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  • Fabritius, Hannele (Association of Greek Librarians and Information Professionals, 2015)
    Methods of learning in the workplace will be introduced. The methods are connect to competence development and to the process of conducting development discussions in a dialogical way. The tools developed and applied are a fourfold table, a cycle of work identity, a plan of personal development targets, a learning meeting and a learning map. The methods introduced will aim to better learning at work.
  • Varhimo, Antero; Kojola, Soili; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija (2003)
    The inherent structural dynamics of drained peatland forests may result in a great variation in various wood and fi ber properties. We examined variation in fi ber and pulp properties i) among stands, ii) among trees within stands, and iii) within trees in young stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The stands, selected to cover a maximal range of the potential variation, were all at a stage of development where the fi rst commercial thinnings would be feasible. Differences in the processability of the thinning removals were small. In similar kraft cooking conditions, a 5-unit variation in the kappa number of unbleached pulp was observed among the stands. Stand origin had no effect on pulp bleaching. The wood formed prior to drainage had a higher density, shorter fi bers, was slightly slower delignifi ed by cooking, and its yield was slightly lower than that of post-drainage wood. These properties, except for high density, are typical for juvenile wood in general, and at stand level they did not correlate with the proportion of pre-drainage wood. When the variation in fi ber and pulp properties was broken down into its components, most of it was derived from tree-level in all the cases. On average, the fi ber and pulp properties did not differ from those observed for fi rst-thinning pulpwood from upland sites. Consequently, peatland-grown pulpwood may be mixed with other pulpwood in industrial processes. It would probably be best suited as the raw material for pulps with high bonding requirements, e.g. in the top ply of multi-ply board grades or in some specialty grades.
  • Holmström, Oscar; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Mikael; Moilanen, Hannu; Suutala, Antti; Turkki, Riku; Joensuu, H.; Isola, Jorma; Diwan, Vinod; Lundin, Johan (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE, 2015)
    INTRODUCTION: A significant barrier to medical diagnostics in low-resource environments is the lack of medical care and equipment. Here we present a low-cost, cloud-connected digital microscope for applications at the point-of-care. We evaluate the performance of the device in the digital assessment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) expression in breast cancer samples. Studies suggest computer-assisted analysis of tumor samples digitized with whole slide-scanners may be comparable to manual scoring, here we study whether similar results can be obtained with the device presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 samples of human breast carcinoma, immunostained for ER expression, were digitized with a high-end slide-scanner and the point-of-care microscope. Corresponding regions from the samples were extracted, and ER status was determined visually and digitally. Samples were classified as ER negative (
  • Meller, Laura; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Cabeza, Mar (Springer, 2013)
    The role of bioenergy in climate change mitigation is a topic of heated debate, as the demand for land may result in social and ecological conflicts. Biodiversity impacts are a key controversy, given that biodiversity conservation is a globally agreed goal under pressure due to both climate change and land use. Impact assessment of bioenergy in various socio-economic and policy scenarios is a crucial basis for planning sound climate mitigation policy. Empirical studies have identified positive and negative local impacts of different bioenergy types on biodiversity, but ignored indirect impacts caused by displacement of other human activities. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) provide land-use scenarios based on socio-economic and policy storylines. Global scenarios capture both direct and indirect land-use change, and are therefore an appealing tool for assessing the impacts of bioenergy on biodiversity. However, IAMs have been originally designed to address questions of a different nature. Here, we illustrate the properties of IAMs from the biodiversity conservation perspective and discuss the set of questions they could answer. We find IAMs are a useful starting point for more detailed regional planning and assessment. However, they have important limitations that should not be overlooked. Global scenarios may not capture all impacts, such as changes in forest habitat quality or small-scale landscape structure, identified as key factors in empirical studies. We recommend increasing spatial accuracy of IAMs through region-specific, complementary modelling, including climate change into predictive assessments, and considering future biodiversity conservation needs in assessments of impacts and sustainable potentials of bioenergy.
