Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 41418
  • Luo, Mengxiao; Mietzsch, Mario; Chipman, Paul; Song, Kangkang; Spear, John; Sousa, Duncan; McKenna, Robert; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (2021)
  • Long, Maeve; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2020)
    Autophagy refers to an essential mechanism that evolved to sustain eukaryotic homeostasis and metabolism during instances of nutrient deprivation. During autophagy, intracellular cargo is encapsulated and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. Loss of basal autophagy in vivo negatively impacts cellular proteostasis, metabolism and tissue integrity. Accordingly, many drug development strategies are focused on modulating autophagic capacity in various pathophysiological states, from cancer to neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in cancer is particularly complicated, as either augmenting or attenuating this process can have variable outcomes on cellular survival, proliferation and transformation. This complexity is compounded by the emergence of several selective autophagy pathways, which act to eliminate damaged or superfluous cellular components in a targeted fashion. The advent of sensitive tools to monitor autophagy pathways in vivo holds promise to clarify their importance in cancer pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an overview of autophagy in cancer biology and outline how the development of tools to study autophagy in vivo could enhance our understanding of its function for translational benefit.
  • Rask, Martti; Malinen, Tommi; Olin, Mikko; Nyberg, Kari; Ruuhijarvi, Jukka; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Verta, Matti; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Blauberg, Tarja-Riitta; Arvola, Lauri (2021)
    High dissolved organic carbon and low pH are often associated with elevated mercury content of fish in boreal lakes, but less is known about the fish mercury dynamics in lakes recovering from acidification stress. We measured total mercury concentration (THg) in muscle of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and evaluated the overall correlation with environmental and growth variables in 24 boreal headwater lakes in the 2010s. We found negative correlations of length-corrected perch THg with lake pH and perch growth, but no correlation with dissolved organic carbon. The main emphasis in the present study was focused to a subset of ten lakes in southern Finland with known perch THg during severe acidification in the 1980-1990s. The comparison of perch THg concentrations in the 2010s with values determined in the 1980-1990s showed a sharp increase in most acidic lakes where the perch populations suffered from severe acid stress in the 1980s. This increase was attributed to growth condensation caused by sharp decrease in perch growth during recovery of reproduction capacity and the consequent increases in population densities of perch. Our results highlight the importance of perch growth rate and population density for understanding the variability of fish Hg in boreal headwater lakes, where recovery from acidification can lead to higher mercury concentration of fish in certain cases.
  • Durand, Maxime; Matule, Baiba; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Robson, T. Matthew (2021)
    Light in canopies is highly dynamic since the strength and composition of incoming radiation is determined by the wind and the Sun's trajectory and by canopy structure. For this highly dynamic environment, we mathematically defined sunflecks as periods of high irradiance relative to the background light environment. They can account for a large proportion of the light available for photosynthesis. Based on high-frequency irradiance measurements with a CCD array spectroradiometer, we investigated how the frequency of measurement affects what we define as sunflecks. Do different plant canopies produce sunflecks with different properties? How does the spectral composition and strength of irradiance in the shade vary during a sunfleck? Our results suggest that high-frequency measurements improved our description of light fluctuations and led to the detection of shorter, more frequent and intense sunflecks. We found that shorter wind-induced sunflecks contribute most of the irradiance attributable to sunflecks, contrary to previous reports from both forests and crops. Large variations in sunfleck properties related to canopy depth and species, including distinct spectral composition under shade and sunflecks, suggest that mapping canopy structural traits may help us model photosynthesis dynamically.
  • Murto, Niina; Rinkinen, Minna (2019)
    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by glucose metabolism disturbances, which cause ketones to accumulate in the body. Most of the patients getting diabetic ketoacidosis also have another underlying medical condition, which causes insulin resistance. Diabetic ketoacidosis causes dehydration, acidosis and electrolyte imbalances. The complication is caused by poor management of diabetes. Treatment is based on the correction of hypovolemia and fluid balance, correction of electrolyte imbalances and lowering the blood glucose concentration with insulin treatment. Prognosis is fair for patients treated intensively in a hospital. About 60–70% survive to be discharged. Ideally, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis should be hospitalized. If hospitalization is not feasible, ketoacidosis can be successfully managed in a smaller clinic that is able to initiate intravenous fluid therapy, has short acting insulin and electrolyte supplements available, and is able to monitor blood glucose and electrolytes on site. Risk of relapse is great especially in cats. The long-term prognosis is guarded, depending on the underlying conditions.
