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  • Lukkarinen, Jani; Mei, Peng; Spohn, Herbert (JOHN/WILEY & SONS, INC., 2015)
    The Hubbard model is a simplified description for the evolution of interacting spin-1/2 fermions on a d-dimensional lattice. In a kinetic scaling limit, the Hubbard model can be associated with a matrix-valued Boltzmann equation, the Hubbard-Boltzmann equation. Its collision operator is a sum of two qualitatively different terms: The first term is similar to the collision operator of the fermionic Boltzmann-Nordheim equation. The second term leads to a momentum-dependent rotation of the spin basis. The rotation is determined by a principal value integral which depends quadratically on the state of the system and might become singular for non-smooth states. In this paper, we prove that the spatially homogeneous equation nevertheless has global solutions in L^\infty(T^d,C^{2x2}) for any initial data W_0 which satisfies the "Fermi constraint" in the sense that 0 = 3. These assumptions suffice to guarantee that, although possibly singular, the local rotation term is generated by a function in L^2(T^d,C^{2x2}).
  • Okuyama, Yûsuke; Pankka, Pekka (American Mathematical Society, 2015)
    We establish a rescaling theorem for isolated essential singularities of quasiregular mappings. As a consequence we show that the class of closed manifolds receiving a quasiregular mapping from a punctured unit ball with an essential singularity at the origin is exactly the class of closed quasiregularly elliptic manifolds, that is, closed manifolds receiving a non-constant quasiregular mapping from a Euclidean space.
  • Ajao, Charmaine; Andersson, Maria; Teplova, Vera V; Nagy, Szabolcs; Gahmberg, Carl G.; Andersson, Leif C.; Hautaniemi, Maria; Kakasi, Balazs; Roivainen, Merja; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka (Elsevier, 2015)
    Effects of triclosan (5-chloro-2’-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) on mammalian cells were investigated using human peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (PBMC), keratinocytes (HaCaT), porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15), murine pancreatic islets (MIN-6) and neuroblastoma cells (MNA) as targets. We show that triclosan (1 – 10 μg ml-1) depolarised the mitochondria, upshifted the rate of glucose consumption in PMBC, HaCaT, PK-15 and MNA, and subsequently induced metabolic acidosis. Triclosan induced a regression of insulin producing pancreatic islets into tiny pycnotic cells and necrotic death. Short exposure to low concentrations of triclosan (30 min, ≤ 1 μg / ml) paralysed the high amplitude tail beating and progressive motility of spermatozoa, within 30 min exposure, depolarized the spermatozoan mitochondria and hyperpolarised the acrosome region of the sperm head and the flagellar fibrous sheath (distal part of the flagellum). Experiments with isolated rat liver mitochondria showed that triclosan impaired oxidative phosphorylation, downshifted ATP synthesis, uncoupled respiration and provoked excessive oxygen uptake. These exposure concentrations are 100 - 1000 fold lower that those permitted in consumer goods. The mitochondriotoxic mechanism of triclosan differs from that of valinomycin, cereulide and the enniatins by not involving potassium ionophoric activity.
  • Montovan, Kathryn J.; Couchoux, Christelle; Jones, Laura E.; Reeve, Hudson K.; van Nouhuys, Saskya (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, 2015)
    When there is conspicuous underexploitation of a limited resource, it is worth asking, what mechanisms allow presumably valuable resources to be left unused? Evolutionary biologists have generated a wide variety of hypotheses to explain this, ranging from interdemic group selection to selfishly prudent individual restraint. We consider a situation in which, despite high intraspecific competition, individuals leave most of a key resource unexploited. The parasitic wasp that does this finds virtually all host egg clusters in a landscape but parasitizes only about a third of the eggs in each and then leaves a deterrent mark around the cluster. We first test—and reject—a series of system-specific simple constraints that might limit full host exploitation, such as asynchronous maturation of host eggs. We then consider classical hypotheses for the evolution of restraint. Prudent predation and bet-hedging fail as explanations because the wasp lives as a large, well-mixed population. Additionally, we find no individual benefits to the parasitoid of developing in a sparsely parasitized host nest.However, an optimal foragingmodel, including empirically measured costs of superparasitism and hyperparasitism, can explain through individual selection both the consistently low rate of parasitism and deterrent marking.
