Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto - Evira


Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Eviran toiminnan päämääränä on varmistaa elintarvikkeiden turvallisuus, edistää eläinten terveyttä ja hyvinvointia, huolehtia kasvin- ja eläintuotannon edellytyksistä sekä kasvinterveydestä. Eviran tieteellinen tutkimus on keskittynyt elintarviketurvallisuuteen sekä eläinten terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin. Tieteellinen tutkimus ja riskinarviointi luo perustaa valvonnan oikealle kohdentamiselle ja riskinhallinnalle.

Målet med Livsmedelssäkerhetsverket Eviras verksamhet är att säkerställa att livsmedlen är säkra, främja djurens hälsa och välfärd, och sörja för förutsättningarna för växt- och djurproduktion och växtsundhet. Eviras vetenskapliga forskning har koncentrerat sig på livsmedelssäkerheten och djurens hälsa och välfärd. Den vetenskapliga forskningen och riskvärderingen bildar grunden för en rätt inriktad tillsyn och riskhantering.

The role of Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira is to ensure food safety, promote the health and welfare of animals, to be responsible for the requirements for plant and animal production and for plant health. Evira’s scientific research is concentrated on food safety and animal health and welfare. Scientific research and risk assessment creates the foundation for the correct targeting of supervision and for risk management.


Recent Submissions

  • Koski, P.; Anttila, P.; Kuusela, J. (2016)
    Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris By heat and chemical disinfection
  • Holopainen, R.; Subramaniam, K.; Steckler, N.K.; Claytor, S.C.; Ariel, E.; Waltzek, T.B. (2016)
    Genome Announcements 2016: Vol. 4, No. 6
  • Eriksson-Kallio, A.M.; Viljamaa-Dirks, S.; Vennerström, P.; Kuukka-Anttila, H.; Koski, P.; Holopainen, R.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS 2016: Vol. 118, pp. 21 - 30
  • Biström, M.; Moisander-Jylhä, A.; Heinikainen, S.; Pelkola, K.; Raunio-Saarnisto, M. (2016)
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2016: Vol. 58, No. 1
  • Nokireki, T.; Nevalainen, M.; Sihvonen, L.; Gadd, T. (2016)
    Background Oral rabies vaccination of wildlife has effectively reduced the incidence of rabies in wildlife and has led to the elimination of rabies in large areas of Europe. The safety of oral rabies vaccines has been assessed in both target (red fox and raccoon dog) and several non-target species. Case presentation Since 2011, the competent authority in Finland has received a few reports of dogs experiencing adverse reactions that have been assumed to be caused by the consumption of baits containing oral rabies vaccine. The dogs usually exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, inappetence, constipation or diarrhoea) or behavioral symptoms (restlessness, listlessness and unwillingness to continue hunting). Conclusions Nevertheless, these adverse reactions are transient and non-life threatening. Even though the adverse reactions are unpleasant to individual dogs and their owners, the benefits of oral rabies vaccination clearly outweigh the risks.
  • Oksanen, A.; Siles-Lucas, M.; Karamon, J.; Possenti, A.; Conraths, F.J.; Romig, T.; Wysocki, P.; Mannocci, A.; Mipatrini, D.; La Torre, G.; Boufana, B.; Casulli, A. (2016)
    Background This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Methods Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Results Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to < 10 %; Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the Ukraine); and high (> 10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Conclusions Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life-cycle of the parasite in Europe, although dogs could be important for parasite introduction into non-endemic areas. Muskrats and arvicolids are important IHs. Swine, insectivores, murids and nutrias seem to play a minor or no role in the life-cycle of the parasite within the EU and ACs.
