Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto - Evira

 

Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Eviran toiminnan päämääränä on varmistaa elintarvikkeiden turvallisuus, edistää eläinten terveyttä ja hyvinvointia, huolehtia kasvin- ja eläintuotannon edellytyksistä sekä kasvinterveydestä. Eviran tieteellinen tutkimus on keskittynyt elintarviketurvallisuuteen sekä eläinten terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin. Tieteellinen tutkimus ja riskinarviointi luo perustaa valvonnan oikealle kohdentamiselle ja riskinhallinnalle.

Målet med Livsmedelssäkerhetsverket Eviras verksamhet är att säkerställa att livsmedlen är säkra, främja djurens hälsa och välfärd, och sörja för förutsättningarna för växt- och djurproduktion och växtsundhet. Eviras vetenskapliga forskning har koncentrerat sig på livsmedelssäkerheten och djurens hälsa och välfärd. Den vetenskapliga forskningen och riskvärderingen bildar grunden för en rätt inriktad tillsyn och riskhantering.

The role of Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira is to ensure food safety, promote the health and welfare of animals, to be responsible for the requirements for plant and animal production and for plant health. Evira’s scientific research is concentrated on food safety and animal health and welfare. Scientific research and risk assessment creates the foundation for the correct targeting of supervision and for risk management.

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  • Schulman, Kitty; Sahlström, Leena; Heikkilä, Jaakko (Evira, 2014)
    Ur djursjukdomsfaro- och smittsskyddssynvinkel är utegångskravet för ekologisk kalkon den största skillnaden mellan ekologisk och konventionell kalkonuppfödning. Smittspärrar mellan omgivningen och produktionsutrymmena kan inte tillämpas lika heltäckande utomhus som i konventionella produktionsanläggningar. Utegående kalkoner kan därför i högre grad utsättas för smittämnen från vildfåglar och gnagare samt för markburna smittämnen. Smittor påverkar kalkonernas hälsa och kan också spridas till konsumenterna via kalkonkött. Uppfödning av ängskalkoner erbjuder en mellanform mellan ekologisk och konventionell uppfödning. Smittrisker förknippade med utomhusvistelse gäller även ängskalkoner. Djursjukdomsriskerna vid betesgång kan begränsas genom kontrollåtgärder såsom skadedjursbekämpning, betesrotation och vaccination mot rödsjuka. Smittskyddet medför naturligtvis extra kostnader för producenten men dess andel av de totala rörliga kostnaderna för ekologisk produktion är ändå förhållandevis liten. Andra smittskyddsrisker inom ekologisk kalkonuppfödning är förknippade med djurstallar, utfodring och djurmaterial. Utomhusvistelse för också med sig många positiva effekter, bland annat ökad motion, lägre beläggningsgrad och bättre luftkvalitet. Med god planering och genom att tillämpa smittskyddsåtgärder kan smittriskerna minskas.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Hallikainen, Anja; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi; Savela, Kirsti (Evira, 2013)
    Nitraattia esiintyy luonnostaan monissa kasviksissa ja talousvedessä. Osa syödystä nitraatista muuttuu elimistössä nitriitiksi. Nitraattia ja nitriittiä käytetään myös elintarvikelisäaineina, koska ne hillitsevät haitallisten mikrobien kasvua. Toisaalta niiden suuren saannin katsotaan aiheuttavan terveyshaittoja. Esitetty probabilistinen riskinarviointi perustuu vuosina 2004 – 2012 tutkittuihin valvonta- ja tutkimusprojektinäytteisiin sekä kirjallisuustietoihin. Lisäksi käytettiin Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitokselta saatuja Finravinto 2007- ja DIPP-ravintotutkimuksen tuottamia aikuisten ja lasten ruoankulutustietoja. Nitraattialtistus lisäainelähteistä on vähäistä. Valtaosa nitraattialtistuksesta saadaan luontaisista lähteistä: vihanneksista, hedelmistä ja vedestä. Kasvisten käsittely ja hyvä viljelykäytäntö vähentävät saantia. Paljon nitraattia sisältävien kasvisten suurkuluttajien altistus voi ylittää nitraatin hyväksyttävän päivittäissaannin (ADI). Nitriittialtistus elintarvikkeista ja talousvedestä voi ylittää ADI-arvon noin 14 %:lla 3-vuotiaista ja 11 %:lla 6-vuotiaista suomalaislapsista. Suurin altistuslähde ovat ruokamakkarat. Toisaalta jos nitriittipitoisuuksia alennettaisiin nykytasosta, hygieniavaatimuksia ja kylmäketjuhallintaa olisi tehostettava.