  • Hahl, Kaisa; Keinänen, Nely (2021)
    This article examines teachers’ perceptions of the use of drama- and other action-based methods in teaching a foreign or second language in Finland. Prior research reveals that much foreign language teaching is textbook-based and does not utilize the target language effectively. International research on drama- and action-based methods shows that these instructional techniques are beneficial to student learning and language acquisition. The data for this study were collected through an online questionnaire with closed and open questions and analyzed inductively with content analysis. The findings indicate that a majority of the participants (n=130) used action-based methods regularly. Teachers used these methods because they believed they improve student learning, increase motivation, and liven up lessons. However, teachers lacked training in action-based methods and some also felt there is no time for these methods in busy schedules. Using drama methods was much less common than other action-based methods, such as different word games with movement. The findings show that although textbooks provide ideas for dramatized reading of texts, teachers found most activities online or made them up themselves. Drama and other action-based methods should be incorporated into teacher education and language textbooks so that teachers would gain confidence and competence in using them and have easy access to different, even more complex activities.
  • Crane, Thera Marie; Persohn, Bastian (2021)
    This paper presents some key findings of studies of actionality and the verbal grammar–lexicon interface in two Nguni Bantu languages of South Africa, Xhosa and Southern Ndebele. We describe interactions between grammatical tense marking (and other sentential bounding elements) and lexical verb types, arguing for the salience of inchoative verbs, which lexically encode a resultant state, and, in particular, a sub-class of inchoative verbs, two-phase verbs, which encode both a resultant state and the “coming-to-be” phase leading up to that state. We further discuss other important features of actional classes in Xhosa and Southern Ndebele, including topics such as the role of participant structure and the relative importance of cross-linguistically prominent distinctions such as that between Vendlerian activities and accomplishments. Although differences between Xhosa and Southern Ndebele are evident both in the behaviour of individual tense-aspect forms and in the interpretive possibilities of specific verbs, the general patterns are quite similar. This similarity suggests that the patterns are likely to extend to other Nguni languages, as well, and that cross-linguistic comparison of particular lexical items across these languages are both feasible and likely to bear fruit.
  • Salooja, Nina; Greinix, Hildegaard; Ruutu, Tapani; van der Werf, Steffie; van Biezen, Anja; Lawitschka, Anita; Basak, Grzegorz; Duarte, Rafael (2020)
    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is a well-recognized complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with significant drops in BMD occurring within the first 12 months after HCT. Guidance on identifying and managing this complication is available in several published guidelines. In this study, we investigated current practices in the investigation and management of low BMD in centers registered with the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). A questionnaire about bone health was sent to all registered centers, and responses were received from 99 centers in 25 countries (52%) currently registered with the EBMT. Our data highlight considerable heterogeneity in practices across European centers in relation to investigations, management, and use of guidelines. Our data demonstrate the need for better dissemination and implementation of existing guidelines and also for the development of multidisciplinary guidelines with input from all relevant stakeholders. (c) 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Cerrato Lara, Maria; Castelló, Montserrat; Lonka, Kirsti (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019)
    Palgrave Studies in Education Research Methods
  • Nyyssönen, Karoliina; Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    Renal adenocarcinoma is the most common primary tumour of the canine kidney. A typical renal tumour is a consequence of metastatic tumour whereas primary tumours are rare. By the time clinical signs are apparent, the primary tumour has often reached considerable size and may have metastasized. Clinical signs may include haematuria, anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, vomiting and abdominal pain. Primary renal tumour may present with a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal ultrasonography is the foremost diagnostic tool for investigating the presence and extent of renal tumours. Histopathologic examination is required for diagnosis. Thoracic radiographs should be taken before surgery to detect pulmonary metastases. Nephroureterectomy is the treatment of choice for dogs with unilateral renal tumours that have not metastasized. Median survival time for renal adenocarcinoma is 2 years after kidney removal. We describe a case of canine renal adenocarcinoma with successful outcome after nephroureterectomy.
