Artikkelit: Recent submissions

Now showing items 21-40 of 41418
  • Niva, Mari; Vainio, Annukka (2021)
    This study investigated consumers' self-reported past changes and future intentions to change the consumption of beef and alternative, plant- or insect-based protein products. A survey of 18-79-year-old consumers in Finland (N = 1000) was analysed with latent class analysis, and five consumer clusters were identified. The largest cluster (37%) consumed beef, but no alternative protein products; three clusters incorporated alternative protein products in their diets in different ways (in total 55%); and one cluster did not consume beef or alternative proteins (8%). In total 27% of the respondents intended to reduce the consumption of beef in the future, whereas 26% planned to increase the consumption of plant-based and 24% planned to increase the use of insect-based protein products. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that the use of alternative proteins was associated with higher health and sustainability motives, and lower food neophobia. The results suggest that demand for new, more sustainable proteins and protein innovations will grow in the future.
  • Twort, Victoria G.; Minet, Joël; Wheat, Christopher W.; Wahlberg, Niklas (2021)
    Museomics is a valuable approach that utilizes the diverse biobanks that are natural history museums. The ability to sequence genomes from old specimens has expanded not only the variety of interesting taxa available to study but also the scope of questions that can be investigated in order to further knowledge about biodiversity. Here, we present whole genome sequencing results from the enigmatic genus Whalleyana (comprising two species - occurring in drier biomes of Madagascar - previously placed in a monotypic superfamily, Whalleyanoidea), as well as from certain species of the families Callidulidae and Hyblaeidae (Calliduloidea and Hyblaeoidea, respectively). Library preparation was carried out on four museum specimens and one existing DNA extract and sequenced with Illumina short reads. De novo assembly resulted in highly fragmented genomes with the N50 ranging from 317 to 2078 bp. Mining of a manually curated gene set of 331 genes from these draft genomes had an overall gene recovery rate of 64-90%. Phylogenetic analysis places Whalleyana as sister to Callidulidae and Hyblaea as sister to Pyraloidea. Since the former sister-group relationship turns out to be also supported by ten morphological synapomorphies, we propose to formally assign the Whalleyanidae to the superfamily Calliduloidea. These results highlight the usefulness of not only museum specimens but also existing DNA extracts, for whole genome sequencing and gene mining for phylogenomic studies.
  • Aarnio, Sonja; Soininen, Janne (2021)
    Local biodiversity has traditionally been estimated with taxonomic diversity metrics such as species richness. Recently, the concept of biodiversity has been extended beyond species identity by ecological traits determining the functional role of a species in a community. This interspecific functional diversity typically responds more strongly to local environmental variation compared with taxonomic diversity, while taxonomic diversity may mirror more strongly dispersal processes compared with functional metrics. Several trait-based indices have been developed to measure functional diversity for various organisms and habitat types, but studies of their applicability on aquatic microbial communities have been underrepresented. We examined the drivers and covariance of taxonomic and functional diversity among diatom rock pool communities on the Baltic Sea coast. We quantified three taxonomic (species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness) and three functional (functional richness, evenness, and divergence) diversity indices and determined abiotic factors best explaining variation in these indices by generalized linear mixed models. The six diversity indices were highly collinear except functional evenness, which merely correlated significantly with taxonomic evenness. All diversity indices were always explained by water conductivity and temperature-sampling month interaction. Taxonomic diversity was further consistently explained by pool distance to the sea, and functional richness and divergence by pool location. The explained variance in regression models did not markedly differ between taxonomic and functional metrics. Our findings do not clearly support the superiority of neither set of diversity indices in explaining coastal microbial diversity, but rather highlight the general overlap among the indices. However, as individual metrics may be driven by different factors, the greatest advantage in assessing biodiversity is nevertheless probably achieved with a simultaneous application of the taxonomic and functional diversity metrics.
  • Väliranta, Minna; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Juselius, Teemu (2021)
  • Tanoli, Ziaurrehman; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Aittokallio, Tero (2021)
    Introduction: Drug repurposing provides a cost-effective strategy to re-use approved drugs for new medical indications. Several machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches have been developed for systematic identification of drug repurposing leads based on big data resources, hence further accelerating and de-risking the drug development process by computational means. Areas covered: The authors focus on supervised ML and AI methods that make use of publicly available databases and information resources. While most of the example applications are in the field of anticancer drug therapies, the methods and resources reviewed are widely applicable also to other indications including COVID-19 treatment. A particular emphasis is placed on the use of comprehensive target activity profiles that enable a systematic repurposing process by extending the target profile of drugs to include potent off-targets with therapeutic potential for a new indication. Expert opinion: The scarcity of clinical patient data and the current focus on genetic aberrations as primary drug targets may limit the performance of anticancer drug repurposing approaches that rely solely on genomics-based information. Functional testing of cancer patient cells exposed to a large number of targeted therapies and their combinations provides an additional source of repurposing information for tissue-aware AI approaches.