  • Suutari, Anniina; Hallikainen, Anja; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli (2012)
    Background: The aim of this study was to determine 17 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and 12 Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in the tissues of Finnish terrestrial herbivore species, semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.), and wild moose (Alces alces), investigate transfer and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in milk of the lactating reindeer hinds, and explore contaminant concentrations in stillborn reindeer calves exposed via placental transfer to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. Methods: Reindeer and moose tissue sampling was focused in Finnish reindeer herding region. Reindeer milk samples were sampled in summer and autumn from reindeer hinds in experimental reindeer station in northern Finland. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS method. The results are reported here as WHOTEQ upper bound concentrations and congener-specific lower bound concentrations. Results: WHO-PCDD/F- and PCB-TEQs in reindeer muscle and liver were generally higher in the calves than in adults. Concentrations in moose calves were lower than in reindeer calves, while in adult reindeer and moose the levels were equal. General PCDD/F congeners in reindeer muscle and liver were 23478-PeCDF, 123678-HxCDD and OCDD. In reindeer milk, the highest PCDD/F detected was OCDD, and it was common also in the moose muscle samples. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected in all studied samples. The most dominating non-ortho-DL-PCB congener was PCB-126 in reindeer muscle, liver and milk. In moose muscle samples PCB-77 was the most abundant congener. Species-, individual- and tissue-specific accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs may be the result from varying extent and quality of exposure, and to some extent from different metabolic potential. Conclusions: PCDD/Fs showed partly similar profiles in reindeer and moose muscle, reindeer liver and milk samples - indicating equal mode of bioaccumulation. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected, although there were some differences in frequency of particular congeners in these species. Due to the harmonized sampling method the study offers the way to determine and compare the levels of PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs in reindeer and moose tissues and examine the transfer and dynamics of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in northern terrestrial food web.
  • Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi (2012)
    Background: Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods: We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results: Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions: The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the ‘polluter pays’ principle, we need to understand how the costs are currently distributed. The ongoing study contributes towards understanding these issues. The next challenge is to link the costs of preventive biosecurity to the benefits thus acquired.
  • Lyhs, Ulrike; Ikonen, Ilona; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Raninen, Kaisa; Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Pelkonen, Sinikka (2012)
    Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods: The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results: E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions: Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on the survival of ExPEC as strains from marinated and non-marinated meat products were equally often classified as ExPEC. Poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market may have zoonotic potential.
  • Gindonis, Gindonis.; Taponen, S.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S.; Nykäsenoja, S.; Salmenlinna, S.; Lindholm, L.; Rantala, M. (2013)
    Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions: The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillinresistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Niemi, Jarkko; Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Lehtonen, Heikki (Evira, 2011)
