Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 21558
  • Eloranta, Antti P.; Nieminen, Petri; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2015)
    Introduced fishes may have major impacts on community structure and ecosystem function due to competitive and predatory interactions with native species. For example, introduced lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) has been shown to replace native salmonids and induce major trophic cascades in some North American lakes, but few studies have investigated trophic interactions between lake trout and closely related native Arctic charr (S.alpinus) outside the natural distribution of the former species. We used stomach content and stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions between introduced lake trout and native Arctic charr in large subarctic Lake Inarijarvi in northern Finland. Both salmonids had predominantly piscivorous diets at >280mm total length and were mainly caught from the deep profundal zone. However, lake trout had a more generalist diet and showed higher reliance on littoral prey fish than Arctic charr, whose diet consisted mainly of pelagic planktivorous coregonids. According to length at age and condition data, lake trout showed slightly faster growth but lower condition than Arctic charr. The results indicate that introduced lake trout may to some extent compete with and prey upon native Arctic charr, but currently have only a minor if any impact on native fishes and food web structure in Inarijarvi. Future monitoring is essential to observe potential changes in trophic interactions between lake trout and Arctic charr in Inarijarvi, as well as in other European lakes where the two salmonids currently coexist.
  • Georgakakis, A.; Comparat, J.; Merloni, A.; Ciesla, L.; Aird, J.; Finoguenov, A. (2019)
    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the distribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the cosmicweb. It populates dark-matter haloes in N-body simulations (MultiDark) with galaxy stellar masses using empirical relations based on abundance matching techniques, and then paints accretion events on these galaxies using state-of-the-art measurements of the AGN occupation of galaxies. The explicit assumption is that the large-scale distribution of AGN is independent of the physics of black hole fuelling. The model is shown to be consistent with current measurements of the two-point correlation function of AGN samples. It is then used to make inferences on the halo occupation of the AGN population. Mock AGNs are found in haloes with a broad distribution of masses with a mode of approximate to 10(12) h(-1) M-circle dot and a tail extending to cluster-size haloes. The clustering properties of the model AGN depend only weakly on accretion luminosity and redshift. The fraction of satellite AGN in the model increases steeply toward more massive haloes, in contrast with some recent observational results. This discrepancy, if confirmed, could point to a dependence of the halo occupation of AGN on the physics of black hole fuelling.
  • Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Redaelli, E.; Juvela, M.; Bizzocchi, L. (2019)
    We carried out a parameter-space exploration of the ammonia abundance in the pre-stellar core L1544, where it has been observed to increase toward the centre of the core with no signs of freeze-out onto grain surfaces. We considered static and dynamical physical models coupled with elaborate chemical and radiative transfer calculations, and explored the effects of varying model parameters on the (ortho + para) ammonia abundance profile. None of our models are able to reproduce the inward-increasing tendency in the observed profile; ammonia depletion always occurs in the centre of the core. In particular, our study shows that including the chemical desorption process, where exothermic association reactions on the grain surface can result in the immediate desorption of the product molecule, leads to ammonia abundances that are over an order of magnitude above the observed level in the innermost 15 000 au of the core - at least when one employs a constant efficiency for the chemical desorption process, irrespective of the ice composition. Our results seemingly constrain the chemical desorption efficiency of ammonia on water ice to below 1 per cent. It is increasingly evident that time-dependent effects must be considered so that the results of chemical models can be reconciled with observations.
  • Huitu, Katri; Koivunen, Niko; Lebedev, Oleg; Mondal, Subhadeep; Toma, Takashi (2019)
    Pseudo-Goldstone dark matter coupled to the Standard Model via the Higgs portal offers an attractive framework for phenomenologically viable pseudoscalar dark matter. It enjoys natural suppression of the direct detection rate due to the vanishing of the relevant (tree level) Goldstone boson vertex at zero momentum transfer, which makes light WIMP-like dark matter consistent with the strong current bounds. In this work, we explore prospects of detecting pseudo-Goldstone dark matter at the LHC, focusing on the vector boson fusion channel with missing energy. We find that, in substantial regions of parameter space, relatively light dark matter (m(chi) <150 GeV) can be discovered in the high luminosity run as long as it is produced in decays of the Higgs-like bosons.
