Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 31884
  • Herwartz, Helmut; Maxand, Simone (2020)
    The detection of dependence structures within a set of random variables provides a valuable basis for a detailed subsequent investigation of their relationships. Nonparametric tests for independence require only basic assumptions on the marginal or joint distribution of the involved variables. In this paper, we review nonparametric tests of independence in bivariate as well as multivariate settings which are throughout ready-to-use, i.e., implemented in R packages. Highlighting their distinct empirical size and power properties in various small sample settings, our analysis supports an analyst in deciding for a most adequate test conditional on underlying distributional settings or data characteristics. Avoiding restrictive moment conditions, the copula based Cramer-von Mises distance of Genest and Remillard (Test 13:335-370,2004) is remarkably robust under the null hypothesis and powerful under diverse settings that are in line with the alternative hypothesis. Based on distinguished test outcomes in small samples, we detect nonlinear dependence structures between childhood malnutrition indices and possible determinants in an empirical application for India.
  • Väliverronen, Esa; Sivelä, Jonas; Nohynek, Hanna (2020)
    Katsauksessa esitellään suomalaisten rokotusasenteita kartoittavia tuoreita kyselyjä ja tehdään niiden pohjalta kuvailevaa analyysia. Kyselytulosten valossa suomalaiset luottavat kansainvälisessä vertailussa erittäin vahvasti rokotteiden tehokkuuteen ja turvallisuuteen. Myöskään valtakunnallisen rokotusrekisterin tiedot rokotuskattavuuden kehityksestä eivät tue julkisuudessa toisinaan esitettyjä väitteitä rokotuksista kieltäytymisen merkittävästä kasvusta. Tutkimustietoa suomalaisten suhtautumisesta rokotuksiin tarvitaan kuitenkin lisää, erityisesti alueellisesta vaihtelusta. Kyselytutkimusten rinnalle kaivataan myös laadullista tutkimusta rokotusasenteista.
  • Masip-Manuel, Guiomar; Silventoinen, Karri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Palviainen, Teemu; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie-Helen (2020)
    Background Obesity susceptibility genes are highly expressed in the brain suggesting that they might exert their influence on body weight through eating-related behaviors. Objectives To examine whether the genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by eating behavior patterns. Methods Participants were 3977 twins (33% monozygotic, 56% females), aged 31–37 y, from wave 5 of the FinnTwin16 study. They self-reported their height and weight, eating behaviors (15 items), diet quality, and self-measured their waist circumference (WC). For 1055 twins with genome-wide data, we constructed a polygenic risk score for BMI (PRSBMI) using almost 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used principal component analyses to identify eating behavior patterns, twin modeling to decompose correlations into genetic and environmental components, and structural equation modeling to test mediation models between the PRSBMI, eating behavior patterns, and obesity measures. Results We identified 4 moderately heritable (h2 = 36–48%) eating behavior patterns labeled “snacking,” “infrequent and unhealthy eating,” “avoidant eating,” and “emotional and external eating.” The highest phenotypic correlation with obesity measures was found for the snacking behavior pattern (r = 0.35 for BMI and r = 0.32 for WC; P < 0.001 for both), largely due to genetic factors in common (bivariate h2 > 70%). The snacking behavior pattern partially mediated the association between the PRSBMI and obesity measures (βindirect = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.09; P = 0.002 for BMI; and βindirect = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.08; P = 0.003 for WC). Conclusions Eating behavior patterns share a common genetic liability with obesity measures and are moderately heritable. Genetic susceptibility to obesity can be partly mediated by an eating pattern characterized by frequent snacking. Obesity prevention efforts might therefore benefit from focusing on eating behavior change, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals.
