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Now showing items 915-934 of 944
  • Snellman, Hanna (1995)
    In the discussion the question of letters and diaries as source material was brought up. Even though the habit of writing letters has diminished compared to the times before the phone, fax and e-mail, in some circumstances letter writing is still common. Long distances, lack of money, and homesickness - experiences that most foreign exchange students encounter - are surely factors that accelerate one's desire to write letters. The combination of being young, living away from home and loved ones for a year and getting acquainted with a different lifestyle, usually results in piles of letters to family and friends at home. In addition to that, a feeling of estrangement and loneliness, which are also common experiences for foreign exchange students, is eased by writing diaries. Today, self-reflection is somewhat in fashion in ethnological research (Gerholm 1993; Wikdahl 1992:17). Therefore, I dared to carry out an experiment myself. This paper is based on letters and diaries I wrote before I knew I would be an ethnologist Yet this is primarily a methodological experiment with the aim of comparing two different types of source material that have been produced by one person using the evaluation of sources point of view. As far as I know, such an experiment has not been performed before.
  • Gonzalez, H.; Lodenius, M.; Otero, M. (Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 1989)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Karolinum-Nakladatelstvi Univerzity Karlovy, 2000)
  • Nummelin, M.; Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E. (Entomologica Fennica ry., 1998)
  • Donner, K.; Copenhagen, D.R.; Reuter, T. (Rockefeller University Press, 1990)
    Responses to flashes and steps of light were recorded intracellularly from rods and horizontal cells, and extracellularly from ganglion cells, in toad eyecups which were either dark adapted or exposed to various levels of background light. The average background intensities needed to depress the dark-adapted flash sensitivity by half in the three cell types, determined under identical conditions, were 0.9 Rh*s- 1 (rods), 0.8 Rh*s-1 (horizontal cells), and 0.17 Rh*s-1 (ganglion cells), where Rh* denotes one isomerization per rod. Thus, there is a range (approximately 0.7 log units) of weak backgrounds where the sensitivity (response amplitude/Rh*) of rods is not significantly affected, but where that of ganglion cells (1/threshold) is substantially reduced, which implies that the gain of the transmission from rods to the ganglion cell output is decreased. In this range, the ganglion cell threshold rises approximately as the square root of background intensity (i.e. in proportion to the quantal noise from the background), while the maintained rate of discharge stays constant. The threshold response of the cell will then signal light deviations (from a mean level) of constant statistical significance. We propose that this type of ganglion cell desensitization under dim backgrounds is due to a post-receptoral gain control driven by quantal fluctuations, and term it noise adaptation in contrast to the Weber adaptation (desensitization proportional to the mean background intensity) of rods, horizontal cells, and ganglion cells at higher background intensities.
  • Valenius, Johanna (Työväen Historian ja Perinteen Tutkimuksen Seura, 2000)
    Artikkelissa tarkastellaan sukupuolen rakentamisesta ja politiikasta käsin työläisäidin matriarkaalista naurua amerikkalaisessa tilannekomediassa ja yhteiskunnassa
  • Kokko, Hanna; Wong, Bob B M (2007)
    In a seminal paper, Hammerstein and Parker (1987) described how sex roles in mate searching can be frequency dependent: the need for one sex to perform mate searching is diminished when the opposite sex takes on the greater searching effort. Intriguingly, this predicts that females are just as likely to search as males, despite a higher potential reproductive rate by the latter sex. This prediction, however, is not supported by data: male mate searching prevails in nature. Counterexamples also exist in the empirical literature. Depending on the taxon studied, female mate searching can arise in either low- or high-density conditions, and suggested explanations differ accordingly. We examine these puzzling observations by building two models (with and without sperm competition). When sperm competition is explicitly included, male mate searching becomes the dominant pattern; when it is excluded, male mate searching predominates only if we assume that costs of searching are higher for females. Consequently, two hypotheses emerge from our models. The multiple-mating hypothesis explains male searching on the basis of the ubiquity of sperm competition, and predicts that female searching can arise in low-density situations in which sperm can become limiting. It can also explain cases of female pheromone production, where males pay the majority of search costs. The sex-specific cost hypothesis predicts the opposite pattern of female searching in high-density conditions, and it potentially applies to some species in which sperm limitation is unlikely.
  • Nieminen, Hannu (Tartu University Press, 2006)
    In recent research literature differing accounts of the European public sphere (EPS) have been offered. We can find at least four ways to understand the concept: 1 The EPS understood as an agora, as a space of critical debate and opinion formation which is open to all European citizens and has established structures and procedures; 2 The EPS understood as a special way of organizing relations between an individual and society, historically shaped and matured in Europe; 3 The EPS understood as distinct from national public spheres, consisting of all public debates and discussions which concern Europe and European issues; 4 The EPS understood empirically, consisting of all public representations that the European media produce. The second approach, which is perhaps best articulated by Charles Taylor, has been less discussed (Taylor, 1992, 2004). Although having a strong affinity to the ideals of deliberative democracy, it takes the debate to a more general level. According to Taylor his approach is based on a ‘cultural’ theory of modernity, in contrast to an ‘a-cultural’ one referring to an empiricist-positivist approach (Taylor, 1992). I will concentrate here only on the second or ‘cultural’ approach. Although I will adopt some of Charles Taylor’s conceptual and theoretical tools, I will apply them freely in building up my own theoretical framework.
  • Torsti, Pilvi (University of Helsinki Department of Social Science History, 2008)
    In this article I attempt to analyse the Estonian Bronze Soldier dispute in spring 2007 as an example of history politics and other phenomena related to the presence of history. Finally I shall close with a discussion of the signifi cance of history politics through analysing the consequences of history politics in Estonia and elsewhere.
