Helsingin yliopiston tutkijoiden julkaisemia artikkeleja.

Helsingin yliopiston tutkijat voivat rinnakkaistallentaa tutkimusjulkaisujansa HELDAan liittämällä kokotekstin julkaisuun TUHAT-tutkimustietojärjestelmässä. (Toimintaohje tutkijalle)


Nyligen publicerat

  • Kalso, Eija; Rosenberg, Per; Olkkola, Klaus (2017)
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Aaltonen, Martina; Pankka, Pekka (2017)
    We show that, if the local dimension of the image of the branch set of a discrete and open mapping f: M -> N between n-manifolds is less than (n - 2) at a point y of the image of the branch set fB(f), then the local monodromy of f at y is perfect. In particular, for generalized branched covers between n-manifolds the dimension of fB(f) is exactly (n-2) at the points of abelian local monodromy. As an application, we show that a generalized branched covering f : M -> N of local multiplicity at most three between n-manifolds is either a covering or fB(f) has local dimension (n - 2).
  • Iho, Antti; Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Heikinheimo, Outi; Kauppila, Pirkko; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa Elisabet; Laukkanen, Marita; Lindroos, Marko Jaakko; Oinonen, Soile; Ollikka, Kimmo; Parkkila, Katja Tellervo; Pavlova, Yulia; Peltonen, Heikki; Pouta, Eija; Uusitalo, Laura (2017)
  • Moula, Munjur E; Törrönen, Maritta (2016)
    This review presents the life conditions of street children in Bangladesh. These children are portrayed as displaying socially unacceptable attributes which excluded them from the mainstream of society. It is argued that the identification of street children is one of the main barriers in this regard. Meta-synthesis of qualitative approach used for the literature review. Discussions on concepts and categories of street children can give us a holistic picture about how street children are being evaluated in the existing literature. It is also argued that the new criteria to identify street children will help us to develop better understanding of the situation in relation to street children in Bangladesh. This review proposes a set of criteria, in relation to the experiences from the review of the general literature, authors fieldwork experiences, and corroborated with first author’s long term career under social work and children programming.
  • Mason, Arthur (2015)
  • Garriga, Gemma C.; Junttila, Esa; Mannila, Heikki (2010)
    A binary matrix has a banded structure if both rows and columns can be permuted so that the non-zero entries exhibit a staircase pattern of overlapping rows. The concept of banded matrices has its origins in numerical analysis, where entries can be viewed as descriptions between the problem variables; the bandedness corresponds to variables that are coupled over short distances. Banded data occurs also in other applications, for example in the physical mapping problem of the human genome, in paleontological data, in network data and in the discovery of overlapping communities without cycles. We study the banded structure of binary matrices, give a formal definition of the concept and discuss its theoretical properties. We consider the algorithmic problems of computing how far a matrix is from being banded, and of finding a good submatrix of the original data that exhibits approximate bandedness. Finally, we show by experiments on real data from ecology and other applications the usefulness of the concept. Our results reveal that bands exist in real datasets and that the final obtained orderings of rows and columns have natural interpretations.
  • Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena (2017)
    Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology.
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2017)
    Widely circulated cultural conceptions about women who have committed violence recurrently place them in positions of otherness in relation to what is considered as being normal, valuable womanhood. This article explores ways in which Finnish women imprisoned for violent crimes grapple with this troubled relation between womanhood and violence in their enactments of gendered identities. The analysis is based on a novel, discursive-affective approach to positioning that can accommodate complexity and context-specific variability in enactments of identities. Four different, recurring modes of positioning are discussed in the analysis: aligning with forcefulness, aligning with vulnerability, (dis)-aligning with demonization and aligning with motherhood. By shedding light not only on the complexity and fluidity of these gendered identity enactments but also on their affectively ambivalent dimensions, the analysis contributes to attempts at countering reductionist views about women who have committed violence and the gendered dichotomizations that they work to reproduce.
  • Prozorov, Sergei (2017)