  • Eivergård, Kristina; Enmarker, Ingela; Livholts, Mona Birgitta; Aléx, Lena; Hellzén, Ove (2020)
    Aims and objectives To examine how gendered discursive norms and notions of masculinity are (re)produced in professional conversations about men cared for as patients in forensic psychiatric care, with a particular focus on the centrality of language and gender. Background During verbal handovers and ward rounds, care staff converse to share information about patients and make decisions about their mental status. Spoken language is thus a pivotal tool in verbal handovers and ward rounds, one able to reproduce discourses and gender norms. Design Qualitative. Data collected from audio recordings of verbal handovers and ward rounds in a forensic psychiatric clinic were subjected to discourse analysis. The COREQ checklist was used. Results While discussing patients, staff subordinated them by reproducing a discourse typical of heteronormative, family-oriented care. The overarching discourse, which we labelledsubordinated masculinities, was supported by three other discourses:being unable to take responsibility,being drug-addictedandperforming masculinity. Such discourse was identified as a disciplining practice that subordinate's patients as a means to maintain order, rules and gender norms. Conclusion The study reveals a caring practice that position male patients as children or disabled individuals and, in that way, as subordinated other men within a context were staff reproduces a heteronormative family structured care. The process also reveals a practice were downplaying aggressive and deviant behaviour could disempower and reduce patients ' responsibility for personal actions and their possibilities to participate in their care. That finding especially seems to contradict previous findings that patients want to be able to act responsibly and, to that end, want care staff to help them. Relevance to clinical practice Nurses need to deepen their understanding of how language (re)produces discursive norms of gender and masculinity in forensic care and that process's consequences for such care.
  • Muurinen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Aino (2020)
    How could social workers apply theory in their everyday practice? According to John Dewey, theories are helpful instruments in analysing situations and forming hypotheses which are tested in practical experiments. Inspired by Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, we designed a “Practice and Theory” pilot intervention group in which social workers were provided external, theory-driven supervision. This research is a three-case study of the pilot intervention group. Based on a thematic analysis of reflective discussions during the last group sessions and follow-up group interviews, we investigate the difficulties the social workers described in applying theoretical knowledge to practice. We explore what consequences they recognized when reflecting on and experimenting with theoretical knowledge. Our study demonstrates that the major barriers were lack of time and access to theories, difficulties in changing one’s own practice and establishing supportive structures, the lack of competence to understand the role theories and having become estranged theories. However, the positive consequences experienced in the three Practice and Theory groups suggest that the pilot intervention could serve as a potential model for integrating theoretical research into practice. The participants considered that reflecting theories enabled new understanding as well as allowed experimenting with new ways of operating. Participating in the group also improved social workers’ argumentation, helping them to recognize their own expertise. It also raised professional self-esteem and enabled self-development. In the group, the dialogical, reflective and experimental inquiry were key to understanding how theoretical knowledge can open new perspectives.
  • Thuneberg, Helena; Salmi, Hannu (IntechOpen, 2020)
    Because the use of augmented reality (AR) is increasing, it is important to study its possibilities within both formal and informal learning contexts. We clustered 146 sixth graders using AR at a science center based on their reasoning, motivation, and science learning results using the self-organizing maps method (SOM) to identify AR-using subgroups. The aim was to consider reasons why the AR method could be of more beneficial for some students than others. The clustering results complemented earlier findings on AR gains in learning, as an unexpected response to intervention was discovered using this nonlinear analysis. The previous results had indicated that after the AR experience, science test results generally improved and particularly among students with the lowest achievement. The SOM-clustering results showed a majority group of boys, especially those interested in science learning both at school and at the science center using AR. Despite low school achievement, their high motivation led to good science learning results. The prior results, according to which girls closed the science knowledge gap between boys after using AR, became more relative, as two girldominated subgroups were identified. The reasons for the results were considered on the basis of motivation, multimedia learning theory, and concept formation theories. Keywords: science learning, augmented reality, informal learning environment, SOM-clustering, self-determination theory
  • Ono, Tsuyoshi; Laury, Ritva; Suzuki, Ryoko (2019)
  • Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Hagner, Marleena; Valtanen, Marjo; Setälä, Heikki (2019)
  • Sutrop, Margit (2020)
    We frequently find ourselves in intractable disagreements about the morality of abortion euthanasia, restrictions to freedom, or eating meat for fun. An adequate reaction to a disagreement requires knowing which type of disagreements we arc confronted with. The main aim of my paper is to explain the source of moral disagreements and clarify their nature. I will argue that some moral disagreements are deep conceptual disagreements that similarly to disagreements in logic or ontology, are not resolvable, as the resolution of the disagreement requires the disputants to adopt perspectives that are conceptually unavailable to them. I will suggest four possible sources of moral disagreements: incommensurable fundamental values, different concepts of the good life, different motivating reasons and different concepts of morality.