  • Varho, V.; Tapio, P. (Elsevier Ltd., 2004)
    In this article we present a method of constructing ‘soft’ scenarios applied to the wind power development in Finland up to the year 2025. We asked 14 experts to describe probable and preferable futures using a quantitative questionnaire and qualitative interviews. Wind power production grows in all scenarios but there were differences in the order of magnitude of 10. The growth rate of electricity consumption slows down in all scenarios. Qualitative arguments varied even within clusters, with wind power policy emerging as the main dividing factor. The differences revealed diverse values and political objectives, as well as great uncertainties in assumptions about future developments. These influence wind power policy and were also believed to have contributed to the slow development of wind power in Finland. Re-thinking of the Finnish wind power policy is recommended. The ‘soft’ scenario method is considered valuable in finding diverse views, constructing transparent scenarios and assisting energy policy making.
  • Snellman, Hanna (Kustannus Puntsi, 2005)
    The Finnish Forest History Society carried out an extensive oral history project in Finland in 1999— 2002 under my guidance, interviewing more than a thousand people who once earned their livelihood in the forest trade. Because previous research had not paid due attention to women's work, we also wished to collect their recollections of the trade. Up to the 1980s, cooking and cleaning was the most important female occupation in the forest trade. These duties are the subject of this article.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Viale, Pierluigi; Koike, Kaoru; Pea, Federico; Tumietto, Fabio; van Goor, Harry; Guercioni, Gianluca; Nespoli, Angelo; Tranà, Cristian; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Leppaniemi, Ari; Biffl, Walter; Moore, Frederick A; Poggetti, Renato; Pinna, Antonio D; Moore, Ernest E (BioMed Central Ltd, 2011)
    Abstract Intra-abdominal infections are still associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections may be an important factor in the quality of care. The presence of a team of health professionals from various disciplines, working in concert, may improve efficiency, outcome, and the cost of care. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bologna on July 2010, during the 1st congress of the WSES, involving surgeons, infectious disease specialists, pharmacologists, radiologists and intensivists with the goal of defining recommendations for the early management of intra-abdominal infections. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.
  • Niskanen, T.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Korkeala, H. (International Association for Food Protection, 2002)
  • Bergholm, Tapio (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2005)
    Vappujuhlat ovat Suomessa ja muualla maailmassa koonneet työväenliikkeen järjestöväkeä ja kannattajia yhteen. Kyse on ollut voimannäytöstä, yhteishengen luonnista ja yhdessä olosta. Työväenpuolueiden väliset ja ammattiyhdistysliikkeen sisäiset ristiriidat ovat näkyneet vappujuhlissa ja niiden järjestelyissä. Tämä artikkeli kuvaa sitä, miksi työväestön yhteistyön ja joukkovoiman kasvun ansiosta yhteiskunnallista asemaansa vahvistanut Suomen Ammattiyhdistysten Keskusliitto (SAK) halusi 1940-luvun lopusta alkaen pitää ammattiosastot ja ammatilliset paikallisjärjestöt erossa vappujuhlien järjestelyistä. Kovin kiista käytiin vuonna 1950 kommunistien johtamien ammatillisten paikallisjärjestöjen oikeudesta järjestää vappujuhlia, jolloin SAK ajautui hajaannuksen partaalle. Rajun arvostelun ja yhtenäisyyspyrkimysten välinen jännite teki SKP:n ammattiyhdistyspolitiikasta tuolloin tempoilevaa.
  • Paloniemi, Riikka; Vainio, Annukka; Cantell, Hannele (Suomen maantieteellinen seura, 2010)
  • Vatanen, Anna (Eesti rakenduslingvistika ühing, 2010)
    Artikkelissa tutkitaan suomalaisissa ja virolaisissa arkikeskusteluissa esiintyvää päällekkäispuhuntaa keskustelunanalyyttisella menetelmällä. Huomion kohteena ovat erityisesti päällekkäispuhuntana tuotettujen vuorojen sisältö ja tehtävät vuorovaikutuksessa. Tutkimuksen perusteella todetaan, että kuten keskustelun osallistujien toiminta vuorovaikutuksessa yleensä myös suuri osa päällekkäispuhunnasta on osoitus osallistujien tekemästä yhteistyöstä eikä se tavallisesti häiritse vuorottelun sujuvuutta lainkaan. Artikkelissa esitellään tarkemmin kolme yhteistyöhakuisen päällekkäispuhunnan tyyppiä: samanmielisyyden osoitukset, tarkistuskysymykset ja sanahaussa auttaminen.
  • Torsti, Pilvi (Historiallinen Aikakauskirja, 2007)
    Uusilla valtioilla ja syntyneilla/synnytetyilla kansakunnilla on kautta aikain ollut tapana keskittya itsenaisensa taipaleensa alussa "oman" historian luomiseen ja kirjoittamiseen. Nykyisyytta ponkittavaa histo-riankirjoitusta on tarvittu yhtaalta kansallisen yhtenaisyyden ja toisaalta oman muista erillisen identiteetin vahvistamiseksi. Kan-sakunnan historian rinnalla tahan romanttiseen nationalismin ideaan on usein kuulunut myos oman kielen korostaminen. Enta mita tapahtuu, kun omaa historiaa ja kielta tarvitsee kolme yhteisoa yhden uuden valtion sisalla? Mennaan katsomaan - tervetuloa kielimatkalle monien paradoksien Bosnia ja Hertsegovinaan!