  • Paalasmaa, Joonas; Leppäkorpi, Lasse; Partinen, Markku (2011)
    Measuring the variation of the respiratory rate makes it possible to analyze the structure of sleep. The variation is high when awake or in REM sleep, and decreases in deep sleep. With sleep apnea, the respiratory variation is disturbed. We present a novel method for extracting respiratory rate variation from indirect measurements of respiration. The method is particularly suitable for force sensor signals, because, in addition to the respiratory phenomenon, they typically contain also other disturbing features, which makes the accurate detection of the respiratory rate difficult. Respiratory variation is calculated by low-pass filtering a force sensor signal at different cut-off frequencies and, at every time instant, selecting one of them for the determination of respiration cycles. The method was validated with a single-night reference recording, which showed that the proposed method detects the respiratory variation accurately. Of the 3421 calculated respiration cycle lengths, 95.9% were closer than 0.5 seconds to the reference.
  • Hotchkiss, Shaun (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2011)
  • Hippeläinen, Eero; Tenhunen, Mikko; Mäenpää, Hanna; Sohlberg, Antti (Springer, 2016)
    Background: In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), accurate quantification using SPECT/CT images is important for optimizing radiation dose delivered to both the tumour and healthy tissue. Quantitative SPECT images are regularly reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with various compensation methods such as attenuation (A), scatter (S) and detector and collimator response (R). In this study, different combinations of the compensation methods are applied during OSEM reconstruction and the effect on the Lu-177 quantification accuracy is studied in an anthropomorphic torso phantom. In addition, the phantom results are reflected to (177) Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (Lu-177-DOTATATE)-treated patient data and kidney absorbed dose estimates. Methods: The torso phantom was imaged with nine various sized (0.4-104.4 cm(3)) spherical inserts, filled with known Lu-177 activity ranging from 0.5 to 105.5 MBq. Images were reconstructed using OSEM algorithm using A, AR and ARS compensation method combinations. The compensation method combinations were compared by calculating the concentration recovery coefficient (cRC) for each insert. In addition, ten Lu-177-DOTATATE-treated patient's post-therapy dosimetry acquisitions were reconstructed, and the absorbed dose to kidneys was estimated. Results: cRC values depend on the insert size for all compensation methods. AR and ARS produced significantly higher cRC values than attenuation correction alone. There were no cRC value differences between the methods for the smallest 1-cm-diameter insert, cRC being 0.18. However, the collimator and detector response compensation method (R) made the 1.3-cm-diameter insert clearly visible and improved cRC estimate from 0.19 to 0.43. ARS produced slightly higher cRC values for small- and medium-sized inserts than AR. On the patient data, a similar trend could be seen. AR and ARS produced higher kidney activities than using attenuation correction alone; the total absorbed doses to the right and left kidneys were on average 15 and 20 % higher for AR and 19 and 25 % higher for ARS, respectively. The effective half-life decay estimated from time-activity curves however showed no notable difference between the compensation methods. Conclusions: The highest cRC values were achieved by applying ARS compensation during reconstruction. The results were notably higher than those using attenuation correction alone. Similarly, higher activity estimates and thus higher absorbed dose estimates were found in patient data when all compensation methods were applied. ARS improved cRC especially in small-sized sources, and it thus might aid tumour dosimetry for Lu-177 PRRT treatments.
