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  • Voigt, H.-R. (Skärgårdsinstitutet vid Åbo Akademi, 2001)
  • Lodenius, M.; Seppänen, A.; Herranen, M. (D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1983)
  • Alcamo, J.; Amann, M; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Holmberg, M.; Hordijk, L.; Kämäri, J.; Kauppi, L.; Kauppi, P.; Kornai, G.; Mäkelä, A. (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1987)
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Kämäri, J.; Posch, M.; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E. (Elsevier, 1986)
  • Alcamo, J.; Kauppi, P.E.; Posch, M.; Runca, E. (IIASA, 1984)
  • Donner, K.; Djupsund, K.; Reuter, T.; Väisänen, I. (Elsevier, 1991)
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Hari, P.; Kellomäki, S. (Blackwell, 1978)
  • Candolin, Ulrika; Reynolds, John D. (Royal Society of London, 2002)
    Game theory models of sperm competition predict that within species, males should increase their sperm expenditure when they have one competitor, but decrease expenditure with increasing numbers of competitors. So far, there have been few tests or support for this prediction. Here, we show that males of a freshwater sh, the European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus, do indeed adjust their ejaculation rate to the number of male competitors by rst increasing and then decreasing their ejaculation rates as the number of competitors increases. However, this occurred only under restricted conditions. Speci cally, the prediction was upheld as long as no female had deposited eggs in the live mussels that are used as spawning sites. After one or more females had spawned, males did not decrease their ejaculation rates with the number of competitors, but instead they became more aggressive. This indicates that decreased ejaculation rate and increased aggression are alternative responses to increased risk of sperm competition.
  • Myneni, R. B.; Dong, J.; Tucker, C. J.; Kaufmann, R. K.; Kauppi, P. E.; Zhou, L.; Liski, J.; Alexeyev, V.; Hughes, M. K. (National Academy of Sciences, 2001)
    The terrestrial carbon sink, as of yet unidentified, represents 15–30% of annual global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels and industrial activities. Some of the missing carbon is sequestered in vegetation biomass and, under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, industrialized nations can use certain forest biomass sinks to meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitments. Therefore, we analyzed 19 years of data from remote-sensing spacecraft and forest inventories to identify the size and location of such sinks. The results, which cover the years 1981–1999, reveal a picture of biomass carbon gains in Eurasian boreal and North American temperate forests and losses in some Canadian boreal forests. For the 1.42 billion hectares of Northern forests, roughly above the 30th parallel, we estimate the biomass sink to be 0.68 ± 0.34 billion tons carbon per year, of which nearly 70% is in Eurasia, in proportion to its forest area and in disproportion to its biomass carbon pool. The relatively high spatial resolution of these estimates permits direct validation with ground data and contributes to a monitoring program of forest biomass sinks under the Kyoto protocol.
  • Kauppi, P.E.; Selkäinaho, J.; Puttonen, P. (Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board, 1983)
  • Khriachtchev, Leonid; Lundell, Jan; Pettersson, Mika; Tanskanen, Hanna; Räsänen, Markku (American Institute of Physics, 2002)
  • Fischer, Johannes; Mäkinen, Veli; Navarro, Gonzalo (Springer-Verlag, 2008)
    Suffix trees are one of the most important data structures in stringology, with myriads of applications in fluorishing areas like bioinformatics. As their main problem is space usage, recent efforts have focused on compressed suffix tree representations, which obtain large space reductions in exchange for moderate slowdowns. Such a smaller suffix tree could fit in a faster memory, outweighting by far the theoretical slowdown. We present a novel compressed suffix tree. Compared to the current compressed suffix trees, it is the first achieving at the same time sublogarithmic complexity for the operations, and space usage which goes to zero as the entropy of the text does. Our development contains several novel ideas, such as compressing the longest common prefix information, and totally getting rid of the suffix tree topology, expressing all the suffix tree operations using range minimum queries and a new primitive called next/previous smaller value in a sequence.
  • Li, Rui; Xie, Jinglin; Kantor, Carmela; Koistinen, Vesa; Altieri, Dario C.; Nortamo, Pekka; Gahmberg, Carl G. (Rockefeller University Press, 1995)
    β2 integrin (CDlla,b,c/CD18)-mediated cell adhesion is required for many leukocyte functions. Under normal circumstances, the integrins are nonadhesive, and become adhesive for their cell surface ligands, the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), or soluble ligands such as fibrinogen and iC3b, when leukocytes are activated. Recently, we defined a peptide derived from ICAM-2, which specifically binds to purified CDlla/CD18. Furthermore, this peptide strongly induces T cell aggregation mainly mediated by CDlla/CD18-ICAM-1 interaction, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that the same ICAM-2 peptide also avidly binds to purified CDllb/CD18, but not to CDllc/CD18. This binding can be blocked by the CD1 lb antibody OKM10. The peptide strongly stimulates CDllb/CD18-ICAM-l-mediated cell aggregations of the monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937. The aggregations are energy and divalent cation-dependent. The ICAM-2 peptide also induces CDllb/CD18 and CDllc/CD18-mediated binding of THP-1 cells to fibrinogen and iC3b coated on plastic. These findings indicate that in addition to induction of CDlla/CD18- mediated cell adhesion, the ICAM-2 peptide may also serve as a "trigger" for high avidity ligand binding of other β2 integrins.
  • Kikuchi, R. (Elsevier Science B.V., 1999)
    The rapid increase in population and economic growth have led to an increase in energy demand. Coal reserves are distributed worldwide, and coal is now known to be the most stable and available energy source. However, utilization of coal as an energy source involves the generation of a great amount of coal ash, and the recycling rate of the ash is rather low. Coal ash is mainly used in civil construction materials, and there is a limit to the demand for coal ash by construction industries: therefore, the increasing amount of coal ash will be a serious problem in the near future. Different applications should be considered. In this paper, three environmentally-friendly methods for coal ash recycling are described. Firstly, alkali treatment can transform coal ash to zeolite, which is used in deodorant and for wastewater treatment and soil improvement. Secondly, potassium silicate fertilizer is produced from coal ash and has a higher retentivity in the soil than that of conventional fertilizers. Thirdly, emission of sulfur dioxide is controlled by flue gas desulfurization using coal ash. It is considered that environmentally-friendly use of coal ash is important from the viewpoints of energy, economy, and environmental strategy in order to realize the concept of sustainable development.
  • Mukherjee, A.B.; Bhattacharya, P. (NRC Research Press, 2001)
  • Voigt, H.-R. (Yhtyneet Kuvalehdet, 1976)
  • Polishchuk, Valentin; Suomela, Jukka (Elsevier, 2009)
    We present a local algorithm (constant-time distributed algorithm) for finding a 3-approximate vertex cover in bounded-degree graphs. The algorithm is deterministic, and no auxiliary information besides port numbering is required.