Artikkelit: Äskettäin tallennettua

Näkyvissä 1-20 / 16626
  • Hurmekoski, Elias; Jonsson, Ragnar; Korhonen, Jaana; Jänis, Janne; Mäkinen, Marko; Leskinen, Pekka; Hetemäki, Lauri (2018)
    This study identifies new wood-based products with considerable potential and attractive markets, including textiles, liquid biofuels, platform chemicals, plastics, and packaging. We apply a mixed-methods review to examine how the position of the forest industry in a given value chain determines the respective production value. An assessment is provided as to the degree to which these emerging wood-based products could compensate for the foreseen decline of graphic paper markets in four major forest industry countries: USA, Canada, Sweden, and Finland. A 1%-2% market share in selected global markets implies a potential increase in revenues of 18-75 billion euros per annum in the four selected countries by 2030. This corresponds to 10%-43% of the production value of forest industries in 2016 and compares with a projected decline of graphic paper industry revenue of 5.5 billion euros by 2030. The respective impacts on wood use are manifold, as many of the new products utilize by-products as feedstock. The increase in primary wood use, which is almost entirely attributed to construction and to some extent textiles markets, would be in the range of 15-133 million m(3), corresponding to 2%-21% of the current industrial roundwood use in the selected countries.
  • Krüger, Heidi; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Holopainen, Sari; Nummi, Petri (2018)
    European populations of many ground-nesting farmland birds have declined in recent decades. Increases in predator populations and nest predation may play an important role in this decline, along with habitat loss. However, the role of various predators has often remained unclear. We conducted a study with artificial nests and wildlife cameras (n=104) in agricultural landscapes during 2015-2016 in South Finland. Our trials formed a 400-m wide gradient from forest to field. The aim of our study was to monitor nest survival and nest predators in a spatial and temporal scale. We tested the effect of distance to the forest and nest visibility to nest predation. During an 8-day period, 39.4% of the artificial nests were predated. Fifty percent of the predators were birds, 40% mammals, and 10% remained unknown. The three dominant predators of our artificial nests were the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) with 11 nests and the hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) and the magpie (Pica pica) with 10 depredated nests each. Our analysis indicates that avian predators preyed upon nests in open fields further away from the forest edge, whereas mammalian predation concentrated closer to the forest edge. Predation occurred more likely at the beginning of the survey and nest survival increased as days passed. Our study highlights the efficiency of using wildlife camera traps in nest predation studies. We also suggest that the ongoing expansion of alien predators across Europe may have a greater impact on ground-nesting bird populations than previously anticipated.
  • Hjort, Jan; Karjalainen, Olli; Aalto, Juha Antero; Westermann, Sebastian; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Nelson, Frederick; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Luoto, Miska (2018)
  • ACEt 
    He, Liang; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Silventoinen, Karri; Sillanpaa, Mikko J. (2017)
    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Building on the twin models using penalized splines, ACEt provides a unified framework to incorporate a class of ACE models, in which each component can be modeled independently and is not limited by a linear or quadratic function. We demonstrate that ACEt is robust against misspecification of the number of spline knots, and offers a refined resolution of dynamic behavior of the genetic and environmental components and thus a detailed estimation of age-specific heritability. Moreover, we develop resampling methods for testing twin models with different variance functions including splines, log-linearity and constancy, which can be easily employed to verify various model assumptions. We evaluated the type I error rate and statistical power of the proposed hypothesis testing procedures under various scenarios using simulated datasets. Potential numerical issues and computational cost were also assessed through simulations. We applied the ACEt package to a Finnish twin cohort to investigate age-specific heritability of body mass index and height. Our results show that the age-specific variance components of these two traits exhibited substantially different patterns despite of comparable estimates of heritability. In summary, the ACEt R package offers a useful tool for the exploration of age-dependent heritability and model comparison in twin studies.
