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Now showing items 2804-2823 of 2930
  • Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre (Public Library of Science, 2012)
  • Korhonen, Anu (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
  • Snellman, Hanna (1995)
    In the discussion the question of letters and diaries as source material was brought up. Even though the habit of writing letters has diminished compared to the times before the phone, fax and e-mail, in some circumstances letter writing is still common. Long distances, lack of money, and homesickness - experiences that most foreign exchange students encounter - are surely factors that accelerate one's desire to write letters. The combination of being young, living away from home and loved ones for a year and getting acquainted with a different lifestyle, usually results in piles of letters to family and friends at home. In addition to that, a feeling of estrangement and loneliness, which are also common experiences for foreign exchange students, is eased by writing diaries. Today, self-reflection is somewhat in fashion in ethnological research (Gerholm 1993; Wikdahl 1992:17). Therefore, I dared to carry out an experiment myself. This paper is based on letters and diaries I wrote before I knew I would be an ethnologist Yet this is primarily a methodological experiment with the aim of comparing two different types of source material that have been produced by one person using the evaluation of sources point of view. As far as I know, such an experiment has not been performed before.
  • Gonzalez, H.; Lodenius, M.; Otero, M. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 1989)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Karolinum-Nakladatelstvi Univerzity Karlovy, 2000)
  • Nummelin, M.; Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E. (Entomologica Fennica ry., 1998)
  • Suni, Antti Santeri; Aalto, Daniel; Raitio, Tuomo; Alku, Paavo; Vainio, Martti (2013)
    The pitch contour in speech contains information about different linguistic units at several distinct temporal scales. At the finest level, the microprosodic cues are purely segmental in nature, whereas in the coarser time scales, lexical tones, word accents, and phrase accents appear with both linguistic and paralinguistic functions. Consequently, the pitch movements happen on different temporal scales: the segmental perturbations are faster than typical pitch accents and so forth. In HMMbased speech synthesis paradigm, slower intonation patterns are not easy to model. The statistical procedure of decision tree clustering highlights instances that are more common, resulting in good reproduction of microprosody and declination, but with less variation on word and phrase level compared to human speech. Here we present a system that uses wavelets to decompose the pitch contour into five temporal scales ranging from microprosody to the utterance level. Each component is then individually trained within HMM framework and used in a superpositional manner at the synthesis stage. The resulting system is compared to a baseline where only one decision tree is trained to generate the pitch contour.
  • Hyttinen, Tapani; Kulikov, Vadim (American Mathematical Society, 2011)
    In this paper we define a game which is played between two players I and II on two mathematical structures A and B. The players choose elements from both structures in moves, and at the end of the game the player II wins if the chosen structures are isomorphic. Thus the difference of this to the ordinary Ehrenfeucht-Fra¨ıss´e game is that the isomorphism can be arbitrary, whereas in the ordinary EF-game it is determined by the moves of the players. We investigate determinacy of the weak EF-game for different (the length of the game) and its relation to the ordinary EF-game.
