Artikkelit: Recent submissions

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  • Lima, Marcus E. O.; de Franca, Dalila X.; Jetten, Jolanda; Pereira, Cicero R.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Hong, Ying-yi; Torres, Ana Raquel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Ariyanto, Amarina; Autin, Frederique; Ayub, Nadia; Badea, Constantina; Besta, Tomasz; Butera, Fabrizio; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Finchilescu, Gillian; Gaertner, Lowell; Gollwitzer, Mario; Gómez, Ángel; Gonzalez, Roberto; Høj Jensen, Dorthe; Karasawa, Minoru; Kessler, Thomas; Klein, Olivier; Megevand, Laura; Morton, Thomas; Paladino, Maria Paola; Polya, Tibor; Renvik, Tuuli Anna; Ruza, Aleksejs; Shahrazad, Wan; Shama, Sushama; Smith, Heather J.; Teymoori, Ali; van der Bles, Anne Marthe (2021)
    There is evidence that democracies are under threat around the world while the quest for strong leaders is increasing. Although the causes of these developments are complex and multifaceted, here we focus on one factor: the extent to which citizens express materialist and post-materialist concerns. We explore whether objective higher levels of democracy are differentially associated with materialist and post-materialist concerns and, in turn, whether this is related to the wish for a strong leader. Testing this hypothesis across 27 countries (N = 5,741) demonstrated a direct negative effect of democracies' development on the wish for a strong leader. Further, multi-level mediation analysis showed that the relation between the Democracy Index and the wish for a strong leader was mediated by materialist concerns. This pattern of results suggests that lower levels of democracy are associated with enhanced concerns about basic needs and this is linked to greater support for strong leaders.
  • Wallenius, Janne; Kontro, Jussi; Lyra, Christina; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Wan, Xing; Kahkonen, Mika A.; Baig, Irshad; Kamer, Paul C. J.; Sipila, Jussi; Makela, Miia R.; Nousiainen, Paula; Hilden, Kristiina (2021)
    Fungal laccases are attracting enzymes for sustainable valorization of biorefinery lignins. To improve the lignin oxidation capacity of two previously characterized laccase isoenzymes from the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, we mutated their substrate-binding site at T1. As a result, the pH optimum of the recombinantly produced laccase variant rOrLcc2-D206N shifted by three units towards neutral pH. O. rivulosa laccase variants with redox mediators oxidized both the dimeric lignin model compound and biorefinery poplar lignin. Significant structural changes, such as selective benzylic alpha-oxidation, were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, although no polymerization of lignin was observed by gel permeation chromatography. This suggests that especially rOrLcc2-D206N is a promising candidate for lignin-related applications.
  • Zhang-Turpeinen, Huizhong; Kivimaenpaa, Minna; Berninger, Frank; Koster, Kajar; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2021)
    The amplification of global warming in the Northern regions results in a higher probability of wildfires in boreal forests. On the forest floor, wildfires have long-term effects on vegetation composition as well as soil and its microbial communities. A large variety of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes have been observed to be emitted from soil and understory vegetation of boreal forest floor. Ultimately, the fire-induced changes in the forest floor affect its BVOC fluxes, and the recovery of the forest floor determines the quantity and quality of BVOC fluxes. However, the effects of wildfires on forest floor BVOC fluxes are rarely studied. Here we conducted a study of the impacts of post-fire succession on forest floor BVOC fluxes along a 158-year fire chronosequence in boreal Scots pine stands near the northern timberline in north-eastern Finland throughout a growing season. We determined the forest floor BVOC fluxes and investigated how the environmental and ground vegetation characteristics, soil respiration rates, and soil microbial and fungal biomass are associated with the BVOC fluxes during the post-fire succession. The forest floor was a source of diverse BVOCs. Monoterpenes (MTs) were the largest group of emitted BVOCs. We observed forest age-related differences in the forest floor BVOC fluxes along the fire chronosequence. The forest floor BVOC fluxes decreased with the reduction in ground vegetation coverage resulted from wildfire, and the decreased fluxes were also connected to a decrease in microbial activity as a result of the loss of plant roots and soil organic matter. The increase in BVOC fluxes was associated with the recovery of aboveground plant coverage and soils. Our results suggested taking into consideration the implications of BVOC flux variations on the atmospheric chemistry and climate feedbacks.
