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Now showing items 864-883 of 944
  • Tikka, Marko (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2004)
    Varkauden puhdistusta on pidetty valkoisten kostomentaliteetin purkautumisena, eräänlaisena primitiivireaktiona. Viha pääsi valloilleen taistelun päätyttyä. Jos tapahtunutta tarkastelee kenttäoikeuden pöytäkirjan valossa, "jälkiselvittely" oli jotakin muuta kuin sattumanvarainen kostotoimi. Varkauden taistelua seuranneet rankaisutoimet olivat pikemminkin sotatoimiin kiinteästi liittynyt repressio. Se oli kenttätaistelulla vallatun vihollisen alueen väkivaltainen rauhoittaminen, joka suoritettiin valkoisen rintamajohdon vastuulla. Varkauden tapahtumat eivdt olleet mielivaltainen tai kostonomainen poikkeus valkoisesta rankaisusta; pikemminkin esimerkki siitä, mihin suuntaan rankaisutoimet valkoisten valtaamilla alueilla kehittyisivät.
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2007)
  • Laiho, Raija; Penttilä, Timo; Laine, Jukka (2004)
    The within-site variability of soil characteristics on sites with different soil types remains poorly quantified, although this information is crucial for the success of research on soil properties, and especially for monitoring soil properties over time. We used coefficients of variation and multilevel variance component models to examine the within-site variation of soil (0-30 cm) mineral nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, mg g-1; Mn, Zn, μg g-1) and bulk density (kg m-3) on boreal deep-peat sites. We then evaluated the reliability of the site-level estimates (sample means) obtained using different sampling intensities (numbers of samples per site). Our 11 sites represented a single original site type within the oligotrophic nutrient level. Two of the sites were undrained while the rest had been drained for forestry at different points in time. Overall, P concentrations showed the smallest and Mn concentrations the largest within-site variation. The sampling depth contributed more than 50% of the total variance in all other characteristics except the concentrations of P and Fe, and bulk density. The variance proportions of peatland basin, site (within basin), and sampling location (within site) varied by sampling depth for most soil characteristics. The estimates obtained when using a certain number of samples per site were always more reliable for the 0-30 cm layer’s composite samples than for any single 10-cm layer at any depth sampled. On average, it was found that between 4 (P) and some 200 (Mn) samples per site would be needed for the estimates to have a theoretical 10% maximum deviation.
  • Hemminki, Elina; Virtanen, Jorma I; Veerus, Piret (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background To present empirical data on how the variation in regulating clinical research and patient care was perceived in Finland between 2009 and 2012. Methods Notes of interviews with 22 research ethics committee (REC) chairpersons were analyzed to identify whether differences in the regulation of clinical research and patient care were addressed. REC chairpersons’ opinions on three imaginary cases of clinical research projects challenging current research ethics rules (vignettes) were requested with a questionnaire; 18 of the 22 interviewed chairpersons responded. Results Based on REC chairpersons’ interviews, the differences between care and research regulation were not considered important issues in Finland. In the vignettes, REC chairpersons’ assumptions on how their REC would decide varied in regard to allowing research without informed consent, while solutions that are not allowed by current law were even anticipated. Mostly, but not always, the chairpersons’ own personal view agreed with their REC. Conclusions The distinction between care and research regulation has not been publicly challenged by Finnish RECs, even though it is a challenge when research relevant to health care is carried out. There is a need for debate and changes in laws and practices.
  • Palonkorpi, Mikko; Smith, Hanna (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2005)
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2003)
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2005)
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2007)
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2007)
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2004)
  • Teräs, Kari; Saaritsa, Sakari (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2003)
    Minkälaiseen paradigmaan puhe verkostoista oikein liittyy? Miten se suhtautuu työväenhistorialliseen tutkimukseen? Minkälaista työväenhistoriallista tutkimusta on tehty ”verkostonäkökulmasta”?