  • Kumar, Abhishek; Braud, Tristan; Kwon, Young D.; Hui, Pan (2020)
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina; Apurina, Francisco; Facundes, Sidney (2021)
    This article looks at what origin stories teach about the world and what kind of material presence they have in Southwestern Amazonia. We examine the ways the Apurina relate to certain nonhuman entities through their origin story, and our theoretical approach is language materiality, as we are interested in material means of mediating traditional stories. Analogous to the ways that speakers of many other languages who distinguish the entities that they talk to or about, the Apurina make use of linguistic resources to establish the ways they interact with different entities. Besides these resources, the material means of mediating stories is a crucial tool to narrate the worlds of humans and nonhumans. Storytelling requires material mediation, and a specific context of plant substances. It also involves community meeting as a space of trust in order to become a communicative practice and effectively introduce the history of the people. Our sources are ethnography, language documentation, and autoethnography.
  • Mäntynen, Sari; Laanto, Elina; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Poranen, Minna M.; Diaz-Munoz, Samuel L. (2021)
    The canonical lytic-lysogenic binary has been challenged in recent years, as more evidence has emerged on alternative bacteriophage infection strategies. These infection modes are little studied, and yet they appear to be more abundant and ubiquitous in nature than previously recognized, and can play a significant role in the ecology and evolution of their bacterial hosts. In this review, we discuss the extent, causes and consequences of alternative phage lifestyles, and clarify conceptual and terminological confusion to facilitate research progress. We propose distinct definitions for the terms 'pseudolysogeny' and 'productive or non-productive chronic infection', and distinguish them from the carrier state life cycle, which describes a population-level phenomenon. Our review also finds that phages may change their infection modes in response to environmental conditions or the physiological state of the host cell. We outline known molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative phage-host interactions, including specific genetic pathways and their considerable biotechnological potential. Moreover, we discuss potential implications of the alternative phage lifestyles for microbial biology and ecosystem functioning, as well as applied topics such as phage therapy.
  • Kuoppamäki, Kirsi (2021)
    Vegetated roofs, i.e. green roofs, were continuously measured for runoff to quantify their capacity to manage stormwater in a field experiment in southern Finland, with distinct seasonality and varying weather conditions. Attention was paid to heavy storms to study the potential in mitigating urban flooding. In addition, the impact of biochar amendment (10% v/v) on rainfall retention was studied. Meadow vegetation was established on crushed brick based substrate either by introducing plants as seedlings and seeds or by using pre-grown readymade mats. Annual retention varied from 40% to 70%. The highest retention, ca. 80%, was found in summer even though it was the rainiest season. Wintertime retention was 30-40%. The coarse substrate enabled infiltration even when frozen and, thus, the roofs operated also in winter. Heavy storms occurred mainly in summer, the season with the highest hydrologic performance of the roofs, resulting in >80% peak attenuation and slow release of runoff. In individual rain events, runoff from meadow roofs was largely a function of rainfall depth. However, retention was weakly explained by the amount of rainfall or by other variables, such as rainfall intensity or antecedent dry period, indicating the difficulty in capturing the complex phenomena behind variable weather conditions. Biochar improved retention only slightly, at maximum by ca. 10%. The empirical evidence of this study highlights vegetated roofs as a feasible technology to be applied in urban runoff management even in cold climate.