  • Patomäki, Heikki (Institute of Social Sciences Belgrade, 2021)
    The crisis of the Left has many reasons and causes, some of which are understandable in terms of classical rhetoric: ethos, pathos and logos. Yet this crisis has real causes not reducible to language and rhetoric alone. Attempts at “modernization” of social democracy have eroded hope, while the supposed Soviet legacy has continued to haunt the more “radical” Left movements and parties. Over time, collective memory shifts and political audience changes. The two recently most-successful leftist parties have emerged from social movements: Syriza and Podemos have consciously adopted left-wing populist stances. A problem is that the story of “people versus the dominant elite” loses part of its emotional appeal if the representatives of the “people” appear to be enmeshed with “elite” practices either in one’s own country or elsewhere. The fate of Syriza reveals also how difficult it is to make even a moderate and cautious turn toward the Left, unless there is a broader European or worldwide movement behind it. It is here further argued that there is no automatic or mechanical Polanyian “double movement”. Rather, world history depends also on agency. The discrepancy between territorial states and global capital is an obstacle that can be best overcome by globalizing democratic-socialist politics. It is argued that far from being exhausted as a project or in terms of pathos, a grand task awaits the Left. Social freedom can be increased. Obstacles can be removed. Existing global political economy contradictions and global problems can be resolved by means of rational collective actions and by the building of more adequate common institutions. An experimentalist leftist vision can inspire hope and optimism about our future possibilities.
  • de Moraes, Pedro L. R.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    Cyperus megapotamicus (A. Spreng.) Kunth is a nomenclatural synonym of Rhynchospora megapotamica (A. Spreng.) H. Pfeiff. but was originally misapplied to a species of Cyperus. Contrary to the rules, both species names are in current use in different genera. We here clarify the perpetuated taxonomic and nomenclatural confusion regarding the identity of C. megapotamicus sensu Kunth and related names and conclude that Cyperus jaeggii Boeckeler is the correct name to be adopted. We provide an amended circumscription of this species, with Cyperus mauryi Kuntze and Pycreus nematodes Schrad. ex C. B. Clarke as its newly proposed heterotypic synonyms. Additionally, lectotypes are designated for the names Scirpus megapotamicus A. Spreng., Rhynchospora maculata Maury, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. elongata Kuntze, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. subcapitata Kuntze, Cyperus jaeggii, Cyperus mauryi and Pycreus nematodes.
  • Nabavi, Seyed Azad; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Aslani, Alireza; Zakeri, Behnam (2021)
    Buildings are responsible for 33% of final energy consumption, and 40% of direct and indirect CO2 emissions globally. While energy consumption is steadily rising globally, managing building energy utilization by on-site renewable energy generation can help responding to this demand. This paper proposes a deep learning method based on a discrete wavelet transformation and long short-term memory method (DWT-LSTM) and a scheduling framework for the integrated modelling and management of energy demand and supply for buildings. This method analyzes several factors including electricity price, uncertainty in climatic factors, availability of renewable energy sources (wind and solar), energy consumption patterns in buildings, and the non-linear relationships between these parameters on hourly, daily, weekly and monthly intervals. The method enables monitoring and controlling renewable energy generation, the share of energy imports from the grid, employment of saving strategy based on the user priority list, and energy storage management to minimize the reliance on the grid and electricity cost, especially during the peak hours. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can forecast building energy demand and energy supply with a high level of accuracy, showing a 3.63-8.57% error range in hourly data prediction for one month ahead. The combination of the deep learning forecasting, energy storage, and scheduling algorithm enables reducing annual energy import from the grid by 84%, which offers electricity cost savings by 87%. Finally, two smart active buildings configurations are financially analyzed for the next thirty years. Based on the results, the proposed smart building with solar Photo-Voltaic (PV), wind turbine, inverter, and 40.5 kWh energy storage has a financial breakeven point after 9 years with wind turbine and 8 years without it. This implies that implementing wind turbines in the proposed building is not financially beneficial.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Virtala, Paula; Thiede, Anja; Laasonen, Marja; Kujala, Teija (2021)