  • Tiittula, Liisa (KAINUUN SANOMAT, 2015)
  • Mustajoki, Arto Samuel; Teeri, Tuula (Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta, 2015)
  • Weinheimer, Isabel; Jiu, Yaming; Rajamäki, Minna; Matilainen, Olli; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Cuellar, Wilmer; Lu, Rui; Saarma, Mart; Holmberg, Carina I; Jäntti, Jussi; Valkonen, Jari (PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE., 2015)
    Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV) infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant) and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA) molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)–mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3) produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are homologous in unrelated RNA and DNA viruses and can be detected in viral genomes using gene modeling and protein structure prediction programs.
  • Jaakko, Pohjoismäki; Antti, Haarto; Kaj, Winqvist; Kahanpää, Jere (Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 2015)
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Ryvarden, Leif; Miettinen, Otto (Fungiflora, 2015)
    In total, 7 species of heterobasidiomycetes are reported for the first time from St. Helena. A new genus Dendrogloeon (Auricularilaes) is introduced for the new species D. helenae based on both DNA and morphological data. Saccoblastia media, sp. nova, is the sole representative of the Pucciniomycotina, so far found in the study area.
  • Lehtisaari, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, Aleksanteri-instituutti, 2015)
    Viime aikojen muutokset median sääntelyssä Venäjällä näyttävät johtavan kohti samaa päämäärää, yhä suurempaa valtion ohjailua, kirjoittaa Katja Lehtisaari.
  • Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Yaniv, Elitsur; Kalendar, Ruslan; Raats, Dina; Bariana, Harbans S.; Reza Bihamta, Mohammad; Schulman, Alan (SPRINGER, 2015)
    Stripe rust (Pucinia striformis f.sp. tritici) is one of the most important fungal diseases of wheat, found on all continents and in over 60 countries. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, which is the tetraploid progenitor of durum wheat, is a valuable source of novel stripe rust resistance genes for wheat breeding. T. dicoccoides G25 accession carries Yr15, a gene on chromosome arm 1BS. Yr15 confers resistance to all known stripe rust isolates; it is also effective in introgressed durum and bread wheat. Retrotransposons generate polymorphic insertions, which can be scored as Mendelian markers with techniques including REMAP and IRAP. Six REMAP and IRAP-derived SCAR markers were developed using 1256 F2 plants derived from crosses of the susceptible T. durum accession D447 with its resistant BC3F9 and BC3F10 (B9 and B10) near isogenic lines, which carried Yr15 introgressed from G25. The nearest markers segregated 0.1 cM proximally and 1.1 cM distally to Yr15. These markers were also mapped and validated at the same position in another independent 500 F2 plants derived from crosses of B9 and B10 with the susceptible cultivar Langdon. SCAR270 and SCAR790, surrounding Yr15 at an interval of 1.2 cM, were found to be reliable and robust co-dominant markers in a wide range of wheat lines and cultivars with and without Yr15. These markers are useful tags in marker-assisted wheat breeding programs aiming to incorporate Yr15 into elite wheat lines and cultivars for durable and broad-spectrum resistance against stripe rust.
