Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 23695
  • Bogdanova, Elena; Cook, Linda J.; Kulmala, Meri (2018)
  • Aalto, Pami Kullervo; Nyyssönen, Heino; Kojo, Matti; Pal, Pallavi (2017)
  • Mukrimin, Mukrimin; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimaenpaa, Minna; Sun, Hui; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2019)
    Main conclusion Two terpene compounds and four genes were identified as potential biomarkers for further evaluation for Scots pine susceptibility or tolerance against Heterobasidion annosum. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is one of the main sources of timber in the boreal zone of Eurasia. Commercial pine plantations are vulnerable to root and butt rot disease caused by the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The pathogen affects host growth rate, causes higher mortality and decreases in timber quality, resulting in considerable economic losses to forest owners. Genetic and biochemical factors contributing to Scots pine tolerance against H. annosum infection are not well understood. We assessed the predictive values of a set of potential genetic and chemical markers in a field experiment. We determined the expression levels of 25 genes and the concentrations of 36 terpenoid compounds in needles of 16 Scots pine trees randomly selected from a natural population prior to artificial infection. Stems of the same trees were artificially inoculated with H. annosum, and the length of necrotic lesions was documented 5 months post inoculation. Higher expression level of four genes included in our analysis and encoding predicted alpha-pinene synthase (two genes), geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and metacaspase 5 (MC5), could be associated with trees exhibiting increased levels of necrotic lesion formation in response to fungal inoculation. In contrast, concentrations of two terpenoid compounds, beta-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene, showed significant negative correlations with the lesion size. Further studies with larger sample size will help to elucidate new biomarkers or clarify the potential of the evaluated markers for use in Scots pine disease resistance breeding programs.
  • Mason, Shannon L.; Hogan, Robin J.; Westbrook, Christopher D.; Kneifel, Stefan; Moisseev, Dmitri; von Terzi, Leonie (2019)
    The accurate representation of ice particles is essential for both remotely sensed estimates of clouds and precipitation and numerical models of the atmosphere. As it is typical in radar retrievals to assume that all snow is composed of aggregate snowflakes, both denser rimed snow and the mixed-phase cloud in which riming occurs may be under-diagnosed in retrievals and therefore difficult to evaluate in weather and climate models. Recent experimental and numerical studies have yielded methods for using triple-frequency radar measurements to interrogate the internal structure of aggregate snowflakes and to distinguish more dense and homogeneous rimed particles from aggregates. In this study we investigate which parameters of the morphology and size distribution of ice particles most affect the triple-frequency radar signature and must therefore be accounted for in order to carry out triple-frequency radar retrievals of snow. A range of ice particle morphologies are represented, using a fractal representation for the internal structure of aggregate snowflakes and homogeneous spheroids to represent graupel-like particles; the mass-size and area-size relations are modulated by a density factor. We find that the particle size distribution (PSD) shape parameter and the parameters controlling the internal structure of aggregate snowflakes both have significant influences on triple-frequency radar signature and are at least as important as that of the density factor. We explore how these parameters may be allowed to vary in order to prevent triple-frequency radar retrievals of snow from being over-constrained, using two case studies from the Biogenic Aerosols - Effects of Clouds and Climate (BAECC) 2014 field campaign at Hyytiala, Finland. In a case including heavily rimed snow followed by large aggregate snowflakes, we show that triple-frequency radar measurements provide a strong constraint on the PSD shape parameter, which can be estimated from an ensemble of retrievals; however, resolving variations in the PSD shape parameter has a limited impact on estimates of snowfall rate from radar. Particle density is more effectively constrained by the Doppler velocity than triple-frequency radar measurements, due to the strong dependence of particle fall speed on density. Due to the characteristic signatures of aggregate snowflakes, a third radar frequency is essential for effectively constraining the size of large aggregates. In a case featuring rime splintering, differences in the internal structures of aggregate snowflakes are revealed in the triple-frequency radar measurements. We compare retrievals assuming different aggregate snowflake models against in situ measurements at the surface and show significant uncertainties in radar retrievals of snow rate due to changes in the internal structure of aggregates. The importance of the PSD shape parameter and snowflake internal structure to triple-frequency radar retrievals of snow highlights that the processes by which ice particles interact may need to be better understood and parameterized before triple-frequency radar measurements can be used to constrain retrievals of ice particle morphology.
