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  • Alaranta, A.; Alaranta, H.; Heliövaara, M.; Alha, P.; Palmu, P.; Helenius, I. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005)
    Introduction: Only a few studies have examined the occurrence of atopy and clinically apparent allergic disease and their pharmacological management in elite athletes. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication within the subgroups of elite athletes as compared with a representative sample of young adults of the same age. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002. All the athletes (N = 494) financially supported by the National Olympic Committee comprised the study group. Of them, 446 (90.3%) filled in a structured questionnaire concerning asthma and allergies, the use of medication, characteristics of sport activities, and smoking habits. A representative sample of Finnish young adults (N = 1504) served as controls. Results: The endurance athletes reported physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis more often (36.1%) than other athletes (23.4%) or control subjects (20.2%). The use of antiallergic medication was reported by 33.3, 15.7, and 15.6% of those, respectively. Among both athletes and controls, females reported the use of antiallergic medication more often than males. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis had used antiallergic medication during the past year. After adjusting for age and sex, OR (95% CI) for allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication were 2.24 (1.48-3.39) and 2.79 (1.82-4.28), respectively, in endurance athletes as compared with the controls. Conclusions: Endurance athletes have physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, and they use antiallergic medication more often than athletes in other events or control subjects. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis take antiallergic medication. More attention needs to be paid to the optimal management of allergic rhinitis, especially in highly trained endurance athletes.
  • Väänänen, Minna; Airaksinen, Marja (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
    Viime aikoina on käyty runsaasti keskustelua Suomen apteekkijärjestelmää koskevista uudistusehdotuksista, kuten itsehoitolaakkeiden siirtämisestä paivittaistavarakauppoihin ja apteekkimaksun poistosta. Toteutuessaan uudistukset johtaisivat suuriin periaatteellisiin muutoksiin apteekkien toiminnan lähtökohdissa ja vaarantaisivat ammatillisuuden apteekkipalveluissa. Euroopan Unionin sisällä ei ole yhtenevaa käytäntöä apteekkien toiminnan saantelyssä. Osaksi tästä johtuen apteekkitoiminta on erilaista eri jäsenmaissa. Espanjassa, kuten suurimmassa osassa muitakin Euroopan maita, lääkkeitä saa myydä ainoastaan apteekeista. Espanjalaiset apteekit eivät kuitenkaan ole samassa määrin sitoutuneet terveyspoliittisiin tavoitteisiin kuin suomalaiset apteekit. Tämä johtunee osin siitä, että apteekkeja on Espanjassa tiheämmässä kuin Suomessa, ja niiden perustaminen poikkeaa Suomen apteekkilupamenettelysta. Tämän katsauksen tavoitteena on kuvata espanjalaista apteekkitoimintaa ja verrata sitä Suomen apteekkien tämänhetkisiin toimintaperiaatteisiin. Espanjassa asuu talvikaudet vakituisesti kymmeniä tuhansia suomalaisia, joilla on kokemuksia seka Suomen että Espanjan apteekkipalveluista. Aineistona tässä katsauksessa on käytetty Espanjassa asuville suomalaisille vuonna 2002 tehtyä kyselytutkimusta (n=533), jossa selvitettiin vastaajien lääkkeiden käyttöä, terveydentilaa sekä kokemuksia paikallisista apteekeista. Lisäksi on hyödynnetty omakohtaisia kokemuksia espanjalaisessa apteekissa työskentelystä. Espanjalaisissa apteekeissa reseptilaakkeiden ja itsehoitolaakkeiden valinen raja on häilyvä, sillä suuressa osassa apteekeista reseptilaakkeiden myyminen itsehoitolääkkeiden tapaan on yleinen käytäntö. Osasyynä tähän on apteekkien välinen kova kilpailu. Kilpailusta johtuen osa apteekeista on menettämässä statuksensa ammattitaitoisina, luotettavina ja puolueettomina lääkejakelijoina. Vaikka apteekkien toimintaperiaatteet eroavat Suomessa ja Espanjassa, koskettavat Euroopan Unionin yhteiset lääkepoliittiset tavoitteet molempia maita. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi tulisi kunkin jäsenmaan selvittää lääkehuollon tämänhetkinen tilanne ja ongelmakohdat niin, että kaikille Euroopan Unionin jasenvaltioiden asukkaille voitaisiin tarjota turvallinen, tehokas ja korkeatasoinen Iaakejakelu siihen liittyvine ammatillisine palveluineen.