  • Siragusa, Laura; Zhukova, Ol'ga Yu (2021)
    This article undermines the actuality of a strict boundary between language and materiality by presenting verbal charms (puheged, vajhed/pakitas in Vepsian) among Veps, an Indigenous minority group of Northwest Russia. Vepsian verbal charms are ritualizedways of speaking that are customarily used to prompt a change in both human beings and environments in very tangibleways. When observing how they are conceived, distributed, and performed among Veps, the rigid separation between "material" and "immaterial" realms begins to be felt as an artificial construction, since Veps understand that in the act of "blowing" air accompanied by the recitation of "specificwords," human and often non-human agencies join forces to promote changes in people and the environment. This paper engages not onlywith the academic interest in the material intersections between language and the world (see, Cavanaugh and Shankar 2017; Keane 2008a; Wiener 2013, to name a few), but also aims to reframe the notion of "event" as a transformative and suspended encounter between human and often non-human agencies (Kapferer 2015) and thus deepen our understanding of what living relationally might entail.
  • Kalendar, Ruslan; Sabot, Francois; Rodriguez, Fernando; Karlov, Gennady I.; Natali, Lucia; Alix, Karine (2021)
    Multiple changes that occur constantly in the plant genome allow an organism to develop from a single-celled embryo to a multicellular organism. A significant part of these changes is associated with the recombination activity of numerous classes of interspersed repeats. These numerous families of interspersed repeats were often called "junk DNA" as they were not associated with vital protein-coding processes (1). Transposable elements (TEs), such as DNA transposons and retrotransposons, are the main part of these interspersed repeats (2). DNA transposons can rightfully be called true mobile elements, the activity of which can occur at any stage of cell development and manifest itself at any moment and stage of the organism's development. The diverse families of retrotransposons are highly abundant genetic elements that are related to retroviruses (3). Although retrotransposons are not true mobile elements like DNA transposons, retrotransposable elements (RTEs) form a variety of chromosomal structures, such as centromeric and telomeric regions (4), and are the main intergenic part of the genome (5). Retrotransposons move to new chromosomal locations via an RNA intermediate that is converted into extrachromosomal DNA by the encoded reverse transcriptase/RNaseH enzymes prior to reinsertion into the genome. This replicative mode of transposition can rapidly increase the copy number of elements and can thereby greatly increase plant genome size. RTEs can be clustered into distinct families each traceable to a single ancestral sequence or a closely related group of ancestral sequences. In contrast to multigene families, which are defined based on their biological role, repetitive families are usually defined based on their active ancestors (called master or source genes) and on their generation mechanisms. Over time, individual elements from repetitive families may acquire diverse biological roles. Some RTEs can provide evolutionary advantages to the host and increase their chances of survival (6). While the view that RTEs are beneficial to the host is not new, recent progress in the field has placed RTEs squarely in the center of the ongoing debate on eukaryotic evolution. To advance this important research field, in the Research Topic "Mobile Elements and Plant Genome Evolution, Comparative Analyses, and Computational Tools" we focus on the role of mobile elements with host genome evolution, discovery, and comparative and genome-wide profiling analysis of transposable elements. Different retrotransposon families, each with its own lineage and structure, may have been active at distinct phases in the evolution of a species. Retrotransposon sequences bear the promoters that bind the nuclear factors of transcription initialization and initiate RNA synthesis by polymerases II or III. In the article entitled "Additional ORFs in Plant LTR-Retrotransposons" by Vicient C.M. and Casacuberta J.M., LTR-retrotransposons that carry additional, not retrotransposon-specific open reading frames (aORF), were discovered and analyzed. This discovery expands on the unique potential of LTR-retrotransposons as evolutionary tools, as LTR-retrotransposons can be used to deliver new gene variants within a genome. The presence of a unique aORF in some characterized LTR-retrotransposon families like maize Grande, rice RIRE2, or Silene Retand, are just as typical as retrovirus gene transduction. As dispersed and ubiquitous mobile elements, the life cycle of replicative transposition leads to genome rearrangements that affect cellular function (7). Transposable elements are important drivers of species diversity and exhibit great variety in structure, size, and mechanisms of transposition, making them important putative actors in genome evolution. The research group led by Kashkush K., reported the potential impact of miniature transposable element insertions on the expression of wheat genes in different wheat species in the articles entitled "The Evolutionary Dynamics of a Novel Miniature Transposable Element in the Wheat Genome" and "Where the Wild Things Are: Transposable Elements as Drivers of Structural and Functional Variations in the Wheat Genome". The induced genetic rearrangements and insertions of mobile genetic elements in regions of active euchromatin contribute to genome alteration, which leads to "genomic stress" (8). TEmediated epigenetic modifications lead to phenotypic diversity, genetic variation, and environmental stress