  • Nielsen, Ingeborg E.; Skov, Henrik; Massling, Andreas; Eriksson, Axel C.; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Junninen, Heikki; Sarnela, Nina; Lange, Robert; Collier, Sonya; Zhang, Qi; Cappa, Christopher D.; Nøjgaard, Jacob K. (2019)
    There are limited measurements of the chemical composition, abundance and sources of atmospheric particles in the High Arctic To address this, we report 93 d of soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) data collected from 20 February to 23 May 2015 at Villum Research Station (VRS) in northern Greenland (81 degrees 36' N). During this period, we observed the Arctic haze phenomenon with elevated PM1 concentrations ranging from an average of 2.3, 2.3 and 3.3 mu g m(-3) in February, March and April, respectively, to 1.2 mu g m(-3) in May. Particulate sulfate (SO42-) accounted for 66 % of the non-refractory PM1 with the highest concentration until the end of April and decreasing in May. The second most abundant species was organic aerosol (OA) (24 %). Both OA and PM1, estimated from the sum of all collected species, showed a marked decrease throughout May in accordance with the polar front moving north, together with changes in aerosol removal processes. The highest refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were found in the first month of the campaign, averaging 0.2 mu g m(-3). In March and April, rBC averaged 0.1 mu g m(-3) while decreasing to 0.02 mu g m(-3) in May. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the OA mass spectra yielded three factors: (1) a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor, which was dominated by primary aerosols and accounted for 12 % of OA mass, (2) an Arctic haze organic aerosol (AOA) factor and (3) a more oxygenated marine organic aerosol (MOA) factor. AOA dominated until mid-April (64 %-81 % of OA), while being nearly absent from the end of May and correlated significantly with SO42-, suggesting the main part of that factor is secondary OA. The MOA emerged late at the end of March, where it increased with solar radiation and reduced sea ice extent and dominated OA for the rest of the campaign until the end of May (24 %-74 % of OA), while AOA was nearly absent. The highest O/C ratio (0.95) and S/C ratio (0.011) was found for MOA. Our data support the current understanding that Arctic aerosols are highly influenced by secondary aerosol formation and receives an important contribution from marine emissions during Arctic spring in remote High Arctic areas. In view of a changing Arctic climate with changing sea-ice extent, biogenic processes and corresponding source strengths, highly time-resolved data are needed in order to elucidate the components dominating aerosol concentrations and enhance the understanding of the processes taking place.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Brotons, Lluis; Calladine, John; Campedelli, Tommaso; Escandell, Virginia; Flousek, Jiri; Grueneberg, Christoph; Haas, Fredrik; Harris, Sarah; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frederic; Kalas, John Atle; Lindstrom, Ake; Lorrilliere, Romain; Molina, Blas; Pladevall, Clara; Calvi, Gianpiero; Sattler, Thomas; Schmid, Hans; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven (2019)
    Mountain areas often hold special species communities, and they are high on the list of conservation concern. Global warming and changes in human land use, such as grazing pressure and afforestation, have been suggested to be major threats for biodiversity in the mountain areas, affecting species abundance and causing distribution shifts towards mountaintops. Population shifts towards poles and mountaintops have been documented in several areas, indicating that climate change is one of the key drivers of species' distribution changes. Despite the high conservation concern, relatively little is known about the population trends of species in mountain areas due to low accessibility and difficult working conditions. Thanks to the recent improvement of bird monitoring schemes around Europe, we can here report a first account of population trends of 44 bird species from four major European mountain regions: Fennoscandia, UK upland, south-western (Iberia) and south-central mountains (Alps), covering 12 countries. Overall, the mountain bird species declined significantly (-7%) during 2002-2014, which is similar to the declining rate in common birds in Europe during the same period. Mountain specialists showed a significant -10% decline in population numbers. The slope for mountain generalists was also negative, but not significantly so. The slopes of specialists and generalists did not differ from each other. Fennoscandian and Iberian populations were on average declining, while in United Kingdom and Alps, trends were nonsignificant. Temperature change or migratory behaviour was not significantly associated with regional population trends of species. Alpine habitats are highly vulnerable to climate change, and this is certainly one of the main drivers of mountain bird population trends. However, observed declines can also be partly linked with local land use practices. More efforts should be undertaken to identify the causes of decline and to increase conservation efforts for these populations.