    Current views on the neural network subserving reading and its deficits in dyslexia rely largely on evidence derived from functional neuroimaging studies. However, understanding the structural organization of reading and its aberrations in dyslexia requires a hodological approach, studies of which have not provided consistent findings. Here, we adopted a whole brain hodological approach and investigated relationships between structural white matter connectivity and reading skills and phonological processing in a cross-sectional study of 44 adults using individual local connectome matrix from diffusion MRI data. Moreover, we performed quantitative anisotropy aided differential tractography to uncover structural white matter anomalies in dyslexia (23 dyslexics and 21 matched controls) and their correlation to reading-related skills. The connectometry analyses indicated that reading skills and phonological processing were both associated with corpus callosum (tapetum), forceps major and minor, as well as cerebellum bilaterally. Furthermore, the left dorsal and right thalamic pathways were associated with phonological processing. Differential tractography analyses revealed structural white matter anomalies in dyslexics in the left ventral route and bilaterally in the dorsal route compared to the controls. Connectivity deficits were also observed in the corpus callosum, forceps major, vertical occipital fasciculus and corticostriatal and thalamic pathways. Altered structural connectivity in the observed differential tractography results correlated with poor reading skills and phonological processing. Using a hodological approach, the current study provides novel evidence for the extent of the reading-related connectome and its aberrations in dyslexia. The results conform current functional neuroanatomical models of reading and developmental dyslexia but provide novel network-level and tract-level evidence on structural connectivity anomalies in dyslexia, including the vertical occipital fasciculus.
  • Yuan, Mei; Sude, Bilige; Chen, Ning; Dervin, Fred (2021)
    Using the concept and approach of superdiversity, this paper complements current studies on the internationalization of higher education by focusing on the understudied case of an ethnic-group serving institution in China. 17 international students at this superdiverse institution, where members of the 56 Chinese ‘ethnic’ Minzu groups live and study together, were interviewed about their experiences in Chinese and English. Considering the originality and complexity of this specific Chinese context, the authors chose Dialogic Discourse Analysis to analyse the data. This complex analytical method allows to identify and problematise the wayw superdiversity seems to have influenced (or not) the students’ stay in China and their engagement with Minzu. Although superdiversity is reported as a pull factor for most students, their experiences of it and encounters with members of different Minzu groups, appear to be limited. However, the students’ knowledge and awareness of this important aspect of Chinese society is compelling when the students discuss what they have learnt interculturally. They also seem to have modified many of their essentialist and culturalist representations of China. The article ends with recommendations for both scholars and Ethnic group-serving institutions in China and elsewhere, for rethinking intercultural experiences in study abroad.
  • Laukkala, Tanja; Tuisku, Katinka; Junttila, Kristiina; Haravuori, Henna; Kujala, Anne; Haapa, Toni; Jylhä, Pekka (2020)
    COVID-19-pandemiapotilaiden hoito Suomessa on painottunut Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiirin (HUS) alueelle. Kansainvälisessä kirjallisuudessa pandemiapotilaita ensilinjassa hoitavien kuormitus on korostunut muihin terveydenhuoltoalan ammattilaisiin verrattuna. Terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten työn lisäksi pandemia vaikuttaa monin tavoin myös henkilöstöalan ammattilaisten tehtäviin, koulutustarpeisiin ja henkilöstön sijoitusten suunnitteluun. Henkilöstön psykososiaaliset tukitoimet terveydenhuollossa on tärkeää rakentaa organisaation sisäisenä toimintana, jotta ne ovat sekä näyttöön perustuvia että toteuttamiskelpoisia.
  • Castin, N.; Dubinko, A.; Bonny, G.; Bakaev, A.; Likonen, J.; De Backer, A.; Sand, A.E.; Heinola, K.; Terentyev, D. (2019)
    The microstructure changes taking place in W under irradiation are governed by many factors, amongst which C impurities and their interactions with self-interstitial atoms (SIA). In this work, we specifically study this effect by conducting a dedicated 2-MeV self-ions irradiation experiment, at room temperature. Samples were irradiated up to 0.02, 0.15 and 1.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) expectedly revealed a large density of SIA loops at all these doses. Surprisingly, however, the loop number density increased in a non-monotonous manner with the received dose. Performing chemical analysis with secondary ion spectroscopy measurements (SIMS), we find that our samples were likely contaminated by C injection during the irradiation. Employing an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) model for microstructure evolution, we demonstrate that the C injection is the likely factor explaining the evolution of loops number density. Our findings highlight the importance of the well-known issue of C injection during ion irradiation experiments, and demonstrate how OKMC models can help to rationalize this effect.