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Marjanen, J.J.; Antikainen, R. (Helsingin Yliopisto, Bio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitos, 2005)
  • Peltonen, Matti (1991)
    Matti Peltonen: Knowledge, power, sociology. A dispute in 1948 on the poor ability of the Finns to carry liquor In the early winter of 1948 sociologist Veli Verkko gave an inaugural lecture which sparked lively discussion about the basic principles of alcohol policy. This debate also took on an international character when Verkko's main work Homicides and suicides in Finland and their dependence on national character was published in the Scandinavian studies in sociology series in 1951. Verkko's lecture came just as preparations for a largescale alcohol policy campaign in the April of the same year were in their final stages. The campaign was prepared by Kansalaisryhti, a civic movement financed and directed by the alcohol monopoly, Alko, organization of the time, which wanted to offer a more positive alternative to the oldstyle temperance movement. Gaining the chair in sociology was the high point of Verkko's career. To mark the event, Verkko wanted to publish a new sociological theory based on his empirical findings; this was a racial theory about the special character of the Finnish-speaking nation. In Verkko's view, Finnish-speakers formed a small introverted community whose members had several forefathers in common because of this linguistic isolation. The characteristics of this limited number of forefathers were thus shared by all their descendants. The members of a given linguistic group, nationality or tribe were, according to Verkko, fairly homogeneous in national character. He explained the fact that this hypothesis about the origins of the national character, worked out on a purely mathematical basis, led only in the case of the Finns to negative features in the national character, with the argument that, according to contemporary perceptions, the Finns came from farther East and spoke a different language from the peoples of Western Europe and Scandinavia. In public, Verkko's argument was interpreted from the point of view of alcohol policy. If Finnishness was a racial characteristic, then it was something immutable and beyond cure. Hence the problems that the Finnish intelligentsia saw as deriving from the national character — for instance, the large amount of crimes of violence at the beginning of this century or a style of drinking described as 'drunk-oriented' — would be impossible to change via education and greater sophistication. That is why the material used during the Kansalaisryhti campaign referred to above attacked Professor Verkko's theory with exceptional vigour. All the campaign articles criticizing Verkko were written by the young graduate Pekka Kuusi, who had been the guiding light when the movement was founded in 1945 as a 'front against drunkenness'. According to Kansalaisryhti's ideology, the Finns certainly showed many features of the 'dark natives' in distant countries, but the 'bogeyman of primitivism' could be rooted out from the Finnish soul with good education and the right alcohol policy. The dispute about whether the Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor' is a biological or cultural phenomenon continued unabated until Verkko's death — and indeed goes on. In view of the fervour of the debate in the late '40s, it is surprising just how unanimous the two sides were. Veli Verkko's theory could just as well have been interpreted culturally. Pekka Kuusi, on the other hand, took the view that the Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor' was to some extent a genetic racial characteristic. The greatest unanimity of all reigned about the problem itself for which a cure was sought. Nobody questioned the whole myth of a Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor'. There was not even any disagreement between the two sides about the new alcohol policy, the buyer control system. The Alko organization and Kansalaisryhti saw this as a subtle system of education by which national drinking habits could be watched over and regulated and the antisocial guided into the straight and narrow. To Professor Verkko and other conservatives, the new alcohol policy was exactly the system of discipline and punishment that the drink-crazy Finns needed. In spring 1948, when professor Verkko started stubbornly — and contrary to his earlier scientific opinions — stressing the biological foundation for the negative sides of the Finnish national character, he was primarily defending his reputation and standing as a scientist in the academic world. The 1948 debate aired the concept of 'the Finns'poor ability to carry liquor in the same way as Michel Foucault did with his claim about the suppressed sexuality of the Western world. As in the case of the generally accepted myth of suppressed sexuality, the 'repressice hypothesis', which has served all those sex theoriticians who say that they are here to liberate the oppressed and to make them happy, the myth about the Finns'poor ability to carry liquor has served as a starting point for all reformers od Finnish alcohol policy, abolishers of bad drinking habits and those promising more sophisticated drinking.
  • Karisto, Antti (Lahden kaupunginmuseo, 2008)
    Kirjoituksen kohteena on 1960-luvun lopun Lahti. Puhun paikoitellen me-muodossa, mutta vain omissa nimissäni. Joku toinen on voinut katsoa aikaa ja kaupunkia täysin toisesta vinkkelistä. Minun katseeni on "alemmista taiteista" kiinnostuneen, keskustassa asuneen lukiolaisen katse. Kirjoitan rokista tai popista, johon minulla oli tavallisen kuuntelijan suhde; mikään suurkuluttaja en ollut. Kirjoitan myös koulusta, kahviloista, kadunkulmista, keskioluesta, katutason 60-lukulaisuudesta.
  • Donner, Kristian (2007)
  • Pesonen, Janne (American Institute of Physics, 2000)
  • Marushkevich, K.; Khriachtchev, L.; Lundell, J.; Domanskaya, A. V.; Räsänen, M. (ACADEMIC PRESS, 2010)
  • Pesonen, Janne (American Institute of Physics, 2001)
  • Kangaspuro, Markku (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2007)
  • Kovala, Urpo; Peltonen, Eeva (Nykykulttuurin tutkimuskeskus, Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2004)