  • Hafez, Ahmad; Huhtakangas, Justiina; Muhammad, Sajjad; Lawton, Michael T.; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Niemelä, Mika (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Several factors associated with interrupted and continuous suturing techniques affect the quality of bypass anastomosis. It is difficult to determine the impact of these factors during surgery. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate factors with the potential to influence the quality of bypass anastomosis using either interrupted or continuous suturing. A secondary objective was to evaluate the usefulness of a practical scale when comparing interrupted and continuous suturing techniques to improve bypass anastomosis. METHODS: Interrupted (n = 100) and continuous (n = 100) suturing techniques were used in 200 end-to-side bypasses to a depth of 3 cm and were assessed by 5 neurosurgeons. RESULTS: Vessel closing time (P <0.001), stitch distribution (P <0.001), intima-intima attachment (P <0.001), and size of the orifice (P <0.001) had a significant impact on the quality of the bypass regardless of the suturing technique used. The suturing technique used (interrupted or continuous) and positioning of the recipient vessel (vertical or horizontal) did not significantly influence the quality of anastomosis. Using multivariate analysis, the highest statistical significance with regard to bypass quality was attributed to the large size of the orifice and intimal attachment. CONCLUSIONS: There were advantages and disadvantages to both suturing techniques. The scale was a practical way to measure and improve performance.
  • Hemmi, Kirsti; Krzywacki, Heidi; Liljeqvist, Yvonne (2019)
    In the current paper, we present an analysis of a case study in which we have followed Swedish primary teachers who voluntarily began using translated Finnish curriculum materials, i.e. a textbook and teacher guide, in order to reform their mathematics teaching. The multifaceted data, consisting of questionnaires, interviews, protocols from collegial meetings and classroom observations, were gathered during the period 2010-2014. The analysis of the interplay within this cross-cultural setting reveals the special characteristics and the challenges existing in practice. Both the experienced and inexperienced teachers offloaded a great deal of their agency to the materials in order to become familiar with the ideas they mediated. Yet, the lack of a clear rationale behind the organization of the materials, as well as the suggested activities connected to taken-for-granted features of the Finnish teaching tradition, made fruitful interaction problematic. The changes teachers made in their classroom practice were tightly connected to the support offered in the materials, without which the teachers abandoned their new classroom patterns. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a number of general aspects that we regard as important to consider when implementing curriculum materials developed within another cultural-educational context.
  • Vacca, V.; Murgia, M.; Govoni, F.; Loi, F.; Vazza, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carretti, E.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Gheller, C.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Bernardi, G.; Boschin, W.; Brienza, M.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orru, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B. (2018)
    We report the detection of diffuse radio emission which might be connected to a large-scale filament of the cosmic web covering a 8 degrees x 8 degrees area in the sky, likely associated with a z approximate to 0.1 overdensity traced by nine massive galaxy clusters. In this work, we present radio observations of this region taken with the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Two of the clusters in the field host a powerful radio halo sustained by violent ongoing mergers and provide direct proof of intracluster magnetic fields. In order to investigate the presence of large-scale diffuse radio synchrotron emission in and beyond the galaxy clusters in this complex system, we combined the data taken at 1.4 GHz with the Sardinia. Radio Telescope with higher resolution data taken with the NRAO VIA Sky Survey. We found 28 candidate new sources with a size larger and X-ray emission fainter than known diffuse large-scale synchrotron cluster sources for a given radio power. This new population is potentially the tip of the iceberg of a class of diffuse large-scale synchrotron sources associated with the filaments of the cosmic web. In addition, we found in the field a candidate new giant radio galaxy.