  • Yu, Lei; Song, Mengya; Xia, Zhichao; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    Although extensive research has been conducted on the temporal dynamics of plant-plant interactions, little is known about the effect of phosphorus (P) availability. In this study, Abies fabri and Picea brachytyla seedlings were collected from the late-stage Hailuogou glacier retreat area and grown under different P regimes (control and P fertilization) from year 2015 to 2016 in a common garden experiment to investigate whether plant-plant interactions are modulated by P availability. We found that P fertilization affected the relative competition intensity (RCI). Under control conditions in 2015, the growth of A. fabri was facilitated by the presence of P. brachytyla. Under P fertilization, the facilitative effect was more intensive: the leaf, stem and total biomass of A. fabri significantly increased under interspecific interaction compared with intraspecific interaction, but no effect was found in P. brachytyla. RCI showed similar tendencies both in 2015 and 2016. In addition, plant-plant interactions and P fertilization caused temporal variation in C, N, P and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) contents. The growth of A. fabri greatly benefited from the presence of P. brachytyla when exposed to P fertilization and showed higher biomass, and C, N, P and NSC accumulations. Our results demonstrated interactive effects between environmental conditions (i.e. P availability) and plant-plant interactions that are closely related to resource accumulation.
  • Hallamaa, Jaana; Haikarainen, Raine; Kalliokoski, Taina (2021)
  • Lahti, Henna; Fernström, Päivi (Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura, 2021)
    Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia : Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on analysoida ja kehittää käsityönopettajan maiste-riopintoihin liittyvää Materialisointi käsityötieteessä -opintojaksoa, jossa opis-kelijat (n=22) tutustuivat uudenlaiseen tapaan syventää tieteellistä ajatteluaan materialisoinnin kautta. Ideoimme kurssille teoreettisiin ajatuskarttoihin ja vertaispalautteeseen liittyvän opetuskerran, jossa yhdistyi käsitteellisen ja ma-teriaalisen artefaktin vuoropuhelu. Videokuvatut vertaispalautteet koostuivat sekä sanallisesta että materiaalisesta osuudesta. Videoaineiston fenomeno-grafisen analyysin avulla muodostettiin käsityöpainotteisen vertaispalaut-teen neljä erilaista merkitystä: mukautuminen, muuntaminen, kokeileminen ja kartuttaminen. Tutkimuksen johtopäätöksenä todetaan, että materialisoitu vertaispalaute tuki merkittävästi opintojakson tavoitteita ja tarjoaa jatkossa opiskelijoille ja opettajille uudenlaisen pedagogisen mallin yhteisölliseen oppi-miseen ja (käsityö)tieteen materialisointiin.
  • Lehtomäki, Kaisa; Mustonen, Harri; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Joensuu, Heikki; Hermunen, Kethe; Soveri, Leena-Maija; Boisen, Mogens Karsbol; Dehlendorff, Christian; Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Haglund, Caj; Österlund, Pia (2021)
    Simple Summary Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Recurrence risk after curative intent surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy is substantial. Unlike many other cancers, curative metastasectomy is possible upon recurrence, which raises the question of personalized surveillance strategies according to individual risk factors. We studied whether elevated biomarkers, such as gold standard CEA and experimental CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40 after adjuvant therapy, are associated with disease-free and/or overall survival, and whether the diagnostic time from the elevated biomarker to the diagnosis of metastases can be prolonged by combining these biomarkers. We show that elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP are associated with impaired survival and that elevated IL-6 finds recurrences in patients with normal CEA. Lead time is shorter with CEA than with experimental biomarkers. Our findings thus may impact the follow-up strategies after curative intent treatment aiming at finding operable relapses. These biomarkers are readily available and feasible in clinical practice. In colorectal cancer (CRC), 20-50% of patients relapse after curative-intent surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. We investigated the lead times and prognostic value of post-adjuvant (8 months from randomisation to adjuvant treatment) serum CEA, CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40. We included 147 radically resected stage II-IV CRC treated with 24 weeks of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in the phase III LIPSYT-study (ISRCTN98405441). All 147 were included in lead time analysis, but 12 relapsing during adjuvant therapy were excluded from post-adjuvant analysis. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired disease-free survival (DFS) with hazard ratio (HR) 5.21 (95% confidence interval 2.32-11.69); 3.72 (1.99-6.95); 2.58 (1.18-5.61), respectively, and elevated IL-6 and CRP with impaired overall survival (OS) HR 3.06 (1.64-5.73); 3.41 (1.55-7.49), respectively. Elevated post-adjuvant IL-6 in CEA-normal patients identified a subgroup with impaired DFS. HR 3.12 (1.38-7.04) and OS, HR 3.20 (1.39-7.37). The lead times between the elevated biomarker and radiological relapse were 7.8 months for CEA and 10.0-53.1 months for CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40, and the lead time for the five combined was 27.3 months. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired DFS. The lead time was shortest for CEA.