  • Mäki, Mari; Mali, Tuulia; Hellén, Heidi; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Lundell, Taina; Bäck, Jaana (2021)
  • Mustajoki, Arto (2021)
    Interaction between people is a cornerstone of being human. Despite huge developments in languages and communicative skills, interaction often fails, which causes problems and costs in everyday life and work. An inability to conduct dialogue also produces conflicts between groups of people, states and religions. Therefore, there are good reasons to claim that miscommunication and failures in interaction are among the most serious problems in the world. Researchers from different fields – linguistics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, brain research, philosophy – have tried to tackle this complex phenomenon. Their method-driven approaches enrich our understanding of the features of interaction in many ways. However, what is lacking is an understanding of the very essence of interaction, which needs a more holistic, phenomenon-driven approach. The aim of this paper is to show that the only way to reach this goal is multidisciplinarity, that is, using the results and methods of different fields of research. This is not an easy goal and task because the way of thinking and doing research varies greatly discipline-wise. A further obstacle is the researchers’ training, which, as a rule, focuses on the tradition of only one field of research. The Multidimensional Model of Interaction provides a good framework for a more holistic approach to interaction by viewing the complex phenomenon from different angles. The model includes various phases of the process of interaction, beginning with the choice of the topic by the speaker and ending with identification of the reference by the recipient, as well as the mental worlds of the interlocutors (knowledge, attitudes, values, emotional state etc.), recipient design (accommodation of speech) and external circumstances.
  • Morris, Carol; Kaljonen, Minna; Aavik, Kadri; Balazs, Balint; Cole, Matthew; Coles, Ben; Efstathiu, Sophia; Fallon, Tracey; Foden, Mike; Giraud, Eva Haifa; Goodman, Mike; Kershaw, Eleanor Hadley; Helliwell, Richard; Hobson-West, Pru; Hayry, Matti; Jallinoja, Piia; Jones, Mat; Kaarlenkaski, Taija; Laihonen, Maarit; Lahteenmaki-Uutela, Anu; Kupsala, Saara; Lonkila, Annika; Martens, Lydia; McGlacken, Renelle; Mylan, Josephine; Niva, Mari; Roe, Emma; Twine, Richard; Vinnari, Markus; White, Richard (2021)
    Increasingly high-profile research is being undertaken into the socio-environmental challenges associated with the over-production and consumption of food from animals. Transforming food systems to mitigate climate change and hidden hunger, ensure food security and good health all point to reducing animal-based foods as a key lever. Moving beyond animal-based food systems is a societal grand challenge requiring coordinated international research by the social sciences and humanities. A 'selective openness' to this range of disciplines has been observed within multi-discipline research programmes designed to address societal grand challenges including those concerned with the sustainability of food systems, inhibiting the impact of social sciences and humanities. Further, existing research on animal-based foods within these disciplines is largely dispersed and focused on particular parts of food systems. Inspired by the 'Sutherland Method' this paper discusses the results of an iterative research prioritisation process carried out to enhance capacity, mutual understanding and impact amongst European social sciences and humanities researchers. The process produced 15 research questions from an initial list of 100 and classified under the following five themes: (1) debating and visioning food from animals; (2) transforming agricultural spaces; (3) framing animals as food; (4) eating practices and identities; and (5) governing transitions beyond animal-based food systems. These themes provide an important means of making connections between research questions that invite and steer research on key challenges in moving beyond animal-based food systems. The themes also propose loci for future transdisciplinary research programmes that join researchers from the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities and stakeholders from beyond academia to develop cooperative research and implementation initiatives. The experiences gained from the prioritisation process draw attention to the value of spending time to discuss and collaboratively steer research enquiry into emergent and controversial matters of concern. Fundamental, ethical questions around the continuation or complete cessation of the use of animals for food was a key tension. The positioning of research towards these questions affects not only the framing of the research area but also the partners with whom the research can be carried out and for whom it may be of benefit.
  • Juvonen, Minna; Bakx, Edwin; Schols, Henk; Tenkanen, Maija (2022)
    The potential of travelling wave ion mobility spectroscopy in combination with collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-TWIMS-MS/MS) to separate cereal-derived isomeric arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (A)XOS was investigated. Three trisaccharide, four tetrasaccharide, and four pentasaccharide (A)XOS isomers were analyzed by positive and negative ionization TWIMS-MS and CID-TWIMS-MS/MS. The triand pentasaccharide isomers were distinguishable by the ATDs of the precursor ions. The CID-TWIMS-MS/MS could separate most of the isomeric fragment ions produced from tetra- and pentasaccharide (A)XOS. Finally, the base peak mobility spectrum is introduced as a practical tool for (A)XOS fingerprinting.