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  • Tupek, Boris (2009)
    Tropospheric ozone (O3) degrades plant tissues. Degradation is caused by the unbalance between the O3 uptake from the atmosphere and the subsequent O3 detoxication in the leaf mesophyl. The ozone uptake (UO3) is controlled by the opening closing of the stomata, stomatal conductance for O3. The study sites forms the elevation transect in Slovakian High Tatra Mountains (Stará Lesná, Tatranská Lomnica, Štart, Deviatka, Skalnaté pleso, Lomnický Štít). In the stations we were continuously measuring daily ambient O3 concentrations, simultaneusly with the meteorological weather characteristics (air temperature and moisture, global radiation) during the period of 20012003. Beside the weather records, we kept the track on the synoptic movements and the pressure formations of the air-masses over the Europe. The O3 stress index AOT40 surpassed 2 to 5 times the level for the protections of the forest stands 10 ppm/h. Based on the principles of stomatal conductance for O3 we calculated the values of UO3 for the coniferous stands of the tatra transect. The values of cumulated UO3 did not reach the level of 10 mmol/m2 , what means by the study of Wieser (1997) for the similar conditions that the reduction of the net photosynthesis did not reach 5%. We used the calculated values of UO3 (based on the principle of the ambient air O3 concentrations and stomatal conductance for O3) to develop a nonlinear regression model between UO3 and the air temperature. The ozone uptake model based on the air temperature explained on the average 74% of the variation. The optimal temperature of around 15 to 17 degree Celsius showed the maximum ozone uptake 0.031 0.046 ug/m2/s, while 60% of maximum UO3 was found in the 10 degrees deviation from the optimum temperature. The parameters of the nonlinear regression between the ozone uptake and the temperature were fitted for each synoptic type (ST). Maximum UO3 for the cyclonic situations were higher and reached during higher optimal temperature, while typically warmer anticyclonic situations showed lower maximum UO3 during the lower optimal temperature. The average maximum UO3 level of all synoptic types was 1500 ug/m2/d reached at the 18.6 degree Celsius. According to the ozone uptake models were the maximum values of UO3 for cyclonic situations on the average 1700 ug/m2/d reached at the 19.0 degree Celsius. Whereas, typically warmer anticyclonic situations reached on the average about 500 ug/m2/d lower maximum UO3 at the lower optimal temperature 18.0 degree Celsius. The model residuals from the modeled and calculated UO3 for daily synoptic types did not show a clear trend. Differences among the model residuals were by far pronounced during the analysis with 4days sequences of the same weather pattern. The most frequent 4days sequence during the summer season Wa (West anticyclone) deviated plus 100 to1000 ug/m2/d of UO3 from the modeled value. In contrary to Wa, the 4days sequences A and Sa mainly lowered UO3 values by 500 to 700 ug/m2/d from the modeled value. Ozone induced damage on the plant is not the result of the high ambient O3 concentration itself. The damage comes, if the balance between the ozone uptake and the O3 detoxification inside leaf mesophyl is shifted towards the ozone uptake. The study focused on the ozone uptake means considering the physiological O3 stress from the accumulation point of view, advanced to the ambient O3 concentration itself. On the other hand, measuring biochemical processes of depleting detoxicants, ascorbate pool, and remaining O3 concentrations degrading plant tissues would improve the quality of the future O3 stress studies.
  • Hemilä, Harri (Canadian Medical Association = Association médicale canadienne, 2012)
    The systematic review by Dr. Science et al. has a number of problems. ... Even though we need further research to find out what the optimal lozenge compositions and treatment strategies are, the great benefit and the minimal adverse effects in the zinc acetate trials gives a strong rationale for physicians to suggest common cold patients to test zinc acetate lozenges (about 80 mg/day of zinc).
