Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 40018
  • Lowe, Elizabeth C.; Wolff, Jonas O.; Aceves-Aparicio, Alfonso; Birkhofer, Klaus; Branco, Vasco V; Cardoso, Pedro; Chichorro, Filipe; Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Goncalves-Sousa, T.; Haddad, Charles; Isaia, Marco; Krehenwinkel, H.; Audisio, Tracy Lynn; Macias Hernandez, Nuria; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Mammola, Stefano; McLean, Donald James; Michalko, Radek; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Pekar, Stano; Petillon, Julien; Privet, Kaina; Scott, Catherine; Uhl, Gabriele; Urbano Tenorio, Fernando; Wong, Boon Hui; Herbestein, Marie E. (2020)
    A main goal of ecological and evolutionary biology is understanding and predicting interactions between populations and both abiotic and biotic environments, the spatial and temporal variation of these interactions, and the effects on population dynamics and performance. Trait-based approaches can help to model these interactions and generate a comprehensive understanding of ecosystem functioning. A central tool is the collation of databases that include species trait information. Such centralized databases have been set up for a number of organismal groups but is lacking for one of the most important groups of predators in terrestrial ecosystems - spiders. Here we promote the collation of an open spider traits database, integrated into the global Open Traits Network. We explore the current collation of spider data and cover the logistics of setting up a global database, including which traits to include, the source of data, how to input data, database governance, geographic cover, accessibility, quality control and how to make the database sustainable long-term. Finally, we explore the scope of research questions that could be investigated using a global spider traits database.
  • Toivanen, Jussi; Meaney, Alexander; Siltanen, Samuli; Kolehmainen, Ville (2020)
    Multi-energy CT takes advantage of the non-linearly varying attenuation properties of elemental media with respect to energy, enabling more precise material identification than single-energy CT. The increased precision comes with the cost of a higher radiation dose. A straightforward way to lower the dose is to reduce the number of projections per energy, but this makes tomographic reconstruction more ill-posed. In this paper, we propose how this problem can be overcome with a combination of a regularization method that promotes structural similarity between images at different energies and a suitably selected low-dose data acquisition protocol using non-overlapping projections. The performance of various joint regularization models is assessed with both simulated and experimental data, using the novel low-dose data acquisition protocol. Three of the models are well-established, namely the joint total variation, the linear parallel level sets and the spectral smoothness promoting regularization models. Furthermore, one new joint regularization model is introduced for multi-energy CT: a regularization based on the structure function from the structural similarity index. The findings show that joint regularization outperforms individual channel-by-channel reconstruction. Furthermore, the proposed combination of joint reconstruction and non-overlapping projection geometry enables significant reduction of radiation dose.
  • Haapanen, Markus J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Fisher, Diana; Jonasson, Fridbert; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances (2020)
    Purpose To study associations between body size at birth and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in old age. Methods The study sample consists of 1497 community-dwelling individuals (56.1% women) aged 67-89 years with birth data and retinal data collected twice in old age 5 years apart. Birth data (weight, length, birth order) were extracted from original birth records. Digital retinal photographs were graded to determine AMD status. Data on covariates were collected at the baseline physical examination in old age. Multivariable regression analyses were used to study the association between birth data and AMD adjusting for known confounding factors, including birth year cohort effects. Results The prevalence and 5-year incidence of any AMD were 33.1% and 17.0%, respectively. Men and women born in 1930-1936 were significantly leaner and slightly longer at birth compared to those in earlier birth cohorts. There were no consistent associations between weight, length or ponderal index (PI) at birth and AMD in old age even when stratified by birth cohort. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) prevalence (39.8%) and 5-year incidence (28.6%) were highest in individuals who were in the highest quartile of PI at birth and who were obese in old age. Conclusion Body size at birth was not consistently associated with AMD in old age, suggesting that intrauterine growth might have little direct importance in the development of AMD in old age. It is possible that some yet unknown factors related to larger size at birth and obesity in old age may explain differences in the prevalence and incidence of AMD in the ageing population.