tolerance. TEs also contribute to genome plasticity and have a dramatic impact on the genetic diversity and evolution of the wheat genome. Using transposon display (9) and genome-wide profiling analysis of insertional polymorphisms of transposable elements (10), the authors discovered large genomic rearrangement events, such as deletions and introgressions in the wheat genome. High-throughput bioinformatics with next-generation sequencing (NGS) were key tools in these studies (11). Chromosomal rearrangements, gene duplications, and transposable element content may have a large impact on genomic structure, which could generate new phenotypic traits (7). In the article entitled "Genome Size Variation and Comparative Genomics Reveal Intraspecific Diversity in Brassica rapa", de Carvalho J.F. et al investigated structural variants and repetitive content between two accessions of Brassica rapa genomes and genome-size variation among a core collection using comparative genomics and cytogenetic approaches. Large genomic variants with a chromosome length difference of 17.6% between the A06 chromosomes of 'Z1' compared to 'Chiifu' belonging to different cultigroups of B. rapa highlighted the potential impact of differential insertion of repeat elements and inversions of large genomic regions in genome size intraspecific variability. Transposable elements are also the driving force in the evolution of epigenetic regulation and have a long-term impact on genomic instability and evolution. Remnants of RTEs appear to be overrepresented in transcription regulatory modules and other regions conserved among distantly related species, which may have implications for our understanding of their impact on speciation. RTEs are dynamic and play a role in chromosome crossing over recognition and in DNA recombination between homologous chromosomes. In the article entitled "Sequencing Multiple Cotton Genomes Reveals Complex Structures and Lays Foundation for Breeding", Wang X. et al revealed that post-polyploidization of cotton genome instability resulted in numerous genomic structural changes, DNA inversion and translocation, illegitimate recombinations, accumulation of repetitive sequences, and functional innovation accompanied by elevated evolutionary rates of genes. This genome study also revealed the evolutionary past of cotton plants, which were recursively affected by polyploidization, with a decaploidization contributing to the formation of the genus Gossypium, and a neo-tetraploidization contributing to the formation of the currently widely cultivated cotton plants. The centromere is a unique part of the chromosome that combines a conserved function with extreme variability in its DNA sequence. In the article entitled "Functional Allium fistulosum centromeres comprise arrays of a long satellite repeat, insertions of retrotransposons and chloroplast DNA" Kirov G.I., et al studied the largest plant genomic organization of the functional centromere in large-sized chromosomes in Allium fistulosum and A. cepa. Long, high-copy repeats are associated with insertions of retrotransposons and plastidial DNA, and the landscape of the centromeric regions of these species possess insertions of plastidial DNA. Among evolutionary factors, repetitive sequences play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution. As such, the Spinacia genus serves as an ideal model to investigate the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the transition from homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This was studied in the article entitled "Genome-Wide Analysis of Transposable Elements and Satellite DNAs in Spinacia Species to Shed Light on Their Roles in Sex Chromosome Evolution" by Li N., et al. Major repetitive sequence classes in male and female genomes of Spinacia species and their ancestral relative, sugar beet, were elucidated in the evolutionary processes of sex chromosome evolution using NGS data. The differences of repetitive DNA sequences correlate with the formation of sex chromosomes and the transition from homomorphic sex chromosomes to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, as heteromorphic sex chromosomes existed exclusively in Spinacia tetrandra.
  • Graf, Lukas; Hatlauf, Jennifer (2021)
    Golden jackals (Canis aureus) display a complex repertoire of calls, utilized in different communication types (e.g., marking territories, attraction of mating partners). Resident golden jackal groups can successfully be detected by active bioacoustic stimulation, as well as with passive recording devices. For monitoring, basic knowledge of the calls of the focal species and potential restrictions and strengths of the monitoring devices should be considered. We therefore tested possible applications of a low-budget autonomous recording unit for bioacoustic golden jackal monitoring and examined the following research questions: How far can group calls be detected? Can the distance to the recording device be estimated? To answer these questions, we placed 11 AudioMoth recording devices in a linear transect to record live imitated and replayed howls. For the estimation of the number of responding animals, the number of howling individuals was determined based on the maximum number of simultaneously visible fundamental frequencies in a spectrogram. To predict the distance of the playback howls to the recording devices, the relative sound level (RSL) of each call was measured and fitted in linear models. Reliable distance estimations using RSL were possible up to 400 m. Estimated number of responding animals showed a negative relationship with distance. Our results present a baseline for future studies and show that AudioMoths can be a helpful asset in distance estimation of golden jackal packs—both in passive but also active monitoring.