  • Hippeläinen, Eero; Tenhunen, Mikko; Mäenpää, Hanna; Sohlberg, Antti (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016)
    Abstract Background In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), accurate quantification using SPECT/CT images is important for optimizing radiation dose delivered to both the tumour and healthy tissue. Quantitative SPECT images are regularly reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with various compensation methods such as attenuation (A), scatter (S) and detector and collimator response (R). In this study, different combinations of the compensation methods are applied during OSEM reconstruction and the effect on the 177Lu quantification accuracy is studied in an anthropomorphic torso phantom. In addition, the phantom results are reflected to (177)Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE)-treated patient data and kidney absorbed dose estimates. Methods The torso phantom was imaged with nine various sized (0.4–104.4 cm3) spherical inserts, filled with known 177Lu activity ranging from 0.5 to 105.5 MBq. Images were reconstructed using OSEM algorithm using A, AR and ARS compensation method combinations. The compensation method combinations were compared by calculating the concentration recovery coefficient (cRC) for each insert. In addition, ten 177Lu-DOTATATE-treated patient’s post-therapy dosimetry acquisitions were reconstructed, and the absorbed dose to kidneys was estimated. Results cRC values depend on the insert size for all compensation methods. AR and ARS produced significantly higher cRC values than attenuation correction alone. There were no cRC value differences between the methods for the smallest 1-cm-diameter insert, cRC being 0.18. However, the collimator and detector response compensation method (R) made the 1.3-cm-diameter insert clearly visible and improved cRC estimate from 0.19 to 0.43. ARS produced slightly higher cRC values for small- and medium-sized inserts than AR. On the patient data, a similar trend could be seen. AR and ARS produced higher kidney activities than using attenuation correction alone; the total absorbed doses to the right and left kidneys were on average 15 and 20 % higher for AR and 19 and 25 % higher for ARS, respectively. The effective half-life decay estimated from time-activity curves however showed no notable difference between the compensation methods. Conclusions The highest cRC values were achieved by applying ARS compensation during reconstruction. The results were notably higher than those using attenuation correction alone. Similarly, higher activity estimates and thus higher absorbed dose estimates were found in patient data when all compensation methods were applied. ARS improved cRC especially in small-sized sources, and it thus might aid tumour dosimetry for 177Lu PRRT treatments.
  • Leinonen, Merja Riitta; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Biller, David S.; O’Brien, Robert T. (2010)
  • Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Sievänen, Risto (2013)
  • Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (Frontiers Media SA, 2015)
  • Leamy, Larry J.; Elo, Kari; Nielsen, Merlyn K.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; Valdar, William; Pomp, Daniel (PeerJ. Ltd, 2014)
    Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits) and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.
  • Vainio, Martti; Aalto, Daniel; Järvikivi, Juhani; Suni, Antti (2006)
    This paper presents results from a study on the tonal aspects of quantity in Finnish lexically stressed syllables. Fourteen speakers produced a set of 66 utterances where the quantity and structure of the lexically stressed syllable was system- atically varied. The tonal aspects of the syllable nucleus and nucleus and coda in case of closed syllables was stud- ied in the framework of the Target Approximation theory as formulated by Yi Xu. The results show a clear tendency to- wards the quantity distinction and bimoracity in general in Finnish to be signalled tonally by a dynamic falling tone as opposed to a static high tone in short (one mora) nuclei.
  • Pylkkänen, Paavo (World Scientific, 2015)
    Advanced series on mathematical psychology
    Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.
  • Herron, David A.; Meyer, Daniel (UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE MADRID, 2012)
    We construct a catalog, of snowflake type metric circles, that describes allmetric quasicircles up to \bl\ equivalence. This is a metric space analog of aresult due to Rohde. Our construction also works for all bounded turning metriccircles; these need not be doubling. As a byproduct, we show that a metricquasicircle with Assouad dimension strictly less than two is bi-Lipschitzequivalent to a planar quasicircle.
  • Bays, Martin; Hart, Bradd; Hyttinen, Tapani; Kesälä, Meeri; Kirby, Jonathan (Oxford University Press, 2014)
  • Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Results Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 – 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek’s disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). Conclusions This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.
  • Jokiranta, Jutta (Teologinen julkaisuseura, 2013)
  • Saarinen, Risto (Suomalainen teologinen kirjallisuusseura, 2003)
  • Tervala, Juha (Kansantaloudellinen yhdistys, 2010)