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral epizootic disease of cloven-footed animals, which is controlled both by domestic and EU legislation. FMD has not been found in Finland since 1959. The aim of this risk assessment was, by using Monte Carlo simulations, to assess how FMD would spread, the economic consequences of an outbreak and the feasibility of emergency vaccination in case of an outbreak in Finland. The study was based on data from the Finnish cattle and swine production sectors from 2006. If FMD was introduced to a Finnish pig or cattle farm, it would in most cases spread to four other farms and the disease would be brought under control after 5 weeks. In one-third of the cases, the disease would remain a sporadic case and would not spread at all from the first infected farm. Even a larger outbreak would remain relatively small and short. In the worst case scenario, FMD virus would spread to 29 farms before the disease was eradicated. The mean economic consequences of a sporadic outbreak would be €23 million. In the worst case scenario, the economic losses would be more than €38 million. Emergency vaccination is not a feasible option according to this study, because the current EU measures are able to stop the spread of disease and because vaccination can incur considerable extra costs due to prolonged export distortions.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Koponen, Jani; Mannio, Jaakko; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Jääskeläinen, Timo; Kiviranta, Hannu (Evira, 2011)
    EU-KALAT II hankkeessa tuotettiin tietoa Itämeren kalojen ja kotimaisten järvikalojen sekä kasvatettujen kalojen PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-pitoisuuksista eri ikäisissä ja kokoisissa kaloissa sekä lajeittain että alueittain. Hankkeessa tutkittiin myös perfluorattuja yhdisteitä (PFC) ja organotina (OT)-yhdisteitä sekä lihaksesta että maksasta. Tutkimuksesta saatiin uutta tietoa kalojen haitallisten aineiden pitoisuuksista riskinhallintaa varten. Vuoden 2009 tuloksia verrattiin aikaisempiin tuloksiin vuosilta 2002-2003. Itämeren ja muun kotimaisen kalan PCDD/F- ja PCB-pitoisuuksista nousevat esiin samat kalalajit, joiden on aiemminkin todettu keräävän näitä ympäristömyrkkyjä. Silakka, lohi ja meritaimen sekä nahkiainen ja tässä hankkeessa lisäksi kampela Kotkan alueelta ylittävät PCDD/F- ja PCB-yhdisteille asetetut enimmäispitoisuusrajat. Itämeren kaloista, kilohailin, muikun, ahvenen, hauen, kuhan, mateen ja turskan dioksiinien mediaanipitoisuudet eivät yllä edes puoleen sallitusta enimmäispitoisuudesta, joka on 4 pg/g tuorepainoa. Kun verrataan vuoden 2002-2003 pitoisuuksia vuoden 2009 PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-yhdisteiden pitoisuuksiin, ovat lohen ja silakan keskimääräiset pitoisuudet pienentyneet. Avomerialueiden OT-pitoisuudet lihaksessa olivat noin kolmanneksen pienemmät kuin vuonna 2005–2007 pyydetyissä näytteissä. Pahimpia Itämeren ympäristömyrkkyjä ovat edelleen dioksiinit ja dioksiininkaltaiset PCB-yhdisteet. PBDE- ja PFOS- ja OTpitoisuudet ovat pieniä muutamaa poikkeusta lukuun ottamatta. Useista kalalajeista suurimmat haitta-aineiden pitoisuudet todettiin seuraavilta alueilta: Selkämereltä Porin edusta ja Turun ja Kotkan pyyntialueet sekä kaikkein pahimpana Helsingin Vanhankaupunginlahti, jossa sekä OT- että PFOS-pitoisuudet antavat aihetta suositella kulutuksen rajoittamista, ainakin isojen ahventen osalta.
  • Koski, Perttu (Evira, 2013)
    Projektissa tehtiin kartoitus Suomessa tehdystä Gyrodactylus salaris – lohiloisen vastustyöstä. 80-luvun puolivälistä asti on pohjoisia Atlantin lohen jokiamme, Tenoa ja Näätämöä, suojeltu elävän kalan siirtokielloin ja suosituksin tai säädöksin kalastusvälineistön kuivaamisesta tai desinfioinnista. Suomen integroituminen Euroopan unioniin on tuonut lainsäädäntötyöhön kansainvälisen ulottuvuuden: on pitänyt vaikuttaa unionin kalatautilainsäädäntöön niin, että tehokas lohiloisen vastustus on edelleen ollut mahdollista. Ehkäisytyötä on ollut tekemässä suuri joukko paikallisista kalastusluvanmyyjistä keskushallintoviranomaisiin ja tieteelliseen tutkimukseen. Kansainvälinen yhteistyö on luonnollisesti ollut vilkkainta Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueiden naapurimme, Norjan, kanssa. Norjalaisiin arviointeihin ja Tenojoen vesistön sekä Tenon lohen biologian ominaisuuksiin pohjautuen esiselvityksessä todettiin, että valmiussuunnittelussa ei voida tähdätä Teno- tai Näätämöjoen vapauttamiseen lohiloistartunnasta, jos tartunta sinne pääsisi. Sen sijaan täytyisi ilmeisesti pyrkiä pelastamaan lohen geneettinen materiaali eläviin geenipankkeihin. Valmiussuunnittelulla tulisi selvittää, voitaisiinko istutuksilla ja mahdollisesti joitain loisesta puhdistettuja vesistön osia vaelluspoikasten kasvualueina säilyttämällä antaa lohikannalle tekohengitystä. Lohikannan ja lohenkalastuksen mahdollinen palauttaminen edellyttänee nykyistä paremmin lohiloista kestävän lohikannan aikaansaamista. Lohiloistartunnan aiheuttamien näkymien lohduttomuus alleviivaa ehkäisytoimien suurta merkitystä Teno- ja Näätämöjokien lohelle, lohenkalastukselle ja jokialueiden ihmisille. Valmiussuunnitelman teon aloittamista norjalaisten kanssa kuitenkin ehdotetaan, koska katastrofiskenaarion varalta pitäisi myös varautua. Valmiussuunnittelu lohiloisen varalta on Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueella poikkeuksellisen monimutkainen ja laaja eläintautiin varautumistehtävä.