  • Lappi, Pauli; Lintunen, Jussi (2021)
  • Saarinen, Merja; Rinne, Marketta; Roitto, Marja (Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke), 2021)
    Luonnonvara- ja biotalouden tutkimus
  • Roitto, Marja (Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke), 2021)
    Luonnonvara- ja biotalouden tutkimus
  • Lund, Virpi (2021)
    This paper contributes to the study of residents’ and civil servants’ transformative agency in urban development with the aid of the framework of cultural-historical activity theory. The aim is to investigate the emergence of transformative agency in five workshops, based on the method of Change Laboratory®, in the city of Espoo, Finland. The formative intervention focused on exploring the collaboration of residents and actors in urban development. The workshop discussions were analysed with the help of the manifestations of contradictions in neighbourhood development connected to the expression of the types of transformative agency and elements of the human activity system. This enabled the identification of the topics of the discussions and the development of transformative agency through envisioning the developmental potential of the activity and taking action to transform it. The findings call attention to creating the tools and means to facilitate the participation and building the transformative agency through time.
  • Uddin, Md Karim; Hasan, Shah Md. Kamrul; Mahmud, Md Rayhan; Peltoniemi, Olli; Oliviero, Claudio (2021)
    The weaning process represents a delicate phase for piglets, and is often characterized by lower feed intake, lower weight gain, diarrhea, and ultimately increased mortality. We aimed to determine the effects of RAC supplementation in diets on improving piglet growth and vitality, reducing post-weaning diarrhea, and enhancing gut health. In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, we selected forty sows and their piglets. Piglets were followed until seven weeks of age. There were no significant differences found between RAC treated and control piglets until weaning (p = 0.26). However, three weeks after weaning, RAC treated piglets had higher body weight and average daily growth (ADG) than the control piglets (p = 0.003). In addition, the piglets that received RAC after weaning, irrespective of mother or prior creep feed treatment, had lower post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) and fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO) level than control piglets. Gut microbiota analysis in post-weaning piglets revealed that RAC supplementation significantly increased Lachnospiraceae_unclassified, Blautia, Butyricicoccus, Gemmiger and Holdemanella, and decreased Bacteroidales_unclassified. Overall, RAC supplementation to piglets modulated post-weaning gut microbiota, improved growth performance after weaning, reduced post-weaning diarrhea and reduced fecal myeloperoxidase levels. We therefore consider RAC to be a potential natural feed supplement to prevent enteric infections and improve growth performance in weaning piglets.
  • Rakotoarison, Zo R.; Dietrich, Stephanie; Hiilamo, Heikki (2021)
    Contributing to the emerging religion and development literature, this study sets out to analyse the role of faith in the context of a particular development approach, 'Use Your Talents' (UYT) at the Malagasy Lutheran Church in Madagascar. By analysing the views of lay Christian informants with regard to their involvement in the UYT project, the study asked what is the role of faith as an intangible asset in an asset-based community development project? The qualitative data were collected through participant observations and interviews conducted in four congregations across Madagascar in 2018. The results showed that church teachings and biblical stories created a normativity of good and desirable behaviour in the context of the asset-based community development project. Faith may constitute an asset when it promoted the individual's capacity to achieve positive economic and social change. Contribution: This research broadened the understanding of religion in the context of asset-based community development projects. The results showed that the participants attributed their engagement in community development to their religious calling. The belief in the existence of a higher power not only seemed to influence individuals to act but also enabled them to feel empowered and have something to contribute. As a contribution to sociology of religion, this study showed that community development can be part of Christians' and congregational holistic activities that depended on local knowledge and resources. Faith not only motivated individuals to engage in community development, but also it seemed to represent the essence of their engagement.