  • Viljamaa-Dirks, Satu (Evira, 2016)
    Evira Research Report 3/2016
    Crayfish plague is a severe disease of European crayfish species and has rendered the indigenous crayfish populations vulnerable, endangered or even extinct in the most of Europe. Crayfish plague is caused by an oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, a fungal-like water mould that lives its vegetative life in the cuticle of crayfish and infects other crayfish by producing zoospores. Zoospores swim around for a few days in search of crayfish, and when they find one they attach onto its surface, encyst and germinate to start a new growth cycle as new growing hyphae penetrate the crayfish tissues. Unrestricted growth of A. astaci leads to the death of the infected animal in just a few weeks. Crayfish plague induced mortalities started in Italy around 1860. Although the disease was known about since 1860 its cause remained unknown for several decades. Little was done to prevent the spread of the disease. A lively crayfish trade probably facilitated the spread of the crayfish plague, which reached Finland in 1893. The crayfish plague has remained the most important disease problem of the Finnish noble crayfish Astacus astacus, since then. The consensus was that the disease killed all infected animals in a short time, and it appeared almost impossible to restore the flourishing crayfish populations to the levels that existed before. Following the example of neighbouring Sweden, a North American crayfish species, the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that appeared resistant to crayfish plague was introduced to Finland in 1960s. As expected, the signal crayfish slowly started to replace the lost populations of the noble crayfish to become an important part of the crayfish fisheries. The introduction of the signal crayfish significantly added to the management problems of the noble crayfish stocks left. Signal crayfish appeared to be a chronic carrier of the crayfish plague agent, and spread the disease to the dwindling vulnerable noble crayfish populations. Later research showed that the crayfish plague agent is a parasite of North American crayfish that in normal circumstances does not harm the host animal. Intriguingly, the crayfish plague agent carried by the signal crayfish, genotype Ps1, is different from the pathogen originally introduced into Europe, genotype As. The diagnosis of crayfish plague especially when based on the isolation of the pathogen is challenging and accordingly the genotype difference was mostly unrecognized until recently. In this study we determined the genotype of the causative agent from most of the detected Finnish crayfish plague cases between 1996 - 2006. It appeared that most of the epidemics in the immediate vicinity of signal crayfish populations were caused by genotype Ps1, whereas genotype As was more prevalent in the noble crayfish areas. Interestingly, a difference was seen in the outcome of the infection. The Ps1 infection was always associated with acute mortalities, while As infections were also frequently found in existing but weak populations. The persistent nature of an As infection could be verified in noble crayfish from a small lake in southern Finland. This finding explained why many of the efforts to introduce a new noble crayfish population into a water body after a crayfish plague induced mortality were futile. The main conclusion from the field study data of this research was the difference in virulence between the Ps1 and As genotype strains. This was also verified in a challenge trial with noble crayfish. While the Ps1 strains did not show much variation in their growth behaviour or virulence, there was much more variation in the As strains. The As genotype arrived in Finland more than 100 years ago, and since that date it seems to have adapted to the novel host, the noble crayfish, to some extent. In order to gain insight into a possible vector of this genotype, we studied another North American crayfish species present in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus from a Czech pond. This crayfish species appeared to carry a novel genotype of A. astaci, named Orconectes genotype, designated “Or”. It seems possible that many of the North American crayfish species carry their own type of crayfish plague agent, with variable features such as virulence. These differences should be further tested in the future. The results of this study alleviate the necessity to study the noble crayfish mortalities for the verification of crayfish plague, including the study for the genotype of the A. astaci strain. Crayfish fisheries and conservation management decisions should not be made without a prior control of the donating population and the receiving water body for the eventual presence of a low-virulent A. astaci.
  • Hannunen, Salla; Marinova-Todorova, Mariela (Evira, 2016)
    Evira Research Reports 1/2016
    Dutch elm disease (DED) is a fungal disease that causes high mortality of elms. DED and its vector beetles are widely present in most of the countries in the Northern Hemisphere, but they are not known to be present in Finland. DED is a major risk to plant health in Finland. DED and its vectors are moderately likely to enter Finland by natural spread aided by hitchhiking, because they are present in areas close to Finland. Entry via other pathways is much less likely, mainly due to the low volume of trade of untreated wood and plants for planting. DED and its vectors could likely establish in the southern parts of the country, since they currently occur in similar climatic conditions in other countries. DED could cause massive environmental damage as natural elm groves are critically endangered habitats in Finland. The economic consequences to the owners of mature elms could also be significant. Eradication or containment of DED could be possible if strict measures were taken as the patchy distribution of elms would limit the spread of the disease. The most important source of uncertainty in this assessment is the lack of information regarding the amount of elm in fuel wood, wood waste and wood chips imported to Finland.