  • Vered, Marilena; Lehtonen, Meri; Hotakainen, Lari; Pirilä, Emma; Teppo, Susanna; Nyberg, Pia; Sormunen, Raija; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Dayan, Dan (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Caveolin-1 (CAV1) may be upregulated by hypoxia and acts in a tumor-dependent manner. We investigated CAV1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its association with clinical outcomes, and studied in vitro possible ways for CAV1 accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Methods TSCC cases (N = 64) were immunohistochemically stained for CAV1. Scores were separately assessed in the tumor and TME and plotted for association with recurrence and survival (univariate analysis with log-rank test). In vitro studies were performed on a 3D myoma organotypic model, a mimicker of TME. Prior to monoculturing HSC-3 tongue cancer cells, the model underwent modifications in oxygenation level (1%O2 hypoxia to upregulate CAV1) and/or in the amount of natural soluble factors [deleted by 14-day rinsing (rinsed myoma, RM), to allow only HSC-3-derived factors to act]. Controls included normoxia (21%O2) and naturally occurring soluble factors (intact myoma, IM). HSC-3 cells were also co-cultured with CaDEC12 cells (fibroblasts exposed to human tongue cancer). CAV1 expression and cellular distribution were examined in different cellular components in hypoxic and rinsed myoma assays. Twist served as a marker for the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exosomes isolated from HSC-3 media were investigated for containing CAV1. Results Expression of CAV1 in TSCC had a higher score in TME than in the tumor cells and a negative impact on recurrence (p = 0.01) and survival (p = 0.003). Monocultures of HSC-3 revealed expression of CAV1 mainly in the TME-like myoma assay, similar to TSCC. CAV1+, alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) + and Twist + CAF-like cells were observed surrounding the invading HSC-3, possibly reflecting EMT. RM findings were similar to IM, inferring action of HSC-3 derived factors, and no differences were seen when hypoxia was induced. HSC-3-CaDEC12 co-cultures revealed CAV1+, αSMA+ and cytokeratin-negative CAF-like cells, raising the possibility of CaDEC12 cells gaining a CAF phenotype. HSC-3-derived exosomes were loaded with CAV1. Conclusions Accumulation of CAV1-TME in TSCC had a negative prognostic value. In vitro studies showed the presence of CAV1 in cancer cells undergoing EMT and in fibroblasts undergoing trans-differentiation to CAFs. CAV1 delivery to the TME involved cancer cell-derived exosomes.
  • Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Rasehorn, Mira; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha (Public Library of Science, 2015)
  • Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Results Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 – 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek’s disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). Conclusions This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.
  • Kondadi, Pradeep K; Revez, Joana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Sialic acid in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of mucosal pathogens is known to be an important virulence factor. Few strains of Helicobacter pylori express sialyl-Lewis-X and we have reported that human and canine Helicobacter bizzozeronii strains express sialyl-lactoseamine in their LPS. However, the role of sialyation of Helicobacter LPS in the interaction with the host cells is still unknown. In this study H. bizzozeronii LPS is shown to activate the TLR2 in a dose and strain dependent manner in the in vitro HEK-293 cells model expressing TLR2, but not the cells expressing TLR4. These results indicate that TLR2 is the specific receptor for H. bizzozzeronii LPS, as previously described for H. pylori. To further explore the role of sialylation of H. bizzozeronii LPS on TLR2 response, H. bizzozeronii Δhbs2 mutant strains deficient in sialyltransferase activity were constructed by homologous recombination. LPS from H. bizzozeronii Δhbs2 strains enhanced the NF-ĸB induction via TLR2 compared to the respective wild types, leading to the conclusion that the sialylation of H. bizzozeronii LPS in wild-type strains may modulate host immune response.
  • Roine, Ulrika; Salmi, Juha; Roine, Timo; Wendt, Taina Nieminen-von; Leppämäki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Tani, Pekka; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in neural structure in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The main symptoms of AS are severe impairments in social interactions and restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests or activities. Methods Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for 14 adult males with AS and 19 age, sex and IQ-matched controls. Voxelwise group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) were studied with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Based on the results of TBSS, a tract-level comparison was performed with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography, which is able to detect complex (for example, crossing) fiber configurations. In addition, to investigate the relationship between the microstructural changes and the severity of symptoms, we looked for correlations between FA and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient. Results TBSS revealed widely distributed local increases in FA bilaterally in individuals with AS, most prominent in the temporal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, splenium of corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), posterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). CSD-based tractography also showed increases in the FA in multiple tracts. However, only the difference in the left ILF was significant after a Bonferroni correction. These results were not explained by the complexity of microstructural organization, measured using the planar diffusion coefficient. In addition, we found a correlation between AQ and FA in the right IFO in the whole group. Conclusions Our results suggest that there are local and tract-level abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure in our homogenous and carefully characterized group of adults with AS, most prominent in the left ILF.