  • LoCuSS 
    Haines, C. P.; Finoguenov, A.; Smith, G. P.; Babul, A.; Egami, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Pereira, M. J.; Bianconi, M.; Mcgee, S. L.; Ziparo, F.; Campusano, L. E.; Loyola, C. (2018)
    Galaxy clusters are expected to form hierarchically in a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) universe, growing primarily through mergers with lower mass clusters and the continual accretion of group-mass haloes. Galaxy clusters assemble late, doubling their masses since z similar to 0.5, and so the outer regions of clusters should be replete with accreting group-mass systems. We present an XMM-Newton survey to search for X-ray groups in the infall regions of 23 massive galaxy clusters (<M-200 > similar to 10(15)M(circle dot)) at z similar to 0.2, identifying 39 X-ray groups that have been spectroscopically confirmed to lie at the cluster redshift. These groups have mass estimates in the range 2 x 10(13)-7 x 10(14)M(circle dot), and group-to-cluster mass ratios as low as 0.02. The comoving number density of X-ray groups in the infall regions is similar to 25x higher than that seen for isolated X-ray groups from the XXL survey. The average mass per cluster contained within these X-ray groups is 2.2 x 10(14)M(circle dot), or 19 +/- 5 per cent of the mass within the primary cluster itself. We estimate that similar to 10(15)M(circle dot) clusters increase their masses by 16 +/- 4 per cent between z = 0.223 and the present day due to the accretion of groups with M-200 >= 10(13.2)M(circle dot). This represents about half of the expected mass growth rate of clusters at these late epochs. The other half is likely to come from smooth accretion of matter not bound within haloes. The mass function of the infalling X-ray groups appears significantly top heavy with respect to that of 'field' X-ray systems, consistent with expectations from numerical simulations, and the basic consequences of collapsed massive dark matter haloes being biased tracers of the underlying large-scale density distribution.
  • Galametz, Audrey; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Mendel, Trevor; Hartley, Will G.; Fossati, Matteo; Finoguenov, Alexis; Almaini, Omar; Beifiori, Alessandra; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Scodeggio, Marco; Kocevski, Dale D. (2018)
    We present a large-scale galaxy structure C1 J021734-0513 at z similar to 0.65 discovered in the UKIDSS UDS field, made of similar to 20 galaxy groups and clusters, spreading over 10 Mpc. We report on a VLT/VIMOS spectroscopic follow-up program that, combined with past spectroscopy, allowed us to confirm four galaxy clusters (M-200 similar to 10(14) M-circle dot) and a dozen associated groups and star-forming galaxy overdensities. Two additional filamentary structures at z similar to 0.62 and 0.69 and foreground and background clusters at 0.6 <z <0.7 were also confirmed along the line of sight. The structure subcomponents are at different formation stages. The clusters have a core dominated by passive galaxies and an established red sequence. The remaining structures are a mix of star-forming galaxy overdensities and forming groups. The presence of quiescent galaxies in the core of the latter shows that 'pre-processing' has already happened before the groups fall into their more massive neighbours. Our spectroscopy allows us to derive spectral index measurements e.g. emission/absorption line equivalent widths, strength of the 4000 angstrom break, valuable to investigate the star formation history of structure members. Based on these line measurements, we select a population of 'post-starburst' galaxies. These galaxies are preferentially found within the virial radius of clusters, supporting a scenario in which their recent quenching could be prompted by gas stripping by the dense intracluster medium. We derive stellar age estimates using Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based spectral fitting for quiescent galaxies and find a correlation between ages and colours/stellar masses which favours a top-down formation scenario of the red sequence. A catalogue of similar to 650 redshifts in UDS is released alongside the paper (via MNRAS online data).
  • Furnell, Kate E.; Collins, Chris A.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Clerc, Nicolas; Baldry, Ivan K.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Comparat, Johan; Schneider, Donald P. (2018)
    We present a sample of 329 low-to intermediate-redshift (0.05 <z
  • LoCuSS 
    Bianconi, M.; Smith, G. P.; Haines, C. P.; McGee, S. L.; Finoguenov, A.; Egami, E. (2018)
    We report direct evidence of pre-processing of the galaxies residing in galaxy groups falling into galaxy clusters drawn from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). 34 groups have been identified via theirX-ray emission in the infall regions of 23 massive (<M-200 > = 10(15) M-circle dot) clusters at 0.15 <z <0.3. Highly complete spectroscopic coverage combined with 24 mu m imaging from Spitzer allows us to make a consistent and robust selection of cluster and group members including star-forming galaxies down to a stellar mass limit of M* = 2 x 10(10) M-circle dot. The fraction f(SF) of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is lower and with a flatter trend with respect to clustercentric radius when compared to the rest of the cluster galaxy population. At R approximate to 1.3 r(200), the fraction of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is half that in the cluster galaxy population. This is direct evidence that star-formation quenching is effective in galaxies already prior to them settling in the cluster potential, and that groups are favourable locations for this process.