  • Hemilä, Harri (JOHN WILEY & SONS., 2011)
    Feedback to the following Cochrane review: Singh M & Das RR: Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 18;1:CD008965
  • Peltonen, Matti (1985)
    The writer discusses the use of alcohol in Finnish rural communities in the light of Marcel Mauss's theory of a system of reciprocal non-equivalent gift exchange. His views are based on a description written in the 1850s by a Virolahti merchant of peasant origin called Eljas Raussi. On the basis of this description and miscellaneous other sources, the writer claims that the institution of gift exchange still survived in the Finnish farming community in the 19th century. Nor were gift exchange relationships restricted to Finland; Finnish fishermen had similar relationships with Sweden via the Aland Islands and the Turku archipelago and with Estonia across the Gulf of Finland. These relationships show a remarkable affinity with Bronislaw Malinowski's description of the kula institution. The unusual feature of the Finnish gift exchange system was the gift itself, alcohol: beer in the 16th and 17th centuries (the first data are from this period), and distilled spirits with increasing frequency from the 18th century on. Alcohol thus acquired the role occupied by coral necklaces in the kula system and by blankets and copper ornaments in the potlach ceremonies. Alcohol became a gift. Three points are stressed in the conclusions of the article. In the first place, it is suggested that a more complex view should be adopted of the use of alcohol in the old rural communities; it comprised elements of which we may still be unaware. Secondly, the writer claims that our deficient knowledge of rural alcohol customs is due to the biased nature of our historical research. The earliest descriptions of the drinking habits Of the common people were generally written by clergymen or other members of the gentry. It is shown here that they had good reason to bear false witness against their neighbour. Historical research has focused on alcohol policy and the temperance movement, and the most prominent researchers have been teetotallers. Thirdly, the writer claims that Marcel Mauss's theory of gift exchange may help us understand some important aspects of the special attitude Finns — and perhaps other northern peoples —have to alcohol.
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Centralförbundet för fiskerihushållning, 1970)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Nordenskiöld-samfundet, 1986)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Centralförbundet för Fiskerihushållning, 1994)
  • Syrjänen, Leo; Valanne, Susanna; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Tuomela, Tea; Sriram, Ashwin; Sanz, Alberto; Jacobs, Howard T; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. CAs are present as six structurally divergent enzyme families: α, β, γ, δ, ζ and η. β-CAs have a wide distribution across different species including invertebrates. Previously, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster β-CA is a highly active mitochondrial enzyme. In this study, we investigated the function of Drosophila β-CA by silencing the expression of the β-CA gene using UAS/GAL4-based RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila in vivo. Results Crossing β-CA RNAi lines over ubiquitous Actin driver flies did not produce any viable progeny, indicating that β-CA expression is required for fly development. RNAi silencing of β-CA ubiquitously in adult flies did not affect their survival rate or function of mitochondrial electron transport chain. Importantly, β-CA RNAi led to impaired reproduction. All β-CA knockdown females were sterile, and produced few or no eggs. Whole ovaries of knockdown females looked normal but upon cadherin staining, there was an apparent functional defect in migration of border cells, which are considered essential for normal fertilization. Conclusions These results indicate that although Drosophila β-CA is dispensable for survival of adult flies, it is essential for female fertility.
  • Tarasenko, Anna; Kulmala, Meri Susanna (European University at St. Petersburg, 2015)
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Starodubtsev, Andrey (European University at St.Petersburg Press, 2014)
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Travin, Dmitrii (Новое литературное обозрение, 2013)
    The article aimed to explain changes of agenda of the Russian modernization in the late twentieth century through the impact of generation changes. While in 1985-1991 the generation of "sixtiers" pursuit their ideational priorities of political liberalization but paid less attention to economic reforms, in 1991-1998 the generation of "seventiers" focused on economic reforms rather than on democratization due to its ideational priorities
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (BHV-Peterburg, 2013)
    The book is devoted to analysis of causes and consequences of political regime changes in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The book systematically examine in theoretical and comparative perspective various factors which affect these changes and contributed to authoritarian drift of the country. The author focus on the role of agency and interests and strategies of political actors in the process of authoritarian state building as well as challenges and constrains they faced in Russia and beyond, and discuss possible trajectories of further regimes changes in Russia against the background of global political trends.