  • Helfenstein, Andreas; Vahermo, Mikko Martti Antero; Nawrot, Dorota Anna; Demirci, Fatih; İşcan, Gökalp; Krogerus, Sara; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari Tapani; Moreira, Vânia M.; Tammela, Päivi Sirpa Marjaana (2017)
    Abietic and dehydroabietic acid are interesting diterpenes with a highly diverse repertoire of associated bioactivities. They have, among others, shown antibacterial and antifungal activity, potentially valuable in the struggle against the increasing antimicrobial resistance and imminent antibiotic shortage. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of a set of 9 abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives containing amino acid side chains and their in vitro antimicrobial profiling against a panel of human pathogenic microbial strains. Furthermore, their in vitro cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was evaluated. The experimental results showed that the most promising compound was 10 [methyl N-(abiet-8,11, 13-trien-18-yl)-D-serinate], with an MIC90 of 60 mu g/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 8 mu g/mL against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mitis. The IC50 value for compound 10 against Balb/c 3T3 cells was 45 mu g/mL. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Cruz, Cristina D.; Shah, Shreya; Tammela, Paivi (2018)
    BackgroundBiofilms are formed by a complex bacterial community encapsulated by a polymeric matrix, with strong adherent properties and persistent phenotype. Biofilms are considered one of the most challenging areas of modern medicine. Existing antibiotics have been developed against free-floating bacterial cells, and thus, many treatments of biofilm-related infection fail. In this study, we compared the effects of different media on biofilm growth of clinical reference strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including multi-drug resistant representatives. Further, we optimized the resazurin-based assay for determining the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of standard antibiotics, and evaluated its use for the determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC).ResultsWe showed that tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% glucose was an optimal media for maximum biofilm growth of all strains tested, with an extended incubation time for Enterococci. A range of parameters were tested for the resazurin assay, including concentration, temperature and time of incubation. Using quality parameters to analyze the assay's performance, the conditions for the resazurin assay were set as follows: 4g/mL and 8g/mL, with incubation at 25 degrees C for 20min and 40min for Staphylococci and Enterococci, respectively.ConclusionsIn summary, we defined conditions for optimal biofilm growth and for standardized resazurin assay for MBIC determination against six Gram-positive clinical reference strains. We also observed that MBEC determination by the resazurin-based assay is limited due to the poor detection limit of the assay. Complementary cell counting data is needed for precise determination of MBEC.
  • Dobaczewski, Jacek; Engel, Jonathan; Kortelainen, Markus; Becker, Pierre (2018)
    We show that the measured intrinsic octupole moments of Rn-220, Ra-224, and Ra-226 constrain the intrinsic Schiff moments of Ra-225, Rn-221, Rn-223, Fr-223, Ra-225, and Pa-229. The result is a dramatically reduced uncertainty in intrinsic Schiff moments. Direct measurements of octupole moments in odd nuclei will reduce the uncertainty even more. The only significant source of nuclear-physics error in the laboratory Schiff moments will then be the intrinsic matrix elements of the time-reversal noninvariant interaction produced by CP-violating fundamental physics. Those matrix elements are also correlated with octupole moments, but with a larger systematic uncertainty.
  • Pajunen, Mika (Suomen eksegeettinen seura, 2015)
    Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society
  • Weissenberg von, Hanne M; Pajunen, Mika (Suomen eksegeettinen seura, 2013)
    Suomen eksegeettisen seuran julkaisuja
  • DeSantis, Larisa; Fortelius, Mikael; Grine, Frederick; Janis, Christine; Kaiser, Thomas; Merceros, Gildas; Purnell, Mark; Schulz‐Kornas, Ellen; Saarinen, Juha; Teaford, Mark; Ungar, Peter; Zliobaite, Indre (2018)
  • Stefszky, Michael; Ulvila, Ville; Abdallah, Zeina; Silberhorn, Christine; Vainio, Markku (2018)
    Much progress, both experimentally and theoretically, has recently been made towards optical-frequency-comb generation from continuously pumped second-order nonlinear systems. Here, we present observations towards finding an integrated solution for such a system, using a titanium-indiffused lithium-niobate waveguide resonator. These results are compared to the recently developed theory for equivalent systems. The system is seen to exhibit strong instabilities, which require further investigation in order to fully determine the suitability of this platform for stable optical-frequency-comb generation.