  • Lahen, Natalia; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie (2019)
    We present a hydrodynamical simulation at sub-parsec and few-solar-mass resolution of a merger between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies. Our simulation includes a detailed model for the multi-phase interstellar medium and is able to follow the entire formation history of spatially resolved star clusters, including feedback from individual massive stars. Shortly after the merger we find a population of similar to 900 stellar clusters with masses above 10(2.5) M-circle dot and a cluster mass function (CMF), which is well fitted with a power law with a slope of alpha = -1.70 +/- 0.08. We describe here in detail the formation of the three most massive clusters (M-* greater than or similar to 10(5) M-circle dot), which populate the high-mass end of the CMF. The simulated clusters form rapidly on a timescale of 6-8 Myr in converging flows of dense gas. The embedded merger phase has extremely high star formation rate surface densities of Sigma(SFR) > 10 M-circle dot yr(-1) kpc(-2) and thermal gas pressures in excess of Pth similar to 10(7) K-B cm(-3))(-1). The formation process is terminated by rapid gas expulsion driven by the first generation of supernovae, after which the cluster centers relax and both their structure and kinematics become indistinguishable from observed local globular clusters (GCs). The simulation presented here provides a general model for the formation of metal-poor GCs in chemically unevolved starbursting environments of low-mass dwarf galaxies, which are common at high redshifts.
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Lakka, Antti; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Kilpua, Emilia; Ala-Lahti, Matti; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Raukunen, Osku (2019)
    We study the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to fluctuating solar wind conditions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using the Grand Unified Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Simulation (GUMICS-4). The two ICME events occurred on 15-16 July 2012 and 29-30 April 2014. During the strong 2012 event, the solar wind upstream values reached up to 35 particles cm(-3), speeds of up to 694 km s(-1), and an interplanetary magnetic field of up to 22 nT, giving a Mach number of 2.3. The 2014 event was a moderate one, with the corresponding upstream values of 30 particles cm(-3), 320 km s(-1) and 10 nT, indicating a Mach number of 5.8. We examine how the Earth's space environment dynamics evolves during both ICME events from both global and local perspectives, using well-established empirical models and in situ measurements as references. We show that on the large scale, and during moderate driving, the GUMICS-4 results are in good agreement with the reference values. However, the local values, especially during high driving, show more variation: such extreme conditions do not reproduce local measurements made deep inside the magnetosphere. The same appeared to be true when the event was run with another global simulation. The cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation is shown to depend on the Alfven-Mach number of the upstream solar wind. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results, as the CPCP is also sensitive to the simulation resolution.
  • Comparat, J.; Merloni, A.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Boller, T.; Georgakakis, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Dwelly, T.; Buchner, J.; Del Moro, A.; Clerc, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Brusa, M.; Krumpe, M.; Liu, T. (2019)
    In the context of the upcoming SRG/eROSITA survey, we present an N-body simulation-based mock catalogue for X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) samples. The model reproduces the observed hard X-ray AGN luminosity function (XLF) and the soft X-ray logN-logS from redshift 0 to 6. The XLF is reproduced to within +/- 5 per cent and the logN-logS to within +/- 20 per cent. We develop a joint X-ray - optical extinction and classification model. We adopt a set of empirical spectral energy distributions to predict observed magnitudes in the UV, optical, and NIR. With the latest eROSITA all sky survey sensitivity model, we create a high-fidelity full-sky mock catalogue of X-ray AGN. It predicts their distributions in right ascension, declination, redshift, and fluxes. Using empirical medium resolution optical spectral templates and an exposure time calculator, we find that 1.1 x 10(6) (4 x 10(5)) fibre-hours are needed to follow-up spectroscopically from the ground the detected X-ray AGN with an optical magnitude 21 <r <22.8 (22.8 <r <25) with a 4-m (8-m) class multiobject spectroscopic facility. We find that future clustering studies will measure the AGN bias to the per cent level at redshift z <1.2 and should discriminate possible scenarios of galaxy-AGN co-evolution. We predict the accuracy to which the baryon acoustic oscillation standard ruler will be measured using X-ray AGN: better than 3 per cent for AGN between redshift 0.5 to 3 and better than 1 per cent using the Ly alpha forest of X-ray QSOs discovered between redshift 2 and 3. eROSITA will provide an outstanding set of targets for future galaxy evolution and cosmological studies.