  • Harju, Anu A.; Huhtamäki, Jukka (2021)
    In March 2019, the first ever act of terrorist violence in New Zealand was live-streamed on social media, making many social media users unwitting witnesses to the massacre on their devices. The Christchurch mosque attacks revealed a particular digital and emotional vulnerability embedded in the digital media infrastructure. The last words of the first victim soon transmorphed into #hellobrother that, as a digital artefact, participated in shaping the emotional landscape. Combining real-time digital media ethnography on Twitter with data science and computational tools, this multi-method study has two aims: first and foremost, to develop and apply new methodology for the study of unexpected, mediated events as they unfold in real time; second, to explore post-death digital artefacts through the concept of digital afterlife that we approach through two complementary perspectives, data afterlife (the technological) and data as afterlife (the emotional). Adopting a relational perspective, we further develop the concept, and highlight the constitutive role of data in the emotional dimension of digital afterlife arising from its capacity to enter affective arrangements. The methodological contributions include development of a conceptual and technological framework for conducting data science as ethnography and the introduction of Tweetboard, a novel artefact for investigating digital afterlife.
  • Lehto, Marja; Erkamo, Esa; Kuisma, Risto; Mäki, Maarit; Haikonen, Tuuli; Jallinoja, Marja; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta (Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke), 2021)
    Luonnonvara- ja biotalouden tutkimus
  • Koort, Joanna; Avall-Jaaskelainen, Silja (2021)
    The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has forced universities to find new ways to conduct learning and teaching, as traditional face-to-face teaching has been prevented or restricted to an absolute minimum in many instances. Therefore, we redesigned and taught second-year veterinary student microbiology laboratory exercises (labs) with a hybrid learning approach. For this, a novel 'remote partner' model was implemented in which students present on-site in the laboratory worked synchronously pairwise with their remote partner present online. A student feedback survey revealed that in this remote partner model, both on-site and online participation in the labs were experienced as being useful in improving their laboratory skills. The students' overall performance in hands-on microbiological laboratory skills and safe working practices was similar in the hybrid learning approach (the 2021 class) and in the traditional on-site participation approach (the 2018-20 classes). This study suggests that the remote partner model is an effective way to acquire microbiological laboratory skills. This learning approach can be used in the non-pandemic future and/or also be applied to other fields.Microbiological laboratory skills can be developed using a hybrid model combining synchronous on-site and online learning for students working in pairs.
  • Wang, Weijing; Li, Weilong; Wu, Yili; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Li, Shuxia; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng (2021)
    Depression is currently the leading cause of disability around the world. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a sample of 58 depression score-discordant monozygotic twin pairs, aiming to detect specific epigenetic variants potentially related to depression and further integrate with gene expression profile data. Association between the methylation level of each CpG site and depression score was tested by applying a linear mixed effect model. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed for gene expression data. The association of DNA methylation levels of 66 CpG sites with depression score reached the level of P < 1 x 10(-4). These top CpG sites were located at 34 genes, especially PTPRN2, HES5, GATA2, PRDM7, and KCNIP1. Many ontology enrichments were highlighted, including Notch signaling pathway, Huntington disease, p53 pathway by glucose deprivation, hedgehog signaling pathway, DNA binding, and nucleic acid metabolic process. We detected 19 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), some of which were located at GRIK2, DGKA, and NIPA2. While integrating with gene expression data, HELZ2, PTPRN2, GATA2, and ZNF624 were differentially expressed. In WGCNA, one specific module was positively correlated with depression score (r = 0.62, P = 0.002). Some common genes (including BMP2, PRDM7, KCNIP1, and GRIK2) and enrichment terms (including complement and coagulation cascades pathway, DNA binding, neuron fate specification, glial cell differentiation, and thyroid gland development) were both identified in methylation analysis and WGCNA. Our study identifies specific epigenetic variations which are significantly involved in regions, functional genes, biological function, and pathways that mediate depression disorder.