  • Airaksinen, Marja; Puumalainen, Inka (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
    Väestön terveydenhoidon kokonaisuudessa itsehoidolla ja itselaakinnalla on oma keskeinen merkityksensä. Väestö hoitaa suurimman osan kokemistaan oireista itse ilman yhteydenottoa terveydenhuollon ammattilaisiin. Kuitenkin itsehoito on jäänyt huomiotta keskustelussa suomalaisen terveydenhuollon kehittämisestä ja olemassa olevien resurssien tarkoituksenmukaisesta jakamisesta. Jos itsehoidon merkitystä halutaan lisätä hoitomuotona, apteekit ovat avainasemassa itsehoidon ohjaamisessa: oireiden arvioinnissa, Iaakkeettöman tai Iaakkeellisen hoidon valinnassa tai henkilön ohjaamisessa lääkäriin. Tämän katsauksen tavoitteena on tarkastella suomalaisten apteekkien mahdollisuuksia ja edellytyksiä toimia rationaalisen itselaakinnan ohjaajina. Katsaus tarkastelee asiaa lääkepoliittisten linjausten, lainsäädännön ja ammattieettisten ohjeiden seka nykykaytannöista olevan tutkimustiedon valossa.
  • Alaranta, A.; Alaranta, H.; Palmu, P.; Pietilä, K.; Heliövaara, M.; Helenius, I. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004)
    Introduction: Occurrence of asthma has been reported to be frequent in endurance athletes and especially high in winter sport athletes. Recently, the International Olympic Committee has restricted the use of inhaled [beta]2-agonists and requires documentation for their use. However, epidemiologic data comparing the use of antiasthmatic medication in different sport events are mostly missing. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out in 2002. All the athletes (N = 494) financially supported by National Olympic Committee comprised the study group. Of them, 446 (90.3%) filled in a structured questionnaire concerning asthma and allergies, use of medication, characteristics of sport activities, and smoking habits. A representative sample of Finnish young adults (N = 1 504) served as controls. Results: Physician-diagnosed asthma was more common in athletes as compared with controls (13.9% vs 8.4%). Use of any asthma medication was reported by 9.6% of the athletes and by 4.2% of the controls. No difference was observed in the frequency of asthma medication used by winter or summer sport athletes (10.0% vs 9.4%). Inhaled [beta]2-agonists were used by 7.4% and 3.0% of the athletes and controls, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for use of any asthma medication was 0.69 (0.17-2.92) for motor skills demanding events, 1.87 (0.85-4.11) for speed and power sports, 3.00 (1.68-5.37) for team sports, and 4.16 (2.22-7.78) for endurance events as compared with controls. None of the athletes used antiasthmatic medication without physician diagnosis. Conclusions: The frequency of antiasthmatic medication is clearly lower than the occurrence of physician-diagnosed asthma in Finnish Olympic athletes. No evidence of overuse of inhaled [beta]2-agonists is found.
  • Kansanaho, H; Pietilä, K; Airaksinen, Marja (Pharmaceutical Press, 2003)
    Objective To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of a long-term continuing education (CE) course on their patient counselling skills. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the course participants (n = 17) during the last module of the CE course. Data were analysed using computer software for qualitative analysis. Key findings The focus groups revealed eight preliminary categories that were further categorised into four themes related to the learning process in patient counselling skills. The first theme related to achieving the learning objectives. The second related to personal development, understanding principles of two-way communication, and problems in their implementation in practice. The third theme related to actions taken by the participants in their work place, and the fourth involved the potential conflict between the new skills gained and the traditional communication culture in the participant's pharmacy. Conclusion The CE course provided the community pharmacists with new skills and knowledge in patient counselling and collective in-house training. The findings show that the greatest challenge is to change the communication culture of the pharmacy. To achieve this, it may be necessary for more than one pharmacist from the same pharmacy to participate in the training process at the same time.
  • Airaksinen, Marja (International pharmaceutical student's federation, 2005)
  • Hemilä Harri (2009)
    Since 1971, 21 placebo-controlled studies have been made to establish whether vitamin C at a dosage of ≥1 g/day affects the common cold. These studies have not found any consistent evidence that vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of the common cold in the general population. Nevertheless, in each of the 21 studies, vitamin C reduced the duration of episodes and the severity of the symptoms of the common cold by an average of 23%. However, there have been large variations in the benefits observed, and clinical significance cannot be clearly inferred from the results. Still, the consistency of the results indicates that the role of vitamin C in the treatment of the common cold should be reconsidered.
  • Airaksinen, Marja (International pharmaceutical student's federation, 2005)
  • Strandin Tomas; Hepojoki Jussi; Wang Hao; Vaheri Antti; Lankinen Hilkka (2008)
    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the apathogenic Tula hantavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 epithelial cells. To assess the molecular mechanisms behind the induced apoptosis we studied the effects of hantavirus infection on cellular signaling pathways which promote cell survival. We previously also observed that the Tula virus-induced cell death process is augmented by external TNF-a ... [More]
  • Pörhölä, Oili; Kuosa, Tiina; Airaksinen, Marja; Varunki, Maaret (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
  • Airaksinen, Marja; Schaafsma, Evelyn (International pharmaceutical student's federation, 2005)
  • Louhiala, Pekka; Puustinen, Raimo; Hemilä, Harri (2013)