  • Wilson, Lynn B.; Chen, Li-Jen; Wang, Shan; Schwartz, Steven J.; Turner, Drew L.; Stevens, Michael L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Osmane, Adnane; Caprioli, Damiano; Bale, Stuart D.; Pulupa, Marc P.; Salem, Chadi S.; Goodrich, Katherine A. (2019)
    Analyses of 15,314 electron velocity distribution functions (VDFs) within +/- 2 hr of 52 interplanetary (IP) shocks observed by the Wind spacecraft near 1 au are introduced. The electron VDFs are fit to the sum of three model functions for the cold dense core, hot tenuous halo, and field-aligned beam/strahl component. The best results were found by modeling the core as either a bi-kappa or a symmetric (or asymmetric) bi-self-similar VDF, while both the halo and beam/strahl components were best fit to bi-kappa VDF. This is the first statistical study to show that the core electron distribution is better fit to a self-similar VDF than a bi-Maxwellian under all conditions. The self-similar distribution deviation from a Maxwellian is a measure of inelasticity in particle scattering from waves and/or turbulence. The ranges of values defined by the lower and upper quartiles for the kappa exponents are k(ec) similar to 5.40-10.2 for the core, k(eh) similar to 3.58-5.34 for the halo, and k(eb) similar to 3.40-5.16 for the beam/strahl. The lower-to-upper quartile range of symmetric bi-self-similar core exponents is s(ec) similar to 2.00-2.04, and those of asymmetric bi-self-similar core exponents are p(ec) similar to 2.20-4.00 for the parallel exponent and q(ec) similar to 2.00-2.46 for the perpendicular exponent. The nuanced details of the fit procedure and description of resulting data product are also presented. The statistics and detailed analysis of the results are presented in Paper II and Paper III of this three-part study.
  • Mäkinen, Marjaana; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Koskinen, Maarit; Vähä-Mäkilä, Mari; Siljander, Heli; Nurmio, Mirja; Mykkänen, Juha; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Simell, Olli; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma (2019)
    Vitamin D has several effects on the immune system that might be of relevance for the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).To evaluate whether umbilical cord serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) differ in children developing either islet autoimmunity (IA) or overt T1D during childhood and adolescence.Umbilical cord serum samples from 764 children born from 1994 to 2004 with HLA-DQB1 conferred risk for T1D participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study were analyzed for 25(OH)D using an enzyme immunoassay.DIPP clinics in Turku, Oulu, and Tampere University Hospitals, Finland.Two hundred fifty children who developed T1D diabetes at a median age of 6.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4.0 to 10.1 years) and 132 additional case children who developed IA, i.e., positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies. Cases were matched for date of birth, gender, and area of birth with 382 control children who remained autoantibody negative. The median duration of follow up was 9.8 years (IQR 5.7 to 13.1 years).The median 25(OH)D concentrations.The median 25(OH)D concentration in cord serum was low [31.1 nmol/L (IQR 24.0 to 41.8); 88% <50 nmol/L], but not statistically different between children who developed T1D or IA and their control groups (P = 0.70). The levels were associated mainly with geographical location, year and month of birth, age of the mother, and maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy.The 25(OH)D concentrations at birth are not associated with the development of T1D during childhood.
  • Ishii, Takaaki; Järvinen, Matti; Nijs, Govert (2019)
    We establish a holographic bottom-up model which covers both the baryonic and quark matter phases in cold and dense QCD. This is obtained by including the baryons using simple approximation schemes in the V-QCD model, which also includes the backreaction of the quark matter to the dynamics of pure Yang-Mills. We examine two approaches for homogeneous baryon matter: baryons as a thin layer of noninteracting matter in the holographic bulk, and baryons with a homogeneous bulk gauge field. We find that the second approach exhibits phenomenologically reasonable features. At zero temperature, the vacuum, baryon, and quark matter phases are separated by strongly first order transitions as the chemical potential varies. The equation of state in the baryonic phase is found to be stiff, i.e., the speed of sound clearly exceeds the value c2 = 1/3 of conformal plasmas at high baryon densities.
  • Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    This article examines moral conflicts identified by students (N = 302) and teachers (N = 20) in the context of Iranian schools. The data were gathered in 2016 fromtwo lower secondary schools in Tehran, one for girls and one for boys. The content analysis of students' essays and teachers' interviews reveal that moral conflicts in Iranian secondary schools have four main themes: 1. Matters related to Staff's behaviour, 2. Matters related to Students' behaviour, 3. Sensitive issues, and 4. Matters related to Parents' behaviour. In addition to discussing the main categories and subcategories, the article discusses differences between teachers and students. This paper presents a picture of morality in Iranian secondary schools by clarifying situations in which both the school staff and the students need perspective on one another as well as needing to be morally sensitive. This article can guide educators in delivering moral education both in teaching and in teacher education.
  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Butterworth, Peter; Shiri, Rahman; Ropponen, Annina; Pietiläinen, Olli; Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objectives Pain is linked to an increased risk of sickness absence (SA); however, the extent to which unmeasured time-invariant differences explain this association is yet unknown. Therefore, we determined the within-individual associations between pain and short-term (in the survey year) and long-term (2 years following the survey years) SA risk in high and low occupational classes while controlling for the potential bias due to unobservable time-invariant characteristics. Methods The Helsinki Health Study data consisting of midlife public sector employees with mailed surveys from up to four time points, and SA record linkage were used (3983 persons). The within-individual estimates were calculated using hybrid negative binomial regression models. Results Acute/subacute pain was associated with a 13% increase in the rate of short-term SA days (incidence rate ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.27]), while the association was somewhat stronger for chronic pain (1.32 [1.19-1.47]). For the employees in the low occupational class, these associations were robust (1.29 [1.10-1.50] for acute/subacute and 1.43 [1.23-1.66] for chronic pain), whereas only chronic pain was associated with SA among those in the high occupational class (1.25 [1.08-1.46]). Chronic pain was also associated with SA days in the long term without occupational class differences. Similar results were obtained for multisite pain (pain in several locations). Conclusions These results indicate that particularly chronic and multisite pain have a within-individual link to SA but ignoring unobservable differences between those reporting pain and those not might yield overstated effect sizes. Pain might have a different relation to SA in low and high occupational classes.
  • Shekhar, Shashank; Maria, Ambika; Kotilahti, Kalle; Huotilainen, Minna; Heiskala, Juha; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Hirvi, Pauliina; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Nissila, Ilkka (2019)
    Emotional speech is one of the principal forms of social communication in humans. In this study, we investigated neural processing of emotional speech (happy, angry, sad and neutral) in the left hemisphere of 21 two-month-old infants using difuse optical tomography. Reconstructed total hemoglobin (HbT) images were analysed using adaptive voxel-based clustering and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. We found a distributed happy > neutral response within the temporo-parietal cortex, peaking in the anterior temporal cortex; a negative HbT response to emotional speech (the average of the emotional speech conditions < baseline) in the temporo-parietal cortex, neutral > angry in the anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), happy > angry in the superior temporal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus, angry < baseline in the insula, superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and happy < baseline in the anterior insula. These results suggest that left STS is more sensitive to happy speech as compared to angry speech, indicating that it might play an important role in processing positive emotions in two-month-old infants. Furthermore, happy speech (relative to neutral) seems to elicit more activation in the temporo-parietal cortex, thereby suggesting enhanced sensitivity of temporo-parietal cortex to positive emotional stimuli at this stage of infant development.
  • Wang, Cuicui; Luo, Jie; Nie, Peixin; Wang, Daoyang (2019)
    The present study examined the relationship between substance use and reasoning in adolescents, and further investigated the modulation role of growth mindset on this relationship. A total of 1759 adolescents in China with substance use experience were investigated. The results showed that substance use (smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use) was negatively correlated with reasoning (r = -0.24 ~-0.39, p<0.01) and growth mindset (r = -0.18 ~-0.32, p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for the background variables (i.e. age, family annual income, and parents’ educational level), only illicit drug use was the significant predictor of reasoning (β = -0.325, t = -14.28, p <0.001). The interaction effect between growth mindset and illicit drug use was also a significant predictor of reasoning (β = -0.067, t = -2.92, p= 0.004), indicating growth mindset modulated the relationship between illicit drug use and reasoning ability. Further analysis found that the negative correlation between frequency of illicit drug use and reasoning in high growth mindset group was weaker than that of low growth mindset group (F(3,1733) = 332.51, p <0.001, f2 = 0.22). This suggests that growth mindset plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between substance use and reasoning. Overall, substance use has adverse effect on adolescent reasoning, however, growth mindset could reduce this adverse effect.