  • González, Manuel; Mikkelä, Antti; Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Llarena, Ann-Katrin (Evira, 2016)
    Evira’s Research Reports 2/2016
    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common causes of gastrointestinal diseases in EU countries. Between four and five thousand human campylobacteriosis cases are registered each year in Finland, of which the majority are most probably acquired from abroad. The prevalence and concentration of campylobacters in foods are influenced by the whole production chain. Based on retail samples, the average annual prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 5.5–11.7% (95% CI) in Finnish chicken meat and 1.8–5.9% (95% CI) in turkey meat. No Campylobacter spp. were detected from either domestic beef or pork, and their prevalence was estimated to be 0.0–1.2% (95% CI). The mean concentration of Campylobacter spp. in contaminated poultry meat was estimated to be low, and the probability of illness per one serving was thus also relatively small. Even so, the assessment implies that thousands of human cases can occur due to meat consumption annually in Finland, with the biggest proportion related to chicken meat. However, the predicted number of cases is affected by many factors with uncertainty, such as the level of cross-contamination, size of serving and total consumption. For a general overview, other campylobacters sources should also be identified and their impact on campylobacteriosis quantified.
  • Taponen, Suvi; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Pitkälä, Anna; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bovine mastitis causing bacteria in many countries. It is known that resistance for antimicrobials is in general more common in CoNS than in Staphylococcus aureus but little is known about the antimicrobial resistance of specific CoNS species. In this study, 400 CoNS isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples were identified to species level using ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a commercially available microdilution system. The results were interpreted according to the epidemiological cut-off values by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. Results: The most common CoNS species were S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. Penicillin resistance was the most common type of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant among the four major species. Almost one-third of our S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to >2 antimicrobials and close to 7 % were multidrug resistant. The majority of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin. On the contrary, only few S. simulans isolates were penicillin-resistant. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was found in all four main species, and 34 % of the isolates were oxacillin resistant. However, only 21 isolates (5 %) were positive for the mecA gene. Of these, 20 were S. epidermidis and one S. sciuri. mecC positive isolates were not found. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis differed from the three other major CoNS species as resistance to the tested antimicrobials was common, several isolates were multidrug resistant, and 19 % of the isolates carried the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance.
  • Holma-Suutari, A.; Ruokojärvi, P.; Komarov, A.A.; Makarov, D.A.; Ovcharenko, V.V.; Panin, A.N.; Kiviranta, H.; Laaksonen, S.; Nieminen, M.; Viluksela, M.; Hallikainen, A. (Springer, 2016)
    Background: The Finnish and Russian animal species (semi-domesticated reindeer, Finnish wild moose, Baltic grey seal and Baltic herring) samples were biomonitored in terrestrial and aquatic environments for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Results: Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was clearly the most contaminated species. The mean PBDE concentration in grey seal was 115 ng/g fat, and the highest WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ (toxic equivalent set by WHO) was 327 pg/g fat. In Finnish, reindeer WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ varied from 0.92 pg/g fat in muscle to 90.8 pg/g fat in liver. WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ in moose liver samples was in the range of 0.7–4.26 pg/g fat, and WHO-PCB-TEQ in the range of 0.42–3.34 pg/g fat. Overall moose had clearly lower PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in their liver than reindeer. Conclusions: Terrestrial animals generally had low POP concentrations, but in reindeer liver dioxin levels were quite high. All Finnish and Russian reindeer liver.