  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per EJ; Satokari, Reetta (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background For a good probiotic candidate, the abilities to adhere to intestinal epithelium and to fortify barrier function are considered to be crucial for colonization and functionality of the strain. The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 was isolated from the jejunum of a healthy dog, where it was found to be the most pre-dominant lactobacilli. In this study, the adhesion ability of LAB20 to intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) lines, IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies, and to canine, porcine and human intestinal mucus was investigated. Further, we studied the ability of LAB20 to fortify the epithelial cell monolayer and to reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL-8) release from enterocytes. Results We found that LAB20 presented higher adhesion to canine colonic mucus as compared to mucus isolated from porcine colon. LAB20 showed adhesion to HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines, and importantly also to canine IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies. In addition, LAB20 increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of enterocyte monolayers and thus strengthened the intestinal barrier function. The strain showed also anti-inflammatory capacity in being able to attenuate the LPS-induced IL-8 production of HT-29 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, canine indigenous strain LAB20 is a potential probiotic candidate for dogs adhering to the host epithelium and showing intestinal barrier fortifying and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Long, Georgina V; Atkinson, Victoria; Ascierto, Paolo A; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C; Rutkowski, Piotr; McNeil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela; Lebbé, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mauch, Cornelia; Schmidt, Henrik; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gogas, Helen; Horak, Christine; Sharkey, Brian; Waxman, Ian M; Robert, Caroline (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
  • Seo, Seung Bum; Zeng, Xiangpei; King, Jonathan L; Larue, Bobby L; Assidi, Mourad; Al-Qahtani, Mohamed H; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have the capacity to sequence targeted regions or whole genomes of multiple nucleic acid samples with high coverage by sequencing millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. Compared with Sanger sequencing, MPS also can reduce labor and cost on a per nucleotide basis and indeed on a per sample basis. In this study, whole genomes of human mitochondria (mtGenome) were sequenced on the Personal Genome Machine (PGMTM) (Life Technologies, San Francisco, CA), the out data were assessed, and the results were compared with data previously generated on the MiSeqTM (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The objectives of this paper were to determine the feasibility, accuracy, and reliability of sequence data obtained from the PGM. Results 24 samples were multiplexed (in groups of six) and sequenced on the at least 10 megabase throughput 314 chip. The depth of coverage pattern was similar among all 24 samples; however the coverage across the genome varied. For strand bias, the average ratio of coverage between the forward and reverse strands at each nucleotide position indicated that two-thirds of the positions of the genome had ratios that were greater than 0.5. A few sites had more extreme strand bias. Another observation was that 156 positions had a false deletion rate greater than 0.15 in one or more individuals. There were 31-98 (SNP) mtGenome variants observed per sample for the 24 samples analyzed. The total 1237 (SNP) variants were concordant between the results from the PGM and MiSeq. The quality scores for haplogroup assignment for all 24 samples ranged between 88.8%-100%. Conclusions In this study, mtDNA sequence data generated from the PGM were analyzed and the output evaluated. Depth of coverage variation and strand bias were identified but generally were infrequent and did not impact reliability of variant calls. Multiplexing of samples was demonstrated which can improve throughput and reduce cost per sample analyzed. Overall, the results of this study, based on orthogonal concordance testing and phylogenetic scrutiny, supported that whole mtGenome sequence data with high accuracy can be obtained using the PGM platform.