  • Bonamente, Massimiliano; Ahoranta, Jussi; Tilton, Evan; Tempel, Elmo; Morandi, Andrea (2017)
  • Berner, Judith; Achatz, Ulrich; Batte, Lauriane; Bengtsson, Lisa; de la Camara, Alvaro; Christensen, Hannah M.; Colangeli, Matteo; Coleman, Danielle R. B.; Crommelin, Daan; Dolaptchiev, Stamen I.; Franzke, Christian L. E.; Friederichs, Petra; Imkeller, Peter; Järvinen, Heikki; Juricke, Stephan; Kitsios, Vassili; Lott, Francois; Lucarini, Valerio; Mahajan, Salil; Palmer, Timothy N.; Penland, Cecile; Sakradzija, Mirjana; von Storch, Jin-Song; Weisheimer, Antje; Weniger, Michael; Williams, Paul D.; Yano, Jun-Ichi (2017)
  • Bellucco, Veronica; Marras, Serena; Grimmond, C. Susan B.; Järvi, Leena; Sirca, Costantino; Spano, Donatella (2017)
    The biogenic CO2 surface atmosphere exchange is investigated and linked to vegetation cover fraction for seven sites (three urban and four non-urban) in the northern hemisphere. The non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH) is used to analyse the light-response curves during period of maximum ecophysiological processes, and to develop two models to simulate biogenic vertical CO2 fluxes. First, a generalised set of NRH coefficients is calculated after linear regression analysis across urban and non-urban ecosystems. Second, site-specific NRH coefficients are calculated for a suburban area in Helsinki, Finland. The model includes a temperature driven equation to estimate ecosystem respiration, and variation of leaf area index to modulate emissions across the year. Eddy covariance measured CO2 fluxes are used to evaluate the two models at the suburban Helsinki site and the generalised model also in Mediterranean ecosystem. Both models can simulate the mean daily trend at monthly and seasonal scales. Modelled data typically fall within the range of variability of the observations (differences of the order of 10%). Additional information improves the models performance, notably the selection of the most vegetated wind direction in Helsinki. The general model performs reasonably well during daytime but it tends to underestimate CO2 emissions at night. This reflects the model capability to catch photosynthesis processes occurring during the day, and the importance of the gross primary production (GPP) in modifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of urban sites with different vegetation cover fraction. Therefore, the general model does not capture the differences in ecosystem respiration that skew nocturnal fluxes. The relation between the generalised NRH plateau parameter and vegetation cover improves (R-2 from 0.7 to 0.9) when only summer weekends with wind coming from the most vegetated sector in Helsinki and well-watered conditions for Mediterranean sites are included in the analysis. In the local model, the inclusion of a temperature driven equation for estimating the ecosystem respiration instead of a constant value, does not improve the long-term simulations. In conclusion, both the general and local models have significant potential and offer valid modelling options of biogenic components of carbon exchange in urban and non-urban ecosystems.(C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Räsänen, Riikka-Marjaana; Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Haavikko, Raisa; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Kauppila, Tiina J. (2019)
    Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) is an ambient mass spectrometry (MS) technique that allows the analysis of both polar and nonpolar compounds directly from the surfaces of various sample types. Here, DAPPI was used to study the chemical profiles in different parts of birch and alder tree barks. Four distinct fractions of Betula pendula (silver birch) bark were collected from three different developmental stages of the stem, after which the chemical profiles of the different tissue types were measured. Of special interest were triterpenoids, a class of important defensive substances, which are found in the bark of the silver birch. Additionally, the chemical profiles of lenticels and the surrounding surfaces in the phellem of B. pendula (silver birch), Alnus glutinosa (black alder), and Alnus incana (gray alder) were screened with DAPPI. Another ambient MS technique, laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), was further used for the mass spectrometry imaging of lenticels on the B. pendula phellem. All the studied birch bark fractions showed individual chemical profiles in DAPPI. The mass spectra from the young apical stem and the transition zone resembled each other more than the mature stem. Instead, the phellem was found to contain a high amount of triterpenoids in all the developmental stages of the stem. The most intense peaks in the DAPPI mass spectra of the birch bark fractions were those of betulin and lupeol. Betulinic and betulonic acid peaks were intense as well, and these compounds were detected especially in the lenticels of the tree samples.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Cardoso, Pedro; Vernon, Philippe; Dominguez-Villar, David; Culver, David C.; Pipan, Tanja; Isaia, Marco (2019)