  • Halonen, Roope; Zapadinsky, Evgeni; Vehkamaki, Hanna (2018)
    We present a comparison between Monte Carlo (MC) results for homogeneous vapourliquid nucleation of Lennard-Jones clusters and previously published values from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Both the MC and MD methods sample real cluster configuration distributions. In the MD simulations the extent of the temperature fluctuation is usually controlled with an artificial thermostat rather than with more realistic carrier gas. In this study primarily velocity scaling thermostat is considered, but also Nos´e-Hoover, Berendsen and stochastic Langevin thermostat methods are covered. The nucleation rates based on a kinetic scheme and the canonical MC calculation serve as a point of reference since they by definition describe an equilibrated system. The studied temperature range is from T = 0.3 to 0.65 ϵ/k. The kinetic scheme reproduces well the isothermal nucleation rates obtained by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)] using MD simulations with carrier gas. The nucleation rates obtained by artificially thermostatted MD simulations are consistently lower than the reference nucleation rates based on MC calculations. The discrepancy increases up to several orders of magnitude when the density of the nucleating vapour decreases. At low temperatures the difference to the MC-based reference nucleation rates in some cases exceeds the maximal nonisothermal effect predicted by classical theory of Feder et al. [Adv. Phys. 15, 111 (1966)].
  • Mlocicki, Daniel; Sulima, Anna; Bień, Justyna; Näreaho, Anu; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Basałaj, Katarzyna; Sałamatin, Rusłan; Conn, David Bruce; Savijoki, Kirsi (2018)
    In cestodiasis, mechanical and molecular contact between the parasite and the host activates the immune response of the host and may result in inflammatory processes, leading to ulceration and intestinal dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to identify antigenic proteins of the adult cestode Hymenolepis diminuta by subjecting the total protein extracts from adult tapeworms to 2DE immunoblotting (two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting) using sera collected from experimentally infected rats. A total of 36 protein spots cross-reacting with the rat sera were identified using LC-MS/MS. As a result, 68 proteins, including certain structural muscle proteins (actin, myosin, and paramyosin) and moonlighters (heat shock proteins, kinases, phosphatases, and glycolytic enzymes) were identified; most of these were predicted to possess binding and/or catalytic activity required in various metabolic and cellular processes, and reported here as potential antigens of the adult cestode for the first time. As several of these antigens can also be found at the cell surface, the surface-associated proteins were extracted and subjected to in-solution digestion for LC-MS/MS identification (surfaceomics). As a result, a total of 76 proteins were identified, from which 31 proteins, based on 2DE immunoblotting, were predicted to be immunogenic. These included structural proteins actin, myosin and tubulin as well as certain moonlighting proteins (heat-shock chaperones) while enzymes with diverse catalytic activities were found as the most dominating group of proteins. In conclusion, the present study shed new light into the complexity of the enteric cestodiasis by showing that the H. diminuta somatic proteins exposed to the host possess immunomodulatory functions, and that the immune response of the host could be stimulated by diverse mechanisms, involving also those triggering protein export via yet unknown pathways.
  • Liu, Ling; Kupiainen-Maatta, Oona; Zhang, Haijie; Li, Hao; Zhong, Jie; Kurten, Theo; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng (2018)
    The formation of atmospheric aerosol particles from condensable gases is a dominant source of particulate matter in the boundary layer, but the mechanism is still ambiguous. During the clustering process, precursors with di↵erent reactivities can induce various chemical reactions in addition to the formation of hydrogen bonds. However, the clustering mechanism involving chemical reactions is rarely considered in most of the nucleation process models. Oxocarboxylic acids are common compositions of secondary organic aerosol, but the role of oxocarboxylic acids in secondary organic aerosol formation is still not fully understood. In this paper, glyoxylic acid, the simplest and the most abundant atmospheric oxocarboxylic acids, has been selected as a representative example of oxocarboxylic acids in order to study the clustering mechanism involving hydration reaction using Density Functional Theory combined with the Atmospheric Clusters Dynamic Code. The hydration reaction of glyoxylic acid can occur either in the gas phase or during the clustering process. In atmospheric conditions, the total conversion ratio of glyoxylic acid to its hydration reaction product (2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid) in both gas phase and clusters can be up to 85%, andthe product can further participate in the clustering process. The di↵erences in cluster structures and properties induced by the hydration reaction lead to significant di↵erences in cluster formation rates and pathways at relatively low temperatures.