  • Wang, Yingying X. G.; Matson, Kevin D.; Santini, Luca; Visconti, Piero; Hilbers, Jelle P.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Xu, Yanjie; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Allen, Toph; Huang, Zheng Y. X.; de Boer, Willem F. (2021)
    As a source of emerging infectious diseases, wildlife assemblages (and related spatial patterns) must be quantitatively assessed to help identify high-risk locations. Previous assessments have largely focussed on the distributions of individual species; however, transmission dynamics are expected to depend on assemblage composition. Moreover, disease-diversity relationships have mainly been studied in the context of species loss, but assemblage composition and disease risk (e.g. infection prevalence in wildlife assemblages) can change without extinction. Based on the predicted distributions and abundances of 4466 mammal species, we estimated global patterns of disease risk through the calculation of the community-level basic reproductive ratio R0, an index of invasion potential, persistence, and maximum prevalence of a pathogen in a wildlife assemblage. For density-dependent diseases, we found that, in addition to tropical areas which are commonly viewed as infectious disease hotspots, northern temperate latitudes included high-risk areas. We also forecasted the effects of climate change and habitat loss from 2015 to 2035. Over this period, many local assemblages showed no net loss of species richness, but the assemblage composition (i.e. the mix of species and their abundances) changed considerably. Simultaneously, most areas experienced a decreased risk of density-dependent diseases but an increased risk of frequency-dependent diseases. We further explored the factors driving these changes in disease risk. Our results suggest that biodiversity and changes therein jointly influence disease risk. Understanding these changes and their drivers and ultimately identifying emerging infectious disease hotspots can help health officials prioritize resource distribution.
  • Silva, Sofia Marques; Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre (2021)
    We assessed population structure and the spatio-temporal pattern of diversification in the Glossy Antshrike Sakesphorus luctuosus (Aves, Thamnophilidae) to understand the processes shaping the evolutionary history of Amazonian floodplains and address unresolved taxonomic controversies surrounding its species limits. By targeting ultraconserved elements (UCEs) from 32 specimens of S. luctuosus, we identified independent lineages and estimated their differentiation, divergence times, and migration rates. We also estimated current and past demographic histories for each recovered lineage. We found evidence confirming that S. luctuosus consists of a single species, comprising at least four populations, with some highly admixed individuals and overall similar levels of migration between populations. We confirmed the differentiation of the Araguaia River basin population (S. l. araguayae) and gathered circumstantial evidence indicating that the taxon S. hagmanni may represent a highly introgressed population between three distinct phylogroups of S. luctuosus. Divergences between populations occurred during the last 1.2 mya. Signs of population expansions were detected for populations attributed to subspecies S. l. luctuosus, but not for the S. l. araguayae population. Our results support that S. luctuosus has had a complex population history, resulting from a high dependence on southeastern "clear water" seasonally flooded habitats and their availability through time. Spatial and demographic expansions toward the western "white water" flooded forests might be related to recent changes in connectivity and availability of these habitats. Our study reinforces the view that isolation due to absence of suitable habitat has been an important driver of population differentiation within Amazonian flooded forests, but also that differences between varzeas ("white water" floodplains, mostly in southwestern Amazonia) and igapos ("clear water" floodplains, especially located in the east) should be further explored as drivers of micro-evolution for terrestrial species.
  • Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Korkiakoski, Mika; Korpela, Leila; Koskinen, Markku; Mäkelä, Timo; Laiho, Raija; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Leppä, Kersti; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Lohila, Annalea Katriina; Minkkinen, Kari; Mäkiranta, Päivi; Nieminen, Mika; Ojanen, Paavo; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Penttilä, Timo; Rainne, Juuso; Rautakoski, Helena; Saarinen, Markku; Salovaara, Petri; Sarkkola, Sakari; Mäkipää, Raisa (2021)
    Natural resources and bioeconomy studies
  • Soininen, Leena; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena (2021)
    This article summarizes the results of studies on the exposure of the Finnish Sami people to radioactive fallout and the estimations of the related cancer risk. We also discuss the lifestyle, genetic origin and diet of this population. The Sami people are an indigenous people who live in the northern part of Scandinavia and Finland. The review is based on the available scientific literature of Finnish Sami. The traditional Sami diet, high in animal products, persists in Sami groups still involved in reindeer-herding, but others have adopted the typical diet of western cultures. Studies have consistently shown an overall reduced cancer risk among the Finnish Sami people, except for stomach cancer among the Skolt Sami. Common cancers among the Finnish main population, such as prostate, breast and skin cancer are especially rare among the Finnish Sami. The incidence of cancer among the Finnish Sami are mostly similar to those of the Swedish and Norwegian Sami. To conclude, we observed no effect of radioactive pollution on cancer incidence. The lifestyles and environments of the Sami are changing, and their cancer mortality rate today is similar to that of the majority of the Finnish and western population.