    While Foucault’s work on biopolitics continues to inspire diverse studies in a variety of disciplines, it has largely been missing from the debates on the possibility of “affirmative biopolitics” which have been primarily influenced by the work of Agamben and Esposito. This article restores Foucault’s work to these debates, proposing that his final lecture course at the Collège de France in 1983–1984 developed a paradigm of affirmative biopolitics in the reading of the Cynic practice of truth-telling (parrhesia). The Cynic problematization of the relation between truth and life and their transvaluation of conventional truths by relocating them to the domain of bare life not only seeks to transform one’s life in accordance with the truth but also, through the confrontation with the existing conventions and norms, to transform the world as such. Cynic parrhesia is thus biopolitical, insofar as it reclaims the power of one’s life from the social order and its rationalities of government and applies it to oneself, investing one’s existence with truth. Since Foucault developed this reading of Cynicism in the context of his political engagement on behalf on East European dissidents, the article proceeds to analyse the resonances between parrhesia and Václav Havel’s idea of “living within the truth,” elaborating the biopolitical significance of both practices. We conclude by addressing the implications of our interpretation for Foucault scholarship and the wider debates on biopolitics.
  • Voutilainen, Merja H.; De Lorenzo, Francesca; Stepanova, Polina; Bäck, Susanne; Pulkkila, Päivi; Pörsti, Eeva; Saarma, Mart; Männistö, Pekka T.; Tuominen, Raimo K. (2017)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing alpha-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD. Here, we report an additive neurorestorative effect of coadministration of CDNF and GDNF in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD in rats. NTFs were given into the striatum four weeks after unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (20 mu g). Amphetamine-induced (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) rotational behavior was measured every two weeks. Number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells from SN pars compacta (SNpc) and density of TH-positive fibers in the striatum were analyzed at 12 weeks after lesion. CDNF and GDNF alone restored the DAergic function, and one specific dose combination had an additive effect: CDNF (2.5 mu g) and GDNF (1 mu g) coadministration led to a stronger trophic effect relative to either of the single treatments alone. The additive effect may indicate different mechanism of action for the NTFs. Indeed, both NTFs activated the survival promoting PI3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, but only CDNF decreased the expression level of tested endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress markers ATF6, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha).
  • Aaltonen, K. J.; Joensuu, J. T.; Pirilä, L.; Kauppi, M.; Uutela, T.; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, T.; Yli-Kerttula, T.; Isomäki, P.; Nordström, D.; Sokka, T. (2017)
    Objective: A systematic review found that an average of 27% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors discontinue their treatment within 1year. The aim of this study was to assess drug survival on TNF inhibitors among patients with RA.Methods: Patients were identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN), which is a longitudinal cohort study established to monitor the effectiveness and safety of biologic drugs in rheumatic diseases. Inclusion was limited to TNF-inhibitor treatments started as the patient's first, second, or third biologic treatment between 2004 and 2014. Follow-up was truncated at 36months. The results of a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Of the 4200 TNF-inhibitor treatment periods identified from ROB-FIN, 3443 periods from 2687 patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients discontinued their treatment within 12months. Infliximab (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) and certolizumab pegol (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) had lower drug survival compared to golimumab. A similar trend was seen with adalimumab (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.90-1.7) and etanercept (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.87-1.6). Concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) was associated with improved drug survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) in comparison with TNF-inhibitor monotherapy.Conclusions: Golimumab was better in terms of drug survival than infliximab or certolizumab pegol and at least as good as adalimumab and etanercept. Concomitant use of MTX improved drug survival on TNF inhibitors.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli Aarno Tapio; Björkman, Stefan; Oliviero, Claudio (2016)
    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of the piglets, complete expulsion of the placenta, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. Abnormal incidents during any phase of parturition can cause subsequent problems. Duration of the expulsion phase of foetuses can be used as a simple measure of whether parturition is considered successful. Prolonged parturition can impair health of the sow and piglet and fertility after weaning. New insights, such as adding more fibre to sow diets during pregnancy, and especially during the period prior to farrowing, may prevent constipation, increase water intake of the sow around parturition and increase milk intake and performance of piglets. Maternal characteristics, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production and piglet quality parameters, may be utilized to improve success rate of reproductive management during farrowing and early lactation. Additionally, we share some of the recent developments in methods, including ultrasonography in evaluation of post-partum uterine health. In conclusion, successful farrowing is of the greatest importance for reproductive health of the sow and survival of the piglets. We suggest connections exist among prolonged farrowing and yield of colostrum, retained placenta, development of PDS, and impaired involution of the uterus and reduced subsequent fertility.