  • Luetjohann, Dieter; Björkhem, Ingemar; Friedrichs, Silvia; Kerksiek, Anja; Lovgren-Sandblom, Anita; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Ahrends, Robert; Andrade, Isabel; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasaran, Iciar; Baila-Rueda, Lucia; Barriuso, Bianca; Becker, Susen; Bretillon, Lionel; Browne, Richard W.; Caccia, Claudio; Ceglarek, Uta; Cenarro, Ana; Crick, Peter J.; Fauler, Günter; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Gray, Robert; Griffiths, William J.; Gylling, Helena; Harding, Scott; Helmschrodt, Christin; Iuliano, Luigi; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Jones, Peter; Kaipiainen, Leena; Kannenberg, Frank; Jesus Lagarda, Maria; Leoni, Valerio; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; MacKay, Dylan S.; Matysik, Silke; McDonald, Jeff; Menendez-Carreno, Maria; Myrie, Semone B.; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Ostlund, Richard E.; Polisecki, Eliana; Ramos, Fernando; Rideout, Todd C.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Schmitz, Gerd; Wang, Yuqin; Zerbinati, Chiara; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Schött, Hans-Frieder (2019)
    Serum concentrations of lathosterol, the plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol and the cholesterol metabolite 5 alpha-cholestanol are widely used as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. Increasing numbers of laboratories utilize a broad spectrum of well-established and recently developed methods for the determination of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols (NCS). In order to evaluate the quality of these measurements and to identify possible sources of analytical errors our group initiated the first international survey for cholesterol and NCS. The cholesterol and NCS survey was structured as a two-part survey which took place in the years 2013 and 2014. The first survey part was designed as descriptive, providing information about the variation of reported results from different laboratories. A set of two lyophilized pooled sera (A and B) was sent to twenty laboratories specialized in chromatographic lipid analysis. The different sterols were quantified either by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, gas chromatography- or liquid chromatography-mass selective detection. The participants were requested to determine cholesterol and NCS concentrations in the provided samples as part of their normal laboratory routine. The second part was designed as interventional survey. Twenty-two laboratories agreed to participate and received again two different lyophilized pooled sera (C and D). In contrast to the first international survey, each participant received standard stock solutions with defined concentrations of cholesterol and NCS. The participants were requested to use diluted calibration solutions from the provided standard stock solutions for quantification of cholesterol and NCS. In both surveys, each laboratory used its own internal standard (5 alpha-cholestane, epicoprostanol or deuterium labelled sterols). Main outcome of the survey was, that unacceptably high interlaboratory variations for cholesterol and NCS concentrations are reported, even when the individual laboratories used the same calibration material. We discuss different sources of errors and recommend all laboratories analysing cholesterol and NCS to participate in regular quality control programs.
  • Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Stoer, Nathalie C.; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Ursin, Giske; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Thoresen, G. Hege; Debernard, Karen Boldingh; Karlstad, Oystein; Pottegard, Anton; Friis, Soren (2019)
    Introduction Surveillance of unintended effects of pharmaceuticals (pharmacovigilance or drug safety) is crucial, as knowledge of rare or late side effects is limited at the time of the introduction of new medications into the market. Side effects of drugs may involve increased or decreased risk of cancer, but these typically appear after a long induction period. This fact, together with low incidences of many cancer types, limits the usefulness of traditional pharmacovigilance strategies, primarily based on spontaneous reporting of adverse events, to identify associations between drug use and cancer risk. Postmarketing observational pharmacoepidemiological studies are therefore crucial in the evaluation of drug-cancer associations. Methods and analysis The main data sources in this project will be the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Cancer Registry of Norway. The underlying statistical model will be based on a multiple nested case-control design including all adult (similar to 200 000) incident cancer cases within the age-range 18-85 years from 2007 through 2015 in Norway as cases. 10 cancer-free population controls will be individually matched to these cases with respect to birth year, sex and index date (date of cancer diagnosis). Drug exposure will be modelled as chronic user/non-user by counting prescriptions, and cumulative use by summarising all dispensions' daily defined doses over time. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted for comorbidity (National Patient Register), socioeconomic parameters (Statistics Norway), concomitant drug use and, for female cancers, reproduction data (Medical Birth Registry), will be applied to identify drug-use-cancer-risk associations. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the regional ethical committee and the Norwegian data protection authority. Results of the initial screening step and analysis pipeline will be described in a key paper. Subsequent papers will report the evaluation of identified signals in replication studies. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, at scientific conferences and through press releases.