  • Mononen, Niina Marjukka; Järvinen, Riina; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Airaksinen, Marja Sisko Anneli; Bonhomme, Charlotte; Kleme, Jenni; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika (2018)
    Background: The Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea published the first National Medicines Information (MI) strategy in 2012. For the purpose of implementing the MI strategy into practice by the national MI Network, a comprehensive inventory of MI research in Finland was needed. Objective: To systematically review literature on MI research conducted in Finland by analyzing and classifying the studies, and identifying the gaps in MI research. Methods: Medline, Scopus and Medic databases were searched for peer-reviewed MI publications by using key word screening criteria. The search and extraction process followed PRISMA Guidelines and covered the period from January 2000 to June 2016. Included studies were content analyzed according to MI practices identified, trends over time in research methodology and theory. Results: Included publications (n = 126) applied a variety of research methods, most often cross-sectional surveys (n = 51, 40% of all studies), but more than half of the studies were qualitative (n = 68, 54%). Twelve were intervention studies of which 6 were randomized and had a control group. Studies were categorized into: patient counseling in different settings (n = 45); MI sources and needs of medicine users (n = 25); healthcare professionals' (HCPs) competence in patient counseling and pharmacotherapy (n = 25); MI sources and needs of HCPs (n = 23); MI education and literacy (n = 13); and MI policies and strategies (n = 3). Most of the studies were descriptive, and only 6 studies applied a theory. Conclusions: Regardless of some methodological pitfalls, MI research conducted in Finland since 2000 provides multifaceted understanding of MI practices and their development needs. Research should shift towards larger research lines having a stronger theory base and study designs to deepen the understanding of MI practices and behaviors, and effectiveness of MI in different healthcare settings. Future research should cover also the use of electronic MI sources and services which apply modern information technology to clinical decision making and medication reviews, national MI policy, MI literacy, MI needs of HCPs and consumers.
  • Virtanen, Jussa-Pekka; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Jaakkola, Kaisa; Salin, Noora; Korkeala, Hannu (2018)
    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a bacterium that not only survives, but also thrives, proliferates, and remains infective at cold-storage temperatures, making it an adept foodborne pathogen. We analyzed the differences in gene expression between Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 grown at 3 and 28°C to investigate which genes were significantly more expressed at low temperature at different phases of growth. We isolated and sequenced the RNA from six distinct corresponding growth points at both temperatures to also outline the expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes. Genes involved in motility, chemotaxis, phosphotransferase systems (PTS), and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters of different nutrients such as fructose and mannose showed higher levels of transcripts at 3°C. At the beginning of growth, especially genes involved in securing nutrients, glycolysis, transcription, and translation were upregulated at 3°C. To thrive as well as it does at low temperature, Y. pseudotuberculosis seems to require certain cold shock proteins, especially those encoded by yptb3585, yptb3586, yptb2414, yptb2950, and yptb1423, and transcription factors, like Rho, IF-1, and RbfA, to maintain its protein synthesis. We also found that genes encoding RNA-helicases CsdA (yptb0468), RhlE (yptb1214), and DbpA (yptb1652), which unwind frozen secondary structures of nucleic acids with cold shock proteins, were significantly more expressed at 3°C, indicating that these RNA-helicases are important or even necessary during cold. Genes involved in excreting poisonous spermidine and acquiring compatible solute glycine betaine, by either uptake or biosynthesis, showed higher levels of transcripts at low temperatures. This is the first finding of a strong connection between the aforementioned genes and the cold adaptation of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Understanding the mechanisms behind the cold adaptation of Y. pseudotuberculosis is crucial for controlling its growth during cold storage of food, and will also shed light on microbial cold adaptation in general.
  • Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Grönroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helinä (2012)
  • Hindmarsh, Mark; Kormu, Anna; Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Weir, David J. (2018)
    Models of symmetry breaking in the early universe can produce networks of cosmic strings threading 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles. In certain cases there is a larger global symmetry group and the monopoles split into so-called semipoles. These networks are all known as cosmic necklaces. We carry out large-scale field theory simulations of the simplest model containing these objects, confirming that the energy density of networks of cosmic necklaces approaches scaling, i.e., that it remains a constant fraction of the background energy density. The number of monopoles per unit comoving string length is constant, meaning that the density fraction of monopoles decreases with time. Where the necklaces carry semipoles rather than monopoles, we perform the first simulations large enough to demonstrate that they also maintain a constant number per unit comoving string length. We also compare our results to a number of analytical models of cosmic necklaces, finding that none explains our results. We put forward evidence that annihilation of poles on the strings is controlled by a diffusive process, a possibility not considered before. The observational constraints derived in our previous work for necklaces with monopoles can now be safely applied to those with semipoles as well.
  • Soininen, Paivi; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Korkeila, Jyrki; Puukka, Pauli; Pitkanen, Anneli; Valimaki, Maritta (2013)