  • Havu, Katri (2020)
    Damages disputes related to breaches of EU competition law are heard by Member State courts that apply a combination of EU and national law to these cases. Recently, the European Court of Justice handed down a preliminary ruling concerning who is liable to compensate harm caused by competition infringements (Skanska (C-724/17)). Importantly, the ruling confirms that EU competition law, and not national legislation, dictates which legal entities are responsible for damages. Moreover, the ruling indicates that the broadly interpreted concept of “undertaking” and the principle of economic continuity—traditionally discussed in the sphere of public enforcement of EU competition provisions—are also relevant in the context of private law claims. These clarifications are invaluable, because the issue of those liable for damages has not previously been addressed in a detailed manner, and the extent to which EU law, as opposed to national rules, governs this area has not been clear. This contribution explores the Skanska ruling and its theoretical and practical implications.
  • Linnanvirta, Suvi; Kroll, Christian; Blomberg, Helena (2019)
    Discussions on the pros and cons of a basic income (BI) have remained mainly at the 'systemic level'. Based on survey and interview data, this study provides a 'bottom-up' perspective on the legitimacy of the idea of a basic income among people queuing in breadlines in Helsinki in late 2016, who are assumed to be affected positively by this benefit. While general support for the idea is high, not everyone supports an unconditional BI. Despite the likely 'objective interest', a BI does not seem to be supported by food aid recipients any more than by the general population as measured by a previous study. Besides interests, normative beliefs and perceptions of deservingness seem of importance for legitimacy too, especially among those not supporting a BI. Doubts regarding a BI are to some extent connected to wishes to limit the social citizenship of some of the persons in the breadlines.
  • Meysick, Lukas; Ysebaert, Tom; Jansson, Anna; Montserrat, Fransesc; Valanko, Sebastian; Villnäs, Anna; Boström, Christoffer; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Foundation species host diverse associated communities by ameliorating environmental stress. The strength of this facilitative effect can be highly dependent on the underlying biotic and abiotic context. We investigated community level patterns of macrofauna associated with and adjacent to the marine foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) along a hydrodynamic stress gradient. We could demonstrate that the relative importance of this foundation species for its infaunal community increases with environmental variables associated with increasing hydrodynamic stress (depth, sand ripples formation, sediment grain size and organic content). Faunal assemblages in proximity to the Zostera patch edges, however, showed no (infauna) or negative (epifauna) response to hydrodynamic stress. Our study highlights that the facilitative outcome of a foundation species is conditional to the faunal assemblage in question and can be highly variable even between positions within the habitat.
  • Matilainen, Anne; Suutari, Timo; Lahdesmaki, Merja; Koski, Pasi (2018)
    Community-based tourism development typically assumes co-operation between different stakeholder groups at the local level, and thus combines different types of knowledge. However, this does not imply that a consensus exists between the stakeholders in the first place. In this article, we present a potential conceptual tool, namely boundary objects that could support stakeholders from different knowledge communities in working jointly towards a common goal and generate commitment towards it. The literature concerning knowledge communities and boundary objects is used as a theoretical framework. A three-year community-based tourism development project comprises the data of the article, and is used as a case study to illustrate the role of different knowledge communities, and to analyse the selected boundary objects. The results illustrate the importance of proper design of boundary objects in community-based tourism development processes, and highlight the features of a successful boundary object in generating ownership feelings towards development activities. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vuola, Elina Inkeri Tellervo (Oxford University Press, 2019)
  • Slotte, Pamela Paulina (Hart publishing, 2020)
    Swedish Studies in European Law
    This chapter provides an overview of and discusses certain tendencies in contemporary discussions of religious freedom. In order to situate the topic in a broader theoretical framework, and to clarify the position adopted in the chapter, the chapter begins with some reflections about freedom as a philosophical concept. Thereafter, most of the chapter focuses on freedom in relation to religion and ambiguity and ambivalence in relation hereto, and on ‘freedom as stipulated in law’ as well as on how this law – mainly international human rights law – simultaneously constrains and enables religious life. Thus, the chapter focuses on the subjects of ‘codified freedom’ and freedom of religion rather than, for example, on freedom in a religious sense: that is, freedom as an existential category. The chapter discusses how international law grapples with the ambivalence and ambiguities of religious freedom today and tentatively explores why this is the case precisely now, and why this situation has arisen. It also comments upon the various scholarly responses to the situation that has arisen. In sum, the chapter contributes to providing an overview of the setting or framework within which issues of freedom to and from religion is currently discussed.