  • Kramer, Martin (2018)
    Reflective practice has been criticised for having become a standardised method in teacher education and on-the-job training, oftentimes following routines that more likely turn out to be self-affirming than to actually foster change. Also, reflective practice is still widely understood as an individual process. Both aspects are considered problematic and are addressed by employing an activity-theoretical approach that is suggested to be essentially compatible with an existentialist perspective on reflective practice as offered by Thompson and Pascal. Utilising the theory of expansive learning, formative interventionist methodology is proposed to provide a robust framework for developing collaborative and critical reflective practice, which in turn reveals the transformative potential of teachers' agency, as illustrated by a study accompanying and supporting the development of an Austrian secondary school.
  • Conenna, Irene; López-Baucells, Adrià; Rocha, Ricardo; Ripperger, Simon; Cabeza, Mar (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Bats are among the most successful desert mammals. Yet, our understanding of their spatio-temporal dynamics in habitat use associated with the seasonal oscillation of resources is still limited. In this study, we have employed state-of-the-art lightweight GPS loggers to track the yellow-winged bat Lavia frons in a desert in northern Kenya to investigate how seasonality in a desert affects the a) spatial and b) temporal dimensions of movements in a low-mobility bat. Methods Bats were tracked during April–May 2017 (rainy season) and January–February 2018 (dry season) using 1-g GPS loggers. Spatial and temporal dimensions of movements were quantified, respectively, as the home range and nightly activity patterns. We tested for differences between seasons to assess responses to seasonal drought. In addition, we quantified home range overlap between neighbouring individuals to investigate whether tracking data will be in accordance with previous reports on territoriality and social monogamy in L. frons. Results We obtained data for 22 bats, 13 during the rainy and 9 during the dry season. Home ranges averaged 5.46 ± 11.04 ha and bats travelled a minimum distance of 99.69 ± 123.42 m/hour. During the dry season, home ranges were larger than in the rainy season, and bats exhibited high activity during most of the night. No apparent association with free water was identified during the dry season. The observed spatial organisation of home ranges supports previous observations that L. frons partitions the space into territories throughout the year. Conclusions Our results suggest that, in low-mobility bats, a potential way to cope with seasonally harsh conditions and resource scarcity in deserts is to cover larger areas and increase time active, suggesting lower cost-efficiency of the foraging activity. Climate change may pose additional pressures on L. frons and other low-mobility species by further reducing food abundances.
  • Cooper, Rory L; Lloyd, Victoria J; Di-Poï, Nicolas; Fletcher, Alexander G; Barrett, Paul M; Fraser, Gareth J (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Vertebrates possess a diverse range of integumentary epithelial appendages, including scales, feathers and hair. These structures share extensive early developmental homology, as they mostly originate from a conserved anatomical placode. In the context of avian epithelial appendages, feathers and scutate scales are known to develop from an anatomical placode. However, our understanding of avian reticulate (footpad) scale development remains unclear. Results Here, we demonstrate that reticulate scales develop from restricted circular domains of thickened epithelium, with localised conserved gene expression in both the epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. These domains constitute either anatomical placodes, or circular initiatory fields (comparable to the avian feather tract). Subsequent patterning of reticulate scales is consistent with reaction–diffusion (RD) simulation, whereby this primary domain subdivides into smaller secondary units, which produce individual scales. In contrast, the footpad scales of a squamate model (the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps) develop synchronously across the ventral footpad surface. Conclusions Widely conserved gene signalling underlies the initial development of avian reticulate scales. However, their subsequent patterning is distinct from the footpad scale patterning of a squamate model, and the feather and scutate scale patterning of birds. Therefore, we suggest reticulate scales are a comparatively derived epithelial appendage, patterned through a modified RD system.