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  • Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre (Public Library of Science, 2012)
  • Korhonen, Anu (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
  • Snellman, Hanna (1995)
    In the discussion the question of letters and diaries as source material was brought up. Even though the habit of writing letters has diminished compared to the times before the phone, fax and e-mail, in some circumstances letter writing is still common. Long distances, lack of money, and homesickness - experiences that most foreign exchange students encounter - are surely factors that accelerate one's desire to write letters. The combination of being young, living away from home and loved ones for a year and getting acquainted with a different lifestyle, usually results in piles of letters to family and friends at home. In addition to that, a feeling of estrangement and loneliness, which are also common experiences for foreign exchange students, is eased by writing diaries. Today, self-reflection is somewhat in fashion in ethnological research (Gerholm 1993; Wikdahl 1992:17). Therefore, I dared to carry out an experiment myself. This paper is based on letters and diaries I wrote before I knew I would be an ethnologist Yet this is primarily a methodological experiment with the aim of comparing two different types of source material that have been produced by one person using the evaluation of sources point of view. As far as I know, such an experiment has not been performed before.
  • Gonzalez, H.; Lodenius, M.; Otero, M. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 1989)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Karolinum-Nakladatelstvi Univerzity Karlovy, 2000)
  • Nummelin, M.; Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E. (Entomologica Fennica ry., 1998)
  • Suni, Antti Santeri; Aalto, Daniel; Raitio, Tuomo; Alku, Paavo; Vainio, Martti (2013)
    The pitch contour in speech contains information about different linguistic units at several distinct temporal scales. At the finest level, the microprosodic cues are purely segmental in nature, whereas in the coarser time scales, lexical tones, word accents, and phrase accents appear with both linguistic and paralinguistic functions. Consequently, the pitch movements happen on different temporal scales: the segmental perturbations are faster than typical pitch accents and so forth. In HMMbased speech synthesis paradigm, slower intonation patterns are not easy to model. The statistical procedure of decision tree clustering highlights instances that are more common, resulting in good reproduction of microprosody and declination, but with less variation on word and phrase level compared to human speech. Here we present a system that uses wavelets to decompose the pitch contour into five temporal scales ranging from microprosody to the utterance level. Each component is then individually trained within HMM framework and used in a superpositional manner at the synthesis stage. The resulting system is compared to a baseline where only one decision tree is trained to generate the pitch contour.
  • Hyttinen, Tapani; Kulikov, Vadim (American Mathematical Society, 2011)
    In this paper we define a game which is played between two players I and II on two mathematical structures A and B. The players choose elements from both structures in moves, and at the end of the game the player II wins if the chosen structures are isomorphic. Thus the difference of this to the ordinary Ehrenfeucht-Fra¨ıss´e game is that the isomorphism can be arbitrary, whereas in the ordinary EF-game it is determined by the moves of the players. We investigate determinacy of the weak EF-game for different (the length of the game) and its relation to the ordinary EF-game.
  • Hella, Lauri; Järvisalo, Matti; Kuusisto, Antti; Laurinharju, Juhana; Lempiäinen, Tuomo; Luosto, Kerkko; Suomela, Jukka; Virtema, Jonni (2012)
  • Saarinen, Risto (Peeters, 2006)
  • Donner, K.; Copenhagen, D.R.; Reuter, T. (Rockefeller University Press, 1990)
    Responses to flashes and steps of light were recorded intracellularly from rods and horizontal cells, and extracellularly from ganglion cells, in toad eyecups which were either dark adapted or exposed to various levels of background light. The average background intensities needed to depress the dark-adapted flash sensitivity by half in the three cell types, determined under identical conditions, were 0.9 Rh*s- 1 (rods), 0.8 Rh*s-1 (horizontal cells), and 0.17 Rh*s-1 (ganglion cells), where Rh* denotes one isomerization per rod. Thus, there is a range (approximately 0.7 log units) of weak backgrounds where the sensitivity (response amplitude/Rh*) of rods is not significantly affected, but where that of ganglion cells (1/threshold) is substantially reduced, which implies that the gain of the transmission from rods to the ganglion cell output is decreased. In this range, the ganglion cell threshold rises approximately as the square root of background intensity (i.e. in proportion to the quantal noise from the background), while the maintained rate of discharge stays constant. The threshold response of the cell will then signal light deviations (from a mean level) of constant statistical significance. We propose that this type of ganglion cell desensitization under dim backgrounds is due to a post-receptoral gain control driven by quantal fluctuations, and term it noise adaptation in contrast to the Weber adaptation (desensitization proportional to the mean background intensity) of rods, horizontal cells, and ganglion cells at higher background intensities.