  • Stjerna, Reetta; Sahlström, Leena; Lyytikäinen, Tapani (Evira, 2015)
    Riskiprofiilissa on tarkasteltu luokan 2 sivutuotteiden maahantuonnin aiheuttumaa nautoihin, sikoihin, lampaisiin, vuohiin ja vesiviljelylaitoksiin kohdistuvaa terveysvaaraa. Sivutuotteet saattavat sisältää tuotantoeläimille vaarallisia taudinaiheuttajia riippuen niiden alkuperästä. Tämän takia ne on käsiteltävä siten, ettei niiden käytöstä aiheudu vaaraa. Suomeen tuodaan luokan 2 sivutuotteita pääasiassa turkiseläinten rehuntuotannon raaka-aineeksi sekä lannoitevalmisteiksi. Vuonna 2013 luokan 2 sivutuotteita tuotiin Suomeen noin 4,6 miljoonaa kg. Todennäköisyys taudinaiheuttajien maahantuloon on suurin kesällä ja alkusyksystä, jolloin turkiseläinten rehuntarve ja siten myös raaka-aineiden tuonti on suurimmillaan. Raportissa selvitetään sivutuotteiden maahantuloa ja käyttöä Suomessa. Sivutuotteessa voi esiintyä taudinaiheuttajia, jos käsittelyprosessissa on puutteita, käsittely epäonnistuu tai sivutuote kontaminoituu käsittelyn jälkeen. Käsittelemättömiä luokan 2 sivutuotteita ei ole tuotu Suomeen selvityksen aikana. Ulkomailla tehdystä käsittelystä ei ole tarkempaa tietoa saatavilla. Suomalaisissa käsittelylaitoksissa on ilmennyt puutteita. Suoraa kontaktia sivutuotteesta tuotantoeläimiin saattaa selkeimmin syntyä sekatiloilla, joilla on sekä turkis- että tuotantoeläimiä. Sekatiloja on Suomessa kuitenkin hyvin vähän (30 kpl). Muussa tapauksessa tartunta voi tapahtua epäsuoran kontaktin kautta, pääasiassa vektorien, fomiittien, valumien tai tuulen välityksellä.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Niemi, Jarkko K.; Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Rintakoski, Simo; Kyyrö, Jonna; Sinisalo, Alina; Lehtonen, Heikki (Evira, 2015)
    The structure of Finnish agricultural production has changed rapidly resulting in an increase in the average farm size and a reduction in the number of farms. Three animal diseases were used to illustrate the impacts of changing production structures and their consequences on the spread and control of disease: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), African Swine Fever (ASF) and Bluetongue (BT). The aim of this study was to assess how changes in the structure of animal production impact on animal disease risks and the economic consequences of diseases. The spread of diseases was simulated according to three predicted future production structure scenarios for 2033 and compared with reference simulations applying the production structure of the year 2009. FMD had the highest spread potential as the probability of spread and magnitude of an epidemic outbreak were the largest. ASF and BT had clearly lower spread potential and also structural change will affect them less. Spread potential is strongly dependent on how logistics will develop in relation with farm size increase. Economic losses due to FMD were similar in 2009 and 2033 simulations. Losses caused by ASF were smaller than those by FMD. In both cases distortions in the food exports were the main source of losses. Losses associated with BT were estimated to be smaller in the future.
  • Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Niittynen, Marjo; Turunen, Anu; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Kiviranta, Hannu; Harjunpää, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Rokka, Mervi; Ritvanen, Tiina; Hallikainen, Anja (Evira, 2015)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää, onko silakansyönnistä enemmän terveyshyötyä kuin -haittaa Suomessa ja millainen tilanne on eri ikäryhmissä. Aiemmat hyöty-riskiarviot ovat osoittaneet, että kalansyönti on yleensä terveellisempää kuin sen syömättä jättäminen. Tämä johtuu erityisesti kalan terveellisistä omega-3-rasvahapoista. Kuitenkin iso osa hyödyistä tulee aikuisille, joilla on suurentunut sydäntautiriski, ja osa mahdollisista haitoista tulee lapsille hammasvaurioiden ja muiden kehityshäiriöiden riskinä. Eviran toimeksiantona, yhteistyössä THL:n kanssa on vuoden 2014 aikana tehty hyöty-haitta-analyysi, jossa on tarkasteltu nimenomaan eri ikäryhmiä erikseen nykyisen kalankäytön mukaan. Tulokset perustuvat Taloustutkimuksen tekemän kyselyn aineistoon vuodelta 2013, jonka pohjalta on tehty varsinainen terveysvaikutusten tarkastelu. Tulokset ilmaistiin käyttäen haittapainotettuja elinvuosia (Disability Adjusted Life Year DALY) eli yksi DALY vastaa yhtä menetettyä tervettä elinvuotta. Hyödyllisistä ravintoaineista raportissa tarkasteltiin omega-3-rasvahappoja, eikosapentaeenihappoa (EPA) ja dokosaheksaeenihappoa (DHA) sekä D-vitamiinia. Silakassa esiintyvistä terveydelle haitallisista ympäristömyrkyistä tarkasteltiin dioksiineihin luettavia yhdisteitä, joihin kuuluvat polyklooratut dibentso-p-dioksiinit ja polyklooratut furaanit sekä dioksiininkaltaiset polyklooratut bifenyylit (PCB:t). Tulosten mukaan silakansyönti aiheuttaa Suomessa noin 11 (95 % luottamusväli LV 0 – 54) DALY kehityshäiriöistä (hammasvaurio) johtuvaa haittapainotettua elinvuotta (DALY), jotka kaikki kohdistuvat lapsiin äidin välityksellä raskausajan ja imetyksen kautta. Lisäksi silakansyönti aiheuttaa noin 12 (95 % LV 1.7 – 56) DALY dioksiinien aiheuttaman syöpäriskin kautta koko väestössä. Yli 50-vuotiailla naisilla ja varsinkin miehillä silakansyönnin terveyshyödyt ovat selkeästi suuremmat kuin terveyshaitat. Suurimmat terveyshyödyt saadaan sydäntautia ja sydänkuolleisuutta vähentävästä vaikutuksesta, noin -688 (95 % LV -2126 – -41) DALY/vuosi. Tulosten mukaan silakan syönti on vähentynyt väestössä niin paljon, että nykyiset suomalaiset kalan yleiset syöntisuositukset ovat riittävät suojaamaan väestöä dioksiinien ja dioksiinien kaltaisten yhdisteiden aiheuttamilta terveyshaitoilta. Hyöty-haitta-analyysissä tulisi kuitenkin tulevaisuudessa arvioida myös muiden rasvaisten kalojen keräämien ympäristömyrkkyjen kumulatiivisia terveysvaikutuksia ja yleisten syöntisuositusten riittävyyttä.
  • Hannunen, Salla; Parkkima, Tiina; Vuorinen, Katariina; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Koikkalainen, Kauko (Evira, 2014)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 1/2014
    Selvityksessä koottiin yhteen eri kasvilajeihin ja tuotannonaloihin liittyvien kasvinterveysriskien arvioinnissa tarvittavaa tietoa a) kasvintuhoojien leviämisväylien volyymistä ja b) eri tuotannonaloilla uhattuna olevan tuotannon arvosta. Selvityksessä katettiin mahdollisimman laajasti kaikki tavara, jonka mukana kasvintuhoojat voivat levitä Suomeen. Lisäksi selvitettiin Suomeen suuntautuvan liikenteen määrät. Suomeen tuotavan tavaran määriä arvioitiin pääasiassa virallisista tilastoista saatujen tietojen avulla. Tuotannon arvoa kuvattiin tuotannon määrän ja tuottajahinnan tulolla. Selvityksessä katettuja tuotteita hankittiin ulkomailta vuosittain yhteensä noin 12 miljardia kg, mistä noin 92 % oli puutavaraa, 7 % elintarvikkeita tai elintarviketeollisuuden raaka-aineita ja 0,2 % lisäysaineistoa. Lisäysaineistoa arvioitiin hankittavan ulkomailta vuosittain noin 2 900 miljardia kappaletta, josta noin 99,7 % oli peltokasvien siemeniä. Selvityksessä arvioitiin yhteensä noin 130 kasvilajin tai -suvun kaupan määrä. Kasvintuotannon arvon arvioitiin olevan yhteensä noin 3,5 miljardia euroa vuodessa. Tästä metsätaloustuotannon arvo oli noin 54 %, peltokasvituotannon noin 31 % ja puutarhatuotannon noin 11 %.