  • Mosaic Study Investigator Grp; Vandenplas, Yvan; Dupont, Christophe; Eigenmann, Philippe; Kuitunen, Mikael; Zhao, Zheng-Yan (2021)
    Purpose: The present study assessed the role of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) in the growth of infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Methods: Non-breastfed, term infants aged 0-6 months with symptoms suggestive of CMPA were recruited from 10 pediatric centers in China. After enrollment, infants were started on AAF for two weeks, followed by an open food challenge (OFC) with cow's milk-based formula (CMF). Infants with confirmed CMPA remained on AAF until 9 months of age, in conjunction with a cow's milk protein-free complementary diet. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at enrollment and 9 months of age. Measurements were converted to weight-for-age, length-for-age, and head circumference-for-age Z scores (WAZ, LAZ, HCAZ), based on the World Health Organization growth reference. Results: Of 254 infants (median age 16.1 weeks, 50.9% male), 218 (85.8%) were diagnosed with non-IgE-mediated CMPA, 33 (13.0%) tolerated CMF, and 3 (1.2%) did not complete the OFC. The mean WAZ decreased from 0.119 to -0.029 between birth and enrollment (p=0.067), with significant catch-up growth to 0.178 at 9 months of age (p=0.012) while being fed the AAF. There were no significant changes in LAZ (0.400 vs. 0.552; p=0.214) or HCAZ (-0.356 vs. -0.284; p=0.705) from the time of enrollment to age 9 months, suggesting normal linear and head growth velocity. Conclusion: The amino acid-based study formula, in conjunction with a cow's milk protein-free complementary diet, supported normal growth till 9 months of age in a cohort of Chinese infants with challenge-confirmed non-IgE-mediated CMPA.
  • Kaesmacher, Johannes; Abdullayev, Nuran; Maamari, Basel; Dobrocky, Tomas; Vynckier, Jan; Piechowiak, Eike; Pop, Raoul; Behme, Daniel; Sporns, Peter B.; Styczen, Hanna; Virtanen, Pekka; Meyer, Lukas; Meinel, Thomas R.; Cantre, Daniel; Kabbasch, Christoph; Maus, Volker; Pekkola, Johanna; Fischer, Sebastian; Hasiu, Anca; Schwarz, Alexander; Wildgruber, Moritz; Seiffge, David J.; Langner, Soenke; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Radbruch, Alexander; Schlamann, Marc; Mihoc, Dan; Beaujeux, Remy; Strbian, Daniel; Fiehler, Jens; Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs (2021)
    Background and Purpose Data on safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are sparse. Methods INtra-arterial FIbriNolytics In ThrombectomY (INFINITY) is a retrospective multi-center observational registry of consecutive patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke treated with MT and adjunctive administration of IA fibrinolytics (alteplase [tissue plasminogen activator, tPA] or urokinase [UK]) at 10 European centers. Primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition. Secondary outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months. Results Of 5,612 patients screened, 311 (median age, 74 years; 44.1% female) received additional IA after or during MT (194 MT+IA tPA, 117 MT+IA UK). IA fibrinolytics were mostly administered for rescue of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 0-2b after MT (80.4%, 250/311). sICH occurred in 27 of 308 patients (8.8%), with an increased risk in patients with initial TICI0/1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 5.0 per TICI grade decrease) or in those with intracranial internal carotid artery occlusions (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5). In patients with attempted rescue of TICI0-2b and available angiographic follow-up, 116 of 228 patients (50.9%) showed any angiographic reperfusion improvement after IA fibrinolytics, which was associated with mRS Conclusions Administration of IA fibrinolytics as adjunct to MT is performed rarely, but can improve reperfusion, which is associated with better outcomes. Despite a selection bias, an increased risk of sICH seems possible, which underlines the importance of careful patient selection.