    Scientists of different disciplines have recognized the valuable role of terrestrial caves as ideal natural laboratories in which to study multiple eco-evolutionary processes, from genes to ecosystems. Because caves and other subterranean habitats are semi-closed systems characterized by a remarkable thermal stability, they should also represent insightful systems for understanding the effects of climate change on biodiversity in situ. Whilst a number of recent advances have demonstrated how promising this fast-moving field of research could be, a lack of synthesis is possibly holding back the adoption of caves as standard models for the study of the recent climatic alteration. By linking literature focusing on physics, geology, biology and ecology, we illustrate the rationale supporting the use of subterranean habitats as laboratories for studies of global change biology. We initially discuss the direct relationship between external and internal temperature, the stability of the subterranean climate and the dynamics of its alteration in an anthropogenic climate change perspective. Owing to their evolution in a stable environment, subterranean species are expected to exhibit low tolerance to climatic perturbations and could theoretically cope with such changes only by shifting their distributional range or by adapting to the new environmental conditions. However, they should have more obstacles to overcome than surface species in such shifts, and therefore could be more prone to local extinction. In the face of rapid climate change, subterranean habitats can be seen as refugia for some surface species, but at the same time they may turn into dead-end traps for some of their current obligate inhabitants. Together with other species living in confined habitats, we argue that subterranean species are particularly sensitive to climate change, and we stress the urgent need for future research, monitoring programs and conservation measures.
  • Luoma, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Eyvindson, Kyle; Kankare, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017)
    Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography
    Currently the forest sector in Finland is looking towards the next generation's forest resource information systems. Information used in forest planning is currently collected by using an area-based approach (ABA) where airborne laser scanning (ALS) data are used to generalize field-measured inventory attributes over an entire inventory area. Inventories are typically updated at 10-year interval. Thus, one of the key challenges is the age of the inventory information and the cost-benefit trade-off between using the old data and obtaining new data. Prediction of future forest resource information is possible through growth modelling. In this paper, the error sources related to ALS-based forest inventory and the growth models applied in forest planning to update the forest resource information were examined. The error sources included (i) forest inventory, (ii) generation of theoretical stem distribution, and (iii) growth modelling. Error sources (ii) and (iii) stem from the calculations used for forest planning, and were combined in the investigations. Our research area, Evo, is located in southern Finland. In all, 34 forest sample plots (300 m(2)) have been measured twice tree-by-tree. First measurements have been carried out in 2007 and the second measurements in 2014 which leads to 7 year updating period. Respectively, ALS-based forest inventory data were available for 2007. The results showed that prediction of theoretical stem distribution and forest growth modelling affected only slightly to the quality of the predicted stem volume in short-term information update when compared to forest inventory error.
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R.; Mansouri, Sadegh; Belova, Olga; Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Mirko; de Vries, Ronald P.; Hilden, Kristiina S. (2017)
    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger N402, FaeC was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris X-33 in a yield of 10 mg/L. FaeC was most active at pH 7.0 and 50 degrees C, and showed broad substrate specificity and catalyzed the hydrolysis of methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate, ethyl ferulate, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, ethyl coumarate, methyl sinapate, and methyl caffeate. The enzyme released both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin (up to 3 mg/g polysaccharide), and acted synergistically with a commercial xylanase increasing the release of ferulic acid up to six-fold. The expression of faeC increased over time in the presence of feruloylated polysaccharides. Cinnamic, syringic, caffeic, vanillic and ferulic acid induced the expression of faeC. Overall expression of faeC was very low in all tested conditions, compared to two other A. niger FAE encoding genes, faeA and faeB. Our data showed that the fae genes responded differently towards the feruloylated polysaccharides and tested monomeric phenolic compounds suggesting that the corresponding FAE isoenzymes may target different substrates in a complementary manner. This may increase the efficiency of the degradation of diverse plant biomass. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.