus virallisten organisaatioiden edustajien kanssa. Vaikka vain muutamissa kertomuksissa organisaationa on sosiaalitoimisto tai kohdattavana viranomaisena sosiaalityöntekijä, nuoren ja hänta auttamaan pyrkivän viranomaisen välinen kohtaaminen on kuitenkin problematiikaltaan yhteneväinen sosiaalityössa tapahtuvien auttaja—asiakas-kohtaamisten kanssa.
  • Katainen, Elina (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2002)
    Aleksandra Kollontain uuden moraalin tulkintoja Suomen työveäenliikkeen piirissä 1910- ja 1920-luvulla.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Suomen Ympäristö- ja Terveysalan Kustannus, 2005)
  • Markkula, A.; Autio, T.; Lundén, J.; Korkeala, H. (International Association for Food Protection, 2005)
  • Mäkelä, P.; Korkeala, H.; Laine, J.J. (International Association for Food Protection, 1990)
  • Donner, K. (The physiological society / Blackwell, 1981)
  • Ihanus, E; Uotila, LM; Toivanen, A; Varis, M; Gahmberg, CG (American Society of Hematology, 2007)
    Intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4) is a unique member of the ICAM family due to its specific expression on erythroid cells and ability to interact with several types of integrins expressed on blood and endothelial cells. The first reported receptors for ICAM-4 were CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18. In contrast to these two, the cellular ligands and the functional role of the third beta2-integrin, CD11c/CD18, have not been well defined. Here we show that ICAM-4 functions as a ligand for the monocyte/macrophage specific CD11c/CD18. Deletion of the individual immunoglobulin domains of ICAM-4 demonstrated that both its domains contain binding sites for CD11c/CD18. Analysis of a panel of ICAM-4 point mutants identified residues that affected binding to the integrin. By molecular modeling the important residues were predicted to cluster in two distinct but spatially close regions of the first domain with an extension to the second domain spatially distant from the other residues. We also identified two peptides derived from sequences of ICAM-4 that are capable of modulating the binding to CD11c/CD18. CD11c/CD18 is expressed on macrophages in spleen and bone marrow. Inhibition of erythrophagocytosis by anti-ICAM-4 and anti-integrin antibodies suggests a role for these interactions in removal of senescent red cells.
  • Snellman, Hanna (1999)
    The aim of this article1 is to try to find information on the everyday lives of women accused of prostitution in sparsely inhabited Finnish Lapland. This theme is a part of my research project “Women working their way through logging camps” which examines women in logging communities. Everyday lives of women are examined from three angles: First, their work in isolated homesteads taking care of children and cattle while husbands were away working in the woods for long periods of time; second, as cooks in the isolated camps among men; and third, as women on the loose, selling liquor and their company to lumberjacks. In this article the focus is on the third theme, prostitution.
  • Peltonen, Ulla-Maija (Finnish Historical Society, 1998)
    In clarifying the culture of contestation in the memoirs, I examine manifestations of power and resistance which appear in memoirs depicting the 1920s and 30s. The themes of these memoirs are 1) narratives from childhood, experiences of 1918, motives for participation in the labour movement; 2) narratives of open resistance, that is, descriptions of public demonstrations on May Day, Red Day or Anti- War Day (August 1), on the Three L’s Day (Lenin, Luxemburg, Liebknecht), of demonstrations against the death penalty as well as other public demonstrations, on International Youth Day and Women’s Day, for example. Public resistance is also reflected in stories of job strikes and prison strikes organized by political prisoners, the singing of labour songs as well as the display of the colour red or Red symbolism; 3) narratives of covert resistance, circumvention of the law or opposition to it, which were expressed in descriptions of May Day or other labour movement holiday celebrations in Hämeenlinna and Tammisaari prisons, the holding of illegal meetings during such general celebrations as name days, birthdays, weddings and engagement parties, the distribution of banned literature or flyers, jokes and humour as well as the humming or whistling of labour songs; 4) narratives of power which are found in descriptions of the working climate, of unemployment, of the black lists kepts by employers, and of violence and house searches carried out by the police.
  • Kauppi, P.E. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1996)
  • Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2005)
    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6 g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt be maintained at about 5-6 g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride . Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, at the table. In most cases salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt content at the 2% level do not have marked effects on shelf life of the products. By using salt mixtures, usually NaCl/KCl, the intake of sodium (NaCl) can be further reduced.
  • Suckcharoen, S.; Lodenius, M. (D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1980)
  • Saarikoski, Juhani; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Koskelainen, Ari; Donner, Kristian (1997)
    1. We measured intracellular pH (pHi) in rods isolated from the retina of the axolotl salamander, Ambystoma mexicanum, using the fluorescent indicator 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)- 5(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). 2. The light exposures associated with data acquisition had no marked effect on pH,. There was no sharp change between the value obtained from the first exposure of dark-adapted rods and subsequent readings. Increasing the acquisition frequency from 1 to 10 min-' either had no effect, or brought about a slow acidification, which was stopped or reversed when the low frequency was restored. 3. In nominally HCO3--free solution at pH 7 5, the rods had a steady-state pHi of 7'09 + 0-02 (n = 46) and a buffering power (,Bi) of 24 + 1 mm (pH unit)f' (n = 48). The buffering power was virtually constant in the pH range 6-6-8-0. In the same range, pHi depended linearly on perfusion pH (pHO) with regression coefficients of 0 4-0 5. 4. There were no significant differences between the inner and outer segment of intact rods as regards steady-state pH, or responses to experimental treatments. 5. Recovery from an intracellular acid load imposed by sodium propionate or an NH4Cl prepulse in nominally bicarbonate-free perfusate was completely blocked by decreasing the extracellular Nae concentration to 7 mm, and slowed by 86% by applying 1 mm amiloride. 6. Introduction of 2% C02-13 mm HC03- caused an alkalinization that was often preceded by a transient acidification. Steady-state pHi was on average 0.1 pH units higher than in nominally bicarbonate-free solution. The mean acid extrusion rate, calculated on the assumption that C02-HC03- behaves as an open system, was 19% higher (31 + 2 mm h-1) than in a solution buffered only by Hepes (26 + 2 mm h-). 7. In the presence of CO2-HC03-, 100 ,m 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) decreased the acid extrusion rate by 20% on average. Lowering the extracellular Clconcentration to 7 mm raised pH,, but did not significantly affect the acid extrusion rate. 8. We conclude that retinal rods regulate pHi by both Na+-H+ exchange and mechanism(s) involving HC03--Cl- exchange. In the present conditions, the Na+-H+ exchanger appears as the dominant mechanism for acid extrusion.
  • Candolin, Ulrika (Royal Society of London, 1998)
    An increasing number of studies show that animals adjust their reproductive e¡ort to the risk of predation. However, to maximize lifetime reproductive success this adjustment should depend on the animals' current and future reproductive potential. Here I tested this hypothesis by allowing threespine stickleback males (Gasterosteus aculeatus), differing in current and future mating probabilities, to reproduce in pools in both the presence and absence of predators. As expected, males adjusted their reproductive effort to the risk of predation. Fewer males bred, and all males developed less nuptial coloration in the presence of predators. However, males with a low current mating probability took less risk than males with a higher mating probability, whereas all males increased risk taking when future reproductive opportunities decreased. The results thus support the hypothesis that males are able to assess both the risk of predation and their current versus future mating probability, and adjust their reproductive decisions accordingly. The study further suggests that predation risk may have less effect on sexual selection than previously assumed, as the males which refrained from reproducing in the presence of predators were mainly males with a low mating probability.