  • Kotilainen, T.; Aphalo, P. J.; Brelsford, C. C.; Böök, H.; Devraj, S.; Heikkilä, A.; Hernandez, R.; Kylling, A.; Lindfors, A.; Robson, T. M. (2020)
    Plants rely on spectral cues present in their surroundings, generated by the constantly changing light environment, to guide their growth and reproduction. Photoreceptors mediate the capture of information by plants from the light environment over a wide range of wavelengths, but despite extensive evidence that plants respond to various light cues, only fragmentary data have been published showing patterns of diurnal, seasonal and geographical variation in the spectral composition of daylight. To illustrate patterns in spectral photon ratios, we measured time series of irradiance spectra at two distinct geographical and climatological locations, Helsinki, Finland and Gual Pahari, India. We investigated the drivers behind variation of the spectral photon ratios measured at these two locations, based on the analysis of over 400 000 recorded spectra. Differences in spectral irradiance were explained by different atmospheric factors identified through multiple regression model analysis and comparison to spectral irradiance at ground level simulated with a radiative transfer model. Local seasonal and diurnal changes in spectral photon ratios were related to solar elevation angle, atmospheric water-vapour content and total ozone column thickness and deviated from their long-term averages to an extent likely to affect plant photobiology. We suggest that future studies should investigate possible effects of varying photon ratios on terrestrial plants. Solar elevation angle especially affects the patterns of B:G and B:R ratios. Water vapour has a large effect on the R:FR photon ratio and modelled climate scenarios predict that increasing global temperatures will result in increased atmospheric water vapour. The development of proxy models, utilising available data from weather and climate models, for relevant photon ratios as a function of solar elevation angle and atmospheric factors would facilitate the interpretation of results from past, present and future field studies of plants and vegetation.
  • Kurhila, Salla; Lehtimaja, Inkeri; Drew, Paul (2020)
    During daily hospital ward rounds, medical teams, led by doctors, assess the progress of an individual patient's health. It is widely reported in the research literature that nurses play a relatively passive role during these rounds, because although they may have valuable information about the patient's condition and progress, and indeed their role includes advocacy on behalf of their patients, nurses nevertheless can experience difficulties in participating during case constructions. Here we report an instance from a (gastro-surgical) ward round in a Finnish hospital, in which nurses played a key role in reversing a consultant's initial decision to discharge a patient. They did so not by directly challenging the consultant's opinion, but by employing indirect means to introduce their discrepant perspective: they provide descriptions and ask questions that draw attention to information that results in the doctor coming to a different assessment than theirs of the patient's condition, and a different decision about what should be done (the patient was not discharged from hospital). The encounter reported here is taken from a corpus of ward round discussions in a Finnish hospital. The method of our study is Conversation Analysis.
  • Nilsson, Jenny; Norrby, Catrin; Bohman, Love; Skogmyr Marian, Klara; Wide, Camilla; Lindström, Jan (2020)
    This study investigates the use of greetings in Sweden-Swedish and Finland-Swedish service encounters and the social meaning of different greeting forms. Situated within the framework of variational pragmatics, the study explores Swedish as a pluricentric language and investigates with interactional and statistical analyses to what extent the variable nation affect variation in greeting forms. While nation indeed is an important factor, the study also illustrates how social variables such as age, gender and participant roles as well as situational variables such as medium, region and venue impact the greeting choices participants make. Further, by applying an interactional analytical perspective the study contributes to the methodological development of variational pragmatics. This analysis shows how the sequential position of a greeting plays a part in the choice of greetings, and demonstrates that pragmatic variation emerges in interaction. The article suggests that greetings can be a resource for indexing the degree of social distance between interlocutors, and thereby manifest recurring cultural patterns.