  • Bello, Ibrahim O.; Almangush, Alhadi; Heikkinen, Ilkka; Haglund, Caj; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Makitie, Antti A.; Nieminen, Pentti; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    Little is known about the histopathological characteristics that may differentiate early oral tongue cancer (OTSCC) between young and older patients. From a total of 311 cases diagnosed with clinically early-stage OTSCC at 6 institutions, only 42 patients were young patients were aged 60 years old were matched for center of management, clinical stage and gender. We compared epithelial and stromal histopathologic parameters between the two groups. Most of the parameters were similar between the two groups, although the young patients appeared to have marginally higher intensity of tumor budding, histologic risk score, infiltrative pattern of invasion and tumor-stroma ratio. However, none of the factors showed significant difference when comparing the two groups. The histological parameters reflect mechanisms of invasive growth and tissue response to invasive growth, but not the etiological difference in OTSCC between young and older patients. Further investigations are necessary to compare the genetic background of early OTSCC in the two groups.
  • Zhang, Yansong; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Jiaheng; Wang, Shan; Liu, Zhuan; Han, Ruichen (2020)
    GPU has been considered as one of the next-generation platforms for real-time query processing databases. In this paper we empirically demonstrate that the representative GPU databases [e.g., OmniSci (Open Source Analytical Database & SQL Engine,, 2019)] may be slower than the representative in-memory databases [e.g., Hyper (Neumann and Leis, IEEE Data Eng Bull 37(1):3-11, 2014)] with typical OLAP workloads (with Star Schema Benchmark) even if the actual dataset size of each query can completely fit in GPU memory. Therefore, we argue that GPU database designs should not be one-size-fits-all; a general-purpose GPU database engine may not be well-suited for OLAP workloads without careful designed GPU memory assignment and GPU computing locality. In order to achieve better performance for GPU OLAP, we need to re-organize OLAP operators and re-optimize OLAP model. In particular, we propose the 3-layer OLAP model to match the heterogeneous computing platforms. The core idea is to maximize data and computing locality to specified hardware. We design the vector grouping algorithm for data-intensive workload which is proved to be assigned to CPU platform adaptive. We design the TOP-DOWN query plan tree strategy to guarantee the optimal operation in final stage and pushing the respective optimizations to the lower layers to make global optimization gains. With this strategy, we design the 3-stage processing model (OLAP acceleration engine) for hybrid CPU-GPU platform, where the computing-intensive star-join stage is accelerated by GPU, and the data-intensive grouping & aggregation stage is accelerated by CPU. This design maximizes the locality of different workloads and simplifies the GPU acceleration implementation. Our experimental results show that with vector grouping and GPU accelerated star-join implementation, the OLAP acceleration engine runs 1.9x, 3.05x and 3.92x faster than Hyper, OmniSci GPU and OmniSci CPU in SSB evaluation with dataset of SF = 100.
  • Raivio, Minna; Hartikainen, Sirpa (2020)
    Suomessa 75 vuotta täyttäneitä on tällä hetkellä yli 700 000, noin 14 % väestöstä. Heillä on enemmän sairauksia ja niihin lääkehoitoja kuin nuoremmilla. Lääkehaitat aiheuttavat viidesosan iäkkäiden päivystyskäynneistä sairaaloissa, mutta niistä merkittävä osa on ehkäistävissä. Perusterveydenhuollon tärkeä tehtävä on iäkkään lääkehoidon arviointi säännöllisesti vähintään kerran vuodessa. Kaikkein hauraimmille, kuten muistisairaille, lääkehoidon arviointi olisi syytä tehdä vielä tiheämmin. Iäkkään optimoidun lääkehoidon pitäisi olla rationaalista - oikea lääke oikeaan vaivaan - ja vanhenemismuutosten vaikutukset sekä yksilöllisesti iäkkään tarpeet ja elämäntilanne huomioon ottavaa. Kokonaisvaltainen hoito ja optimoitu lääkehoito sen osana on pitkäjänteistä työtä, jossa lääkärin tärkein kumppani on iäkäs ihminen itse läheisineen.
  • Kopra, Sanna (Palgrave Pivot, 2019)
  • Hämäläinen, Mika; Partanen, Niko; Alnajjar, Khalid (Association pour le Traitement Automatique des Langues, 2021)
  • de Hulster, Izaak J.; Nikolsky, Ronit; Nicolet, Valérie; Silverman, Jason M (2021)
  • Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Chen, Gang; Garmash, Olga; Aliaga, Diego; Graeffe, Frans; Räty, Meri; Luoma, Krista; Aalto, Pasi; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael (2021)
  • de Hulster, Izaak J.; Nicolet, Valérie; Nikolsky, Ronit; Silverman, Jason M (2021)