  • Hella, Lauri; Järvisalo, Matti; Kuusisto, Antti; Laurinharju, Juhana; Lempiäinen, Tuomo; Luosto, Kerkko; Suomela, Jukka; Virtema, Jonni (2012)
  • Saarinen, Risto (Peeters, 2006)
    Recherches de theologie et philosophie medievales. Bibliotheca
  • Sorainen, Antu (2015)
    An essay on alternative education: utopias from the Summerhillian education ideals to the Finnish pedagogy's history
  • Donner, K.; Copenhagen, D.R.; Reuter, T. (Rockefeller University Press, 1990)
    Responses to flashes and steps of light were recorded intracellularly from rods and horizontal cells, and extracellularly from ganglion cells, in toad eyecups which were either dark adapted or exposed to various levels of background light. The average background intensities needed to depress the dark-adapted flash sensitivity by half in the three cell types, determined under identical conditions, were 0.9 Rh*s- 1 (rods), 0.8 Rh*s-1 (horizontal cells), and 0.17 Rh*s-1 (ganglion cells), where Rh* denotes one isomerization per rod. Thus, there is a range (approximately 0.7 log units) of weak backgrounds where the sensitivity (response amplitude/Rh*) of rods is not significantly affected, but where that of ganglion cells (1/threshold) is substantially reduced, which implies that the gain of the transmission from rods to the ganglion cell output is decreased. In this range, the ganglion cell threshold rises approximately as the square root of background intensity (i.e. in proportion to the quantal noise from the background), while the maintained rate of discharge stays constant. The threshold response of the cell will then signal light deviations (from a mean level) of constant statistical significance. We propose that this type of ganglion cell desensitization under dim backgrounds is due to a post-receptoral gain control driven by quantal fluctuations, and term it noise adaptation in contrast to the Weber adaptation (desensitization proportional to the mean background intensity) of rods, horizontal cells, and ganglion cells at higher background intensities.
  • Valenius, Johanna (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2000)
    Väki voimakas;13
    Artikkelissa tarkastellaan sukupuolen rakentamisesta ja politiikasta käsin työläisäidin matriarkaalista naurua amerikkalaisessa tilannekomediassa ja yhteiskunnassa
  • Linden, Krister; Pirinen, Tommi (2009)
  • Jauhola, Marjaana (Laboratorium Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, 2012)
  • Fraigniaud, Pierre; Göös, Mika; Korman, Amos; Suomela, Jukka (2013)
    Do unique node identifiers help in deciding whether a network G has a prescribed property P? We study this question in the context of distributed local decision, where the objective is to decide whether G has property P by having each node run a constant-time distributed decision algorithm. In a yes-instance all nodes should output yes, while in a no-instance at least one node should output no. Recently, Fraigniaud et al. (OPODIS 2012) gave several conditions under which identifiers are not needed, and they conjectured that identifiers are not needed in any decision problem. In the present work, we disprove the conjecture. More than that, we analyse two critical variations of the underlying model of distributed computing: (B): the size of the identifiers is bounded by a function of the size of the input network, (¬B): the identifiers are unbounded, (C): the nodes run a computable algorithm, (¬C): the nodes can compute any, possibly uncomputable function. While it is easy to see that under (¬B,¬C) identifiers are not needed, we show that under all other combinations there are properties that can be decided locally if and only if identifiers are present.
  • Lehtomäki, Joona Aleksi; Tuominen, Sakari; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina; Leinonen, Antti (Public Library of Science, 2015)
    The boreal region is facing intensifying resource extraction pressure, but the lack of comprehensive biodiversity data makes operative forest conservation planning difficult. Many countries have implemented forest inventory schemes and are making extensive and up-to-date forest databases increasingly available. Some of the more detailed inventory databases, however, remain proprietary and unavailable for conservation planning. Here, we investigate how well different open and proprietary forest inventory data sets suit the purpose of conservation prioritization in Finland. We also explore how much priorities are affected by using the less accurate but open data. First, we construct a set of indices for forest conservation value based on quantitative information commonly found in forest inventories. These include the maturity of the trees, tree species composition, and site fertility. Secondly, using these data and accounting for connectivity between forest types, we investigate the patterns in conservation priority. For prioritization, we use Zonation, a method and software for spatial conservation prioritization. We then validate the prioritizations by comparing them to known areas of high conservation value. We show that the overall priority patterns are relatively consistent across different data sources and analysis options. However, the coarse data cannot be used to accurately identify the high-priority areas as it misses much of the fine-scale variation in forest structures. We conclude that, while inventory data collected for forestry purposes may be useful for forest conservation purposes, it needs to be detailed enough to be able to account for more fine-scaled features of high conservation value. These results underline the importance of making detailed inventory data publicly available. Finally, we discuss how the prioritization methodology we used could be integrated into operative forest management, especially in countries in the boreal zone.