  • Kaarkoski, Miina; Kopra, Sanna (2020)
  • Fan, Yuxin; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Tian, Huiguang; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang; Liu, Ming (2020)
    Introduction To evaluate the single association of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR), as well as different combinations of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction, IR, obesity, and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with postpartum type 2 diabetes risk. Research design and methods The study included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Homeostatic model assessment was used to estimate homeostatic model assessment of beta-cell secretory function (HOMA-%beta) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Multivariable-adjusted ORs of diabetes across quartiles of HOMA-%beta and HOMA-IR were 1.00, 1.46, 2.15, and 6.25 (p(trend) Conclusions beta-cell dysfunction or IR was significantly associated with postpartum diabetes. IR and beta-cell dysfunction, together with obesity and a history of GDM, had the highest ORs of postpartum diabetes risk.
  • Geneid, A.; Nawka, T.; Schindler, A.; Oguz, H.; Chrobok,; Calcinoni, O.; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A.; Neumann, K.; Farahat, M.; Abou-Elsaad, T.; Moerman, M.; Chavez, E.; Fishman, J.; Yazaki, R.; Arnold, B.; Frajkova, Z.; Graf, S.; Pflug, C.; Drsata, J.; Desuter, G.; Samuelsson, C.; Tedla, M.; Costello, D.; Sjogren, E.; Hess, M.; Kinnari, T.; Rubin, J. (2020)
    Background The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services. Objectives This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures. Conclusion As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
  • Biese-Stjernberg, Ingrid (DeGruyter,, 2020)
  • Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut; Liu, Mengzhen; Jackson, Victoria E.; Barnes, Daniel R.; Datta, Gargi; Melbourne, Carl A.; Young, Robin; Batini, Chiara; Surendran, Praveen; Jiang, Tao; Adnan, Sheikh Daud; Afaq, Saima; Agrawal, Arpana; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Baumbach, Clemens; Bierut, Laura; Bertelsen, Sarah; Boehnke, Michael; Bots, Michiel L.; Brazel, David M.; Chambers, John C.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chu; Corley, Janie; Chou, Yi-Ling; David, Sean P.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Dennis, Joe G.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eaton, Charles; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Faul, Jessica D.; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Gong, Jian; Grabe, Hans J.; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher; Hallmans, Goran; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hattersley, Andrew; Heath, Andrew; Hsu, Chris; Iacono, William G.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kapoor, Manav; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.; Karpe, Fredrik; Kontto, Jukka; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laakso, Markku; Lai, Dongbing; Langenberg, Claudia; Le, Nhung; Lettre, Guillaume; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marouli, Eirini; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Moayyeri, Alireza; Moitry, Marie; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Naheed, Aliya; Nauck, Matthias; Neville, Matthew J.; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; North, Kari; Perola, Markus; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Pistis, Giorgio; Polderman, Tinca J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Poulter, Neil; Qaiser, Beenish; Rasheed, Asif; Reiner, Alex; Renstrom, Frida; Rice, John; Rohde, Rebecca; Rolandsson, Olov; Samani, Nilesh J.; Samuel, Maria; Schlessinger, David; Scholte, Steven H.; Scott, Robert A.; Sever, Peter; Shao, Yaming; Shrine, Nick; Smith, Jennifer A.; Starr, John M.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stram, Danielle; Stringham, Heather M.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thompson, Deborah J.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Tragante, Vinicius; Trompet, Stella; Turcot, Valerie; Tyrrell, Jessica; Vaartjes, Ilonca; van der Leij, Andries R.; van der Meer, Peter; Varga, Tibor V.; Verweij, Niek; Voelzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Warren, Helen R.; Weir, David R.; Weiss, Stefan; Wetherill, Leah; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yavas, Ersin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Fang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Kaixin; Amouyel, Philippe; Blankenberg, Stefan; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Deloukas, Panos; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Ferrario, Marco; Ferrieres, Jean; Franks, Paul W.; Frayling, Tim M.; Frossard, Philippe; Hall, Ian P.; Hayward, Caroline; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kee, Frank; Männistö, Satu; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nordestgaard, Borge Gronne; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sattar, Naveed; Spector, Timothy; Strachan, David Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Saleheen, Danish; Butterworth, Adam S.; Wain, Louise V.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Danesh, John; Tobin, Martin D.; Vrieze, Scott; Liu, Dajiang J.; Howson, Joanna M. M. (2020)
    Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations withP <5 x 10(-8)in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P <5 x 10(-8)) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 nearTMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 inREV3L, rs12780116 inCNNM2, rs1190736 inGPR101, rs11539157 inPJA1, and rs12616219 nearTMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P <4.5 x 10(-3)) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, inCCDC141and two low-frequency SNVs inCEP350andHDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression ofREV3Lmay lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
  • Jarrold, Katharine; Helfer, Bartosz; Eskander, Mona; Crawley, Helen; Trabulsi, Jillian; Caulfield, Laura E.; Duffy, Gillian; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Hayward, Deborah; Hyde, Matthew; Jeffries, Suzan; Knip, Mikael; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Loder, Elizabeth; Lodge, Caroline J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; McGuire, William; Osborn, David; Przyrembel, Hildegard; Renfrew, Mary J.; Trumbo, Paula; Warner, John; Schneeman, Barbara; Boyle, Robert J. (2020)
    Question What is the best way to ensure the validity of clinical trials of breast milk substitutes while protecting trial participants? Findings Through a Delphi consensus project, guidance was developed to address issues specific to trials of breast milk substitutes assessing growth and tolerance, as well as trials of breast milk substitutes with other objectives. This consensus guidance summarizes best practice for the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of trials of breast milk substitutes. Meaning Use of this guidance, in conjunction with existing clinical trial regulations, should enhance the quality and validity of trials of breast milk substitutes, protect trial participants, and support the evidence base for infant nutrition recommendations. This consensus guidance summarizes best practice for the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of trials of breast milk substitutes. Importance Breast milk substitutes (BMS) are important nutritional products evaluated in clinical trials. Concerns have been raised about the risk of bias in BMS trials, the reliability of claims that arise from such trials, and the potential for BMS trials to undermine breastfeeding in trial participants. Existing clinical trial guidance does not fully address issues specific to BMS trials. Objectives To establish new methodological criteria to guide the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of BMS trials and to support clinical trialists designing and undertaking BMS trials, editors and peer reviewers assessing trial reports for publication, and regulators evaluating the safety, nutritional adequacy, and efficacy of BMS products. Design, Setting, and Participants A modified Delphi method was conducted, involving 3 rounds of anonymous questionnaires and a face-to-face consensus meeting between January 1 and October 24, 2018. Participants were 23 experts in BMS trials, BMS regulation, trial methods, breastfeeding support, infant feeding research, and medical publishing, and were affiliated with institutions across Europe, North America, and Australasia. Guidance development was supported by an industry consultation, analysis of methodological issues in a sample of published BMS trials, and consultations with BMS trial participants and a research ethics committee. Results An initial 73 criteria, derived from the literature, were sent to the experts. The final consensus guidance contains 54 essential criteria and 4 recommended criteria. An 18-point checklist summarizes the criteria that are specific to BMS trials. Key themes emphasized in the guidance are research integrity and transparency of reporting, supporting breastfeeding in trial participants, accurate description of trial interventions, and use of valid and meaningful outcome measures. Conclusions and Relevance Implementation of this guidance should enhance the quality and validity of BMS trials, protect BMS trial participants, and better inform the infant nutrition community about BMS products.