  • Valenius, Johanna (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2000)
    Artikkelissa tarkastellaan sukupuolen rakentamisesta ja politiikasta käsin työläisäidin matriarkaalista naurua amerikkalaisessa tilannekomediassa ja yhteiskunnassa
  • Linden, Krister; Pirinen, Tommi (2009)
  • Jauhola, Marjaana (Laboratorium Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, 2012)
  • Fraigniaud, Pierre; Göös, Mika; Korman, Amos; Suomela, Jukka (2013)
    Do unique node identifiers help in deciding whether a network G has a prescribed property P? We study this question in the context of distributed local decision, where the objective is to decide whether G has property P by having each node run a constant-time distributed decision algorithm. In a yes-instance all nodes should output yes, while in a no-instance at least one node should output no. Recently, Fraigniaud et al. (OPODIS 2012) gave several conditions under which identifiers are not needed, and they conjectured that identifiers are not needed in any decision problem. In the present work, we disprove the conjecture. More than that, we analyse two critical variations of the underlying model of distributed computing: (B): the size of the identifiers is bounded by a function of the size of the input network, (¬B): the identifiers are unbounded, (C): the nodes run a computable algorithm, (¬C): the nodes can compute any, possibly uncomputable function. While it is easy to see that under (¬B,¬C) identifiers are not needed, we show that under all other combinations there are properties that can be decided locally if and only if identifiers are present.
  • Kokko, Hanna; Wong, Bob B M (2007)
    In a seminal paper, Hammerstein and Parker (1987) described how sex roles in mate searching can be frequency dependent: the need for one sex to perform mate searching is diminished when the opposite sex takes on the greater searching effort. Intriguingly, this predicts that females are just as likely to search as males, despite a higher potential reproductive rate by the latter sex. This prediction, however, is not supported by data: male mate searching prevails in nature. Counterexamples also exist in the empirical literature. Depending on the taxon studied, female mate searching can arise in either low- or high-density conditions, and suggested explanations differ accordingly. We examine these puzzling observations by building two models (with and without sperm competition). When sperm competition is explicitly included, male mate searching becomes the dominant pattern; when it is excluded, male mate searching predominates only if we assume that costs of searching are higher for females. Consequently, two hypotheses emerge from our models. The multiple-mating hypothesis explains male searching on the basis of the ubiquity of sperm competition, and predicts that female searching can arise in low-density situations in which sperm can become limiting. It can also explain cases of female pheromone production, where males pay the majority of search costs. The sex-specific cost hypothesis predicts the opposite pattern of female searching in high-density conditions, and it potentially applies to some species in which sperm limitation is unlikely.
  • Nieminen, Hannu (Tartu University Press, 2006)
    In recent research literature differing accounts of the European public sphere (EPS) have been offered. We can find at least four ways to understand the concept: 1 The EPS understood as an agora, as a space of critical debate and opinion formation which is open to all European citizens and has established structures and procedures; 2 The EPS understood as a special way of organizing relations between an individual and society, historically shaped and matured in Europe; 3 The EPS understood as distinct from national public spheres, consisting of all public debates and discussions which concern Europe and European issues; 4 The EPS understood empirically, consisting of all public representations that the European media produce. The second approach, which is perhaps best articulated by Charles Taylor, has been less discussed (Taylor, 1992, 2004). Although having a strong affinity to the ideals of deliberative democracy, it takes the debate to a more general level. According to Taylor his approach is based on a ‘cultural’ theory of modernity, in contrast to an ‘a-cultural’ one referring to an empiricist-positivist approach (Taylor, 1992). I will concentrate here only on the second or ‘cultural’ approach. Although I will adopt some of Charles Taylor’s conceptual and theoretical tools, I will apply them freely in building up my own theoretical framework.