  • Bagcigil, F.; Taponen, S.; Koort, J.; Bengtsson, B.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S. (2012)
    Background: The blaZ gene encoding penicillin resistance can be located either chromosomally or on plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships and to determine the location of the blaZ gene in S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis in Finland and Sweden. Methods: Seventy-eight β-lactamase positive S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis (34 from Finland and 44 from Sweden) were included in the study. The localization of blaZ gene was determined by Southern blotting. The blaZ genes of the isolates were sequenced and the sequences were translated to beta-lactamase proteins and further grouped as different protein signatures. The isolates and, as control, 33 Swedish and 36 Finnish beta-lactamase negative isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: In 26 out of 34 Finnish isolates (76.5%) and in 25 out of 44 Swedish isolates (56.8%) the blaZ gene was localized on a plasmid. Six different protein signatures were found. One signature was found only in four Swedish isolates, but all other signatures were found both in Finnish and Swedish isolates. The PFGE results revealed a diversity of S. aureus clones. The protein signatures were not clearly associated with certain pulsotypes. Conclusions: The plasmid location of the blaZ gene was not statistically significantly more common in Finland than in Sweden, and hence does not explain the higher proportion of penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis in Finland compared to Sweden.
  • Nokireki, T.; Laine, T.; London, L.; Ikonen, N.; Huovilainen, A. (2013)
    Background: Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results: In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1) pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland.
  • Nokireki, T.; Huovilainen, A.; Lilley, T.; Kyheröinen, E.-M.; Ek-Kommonen, C.; Sihvonen, L.; Jakava-Viljanen, M. (2013)
    Background: In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results: Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions: These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country.
  • Nevas, M.; Kalenius, S.; Lundén, J. (2013)
    Finnish food business operators' (FBOs) opinions of the food control inspections performed by local authorities were evaluated, using a questionnaire. The production types of FBOs included were slaughterhouses, meat, fish and milk plants, egg-packing plants and storage facilities dealing with foods of animal origin. Based on a total of 459 responses, we noted that the impacts of official controls were considered valuable for food safety, since 78.8% of the respondents saw that the actions taken based on inspections had enhanced the safety of the products. The results also highlighted the importance of inspectors being familiar with the production processes to increase the efficacy of food control. More frequent visits by official inspectors correlated positively with FBOs' conceptions of noncompliances being relevant for food safety. The FBOs saw local inspectors as the most important sources of new information concerning food safety legislation and 89.1% of the respondents confirmed that discussions with local inspectors had helped them understand the food safety risks within their processes. We also noted that the bigger the FBO, the more clearly they seem to perceive the risks associated with their processes (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.127, P = 0.009).
  • Ritvanen, Tiina-kaisa (Evira, 2013)
    Fat is a remarkable source of energy in diet. The majority of dietary fat consists of fatty acids, which have a great influence on health. Much attention in nutritional discussion has focused on the saturation of fatty acids in food. Another group of fatty acids with significance to health is trans fatty acids (TFAs). Trans fatty acids resemble saturated fat in a physiological sense but are shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease even more than saturated fat. Nevertheless, there are differences in the biological activity of different TFA isomers. The analysis of fatty acids has met an increasing demand for more and more precise identification. The correlation between saturated fat and cardiovascular diseases found in earlier decades has changed the nutritional recommendations to reducedfat dairy products. Reduced-fat dairy products are a way of reducing total energy in diet, too. Dairy products may have a modified fatty acid profile if fat sources other than milk are used. Modern methods, with a greater weight on mass spectrometric methods, for fatty acid analysis and the effects of fat on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dairy products are reviewed. Fat reduction changes the properties of cheese. The aim of the first part of the study was to characterise cheeses on the Finnish market and find out specifically the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses. The cheeses in the study were Emmental, Edam and Havarti-type cheeses. Chemical composition, sensory profile and consumer liking were studied. Cheese properties and liking were linked to identify the appealing characteristics of different cheeses. The second part of the study included fatty acid analysis. Dairy products on the market have variable fat sources of vegetable origin. It is known from the literature that hardened vegetable fats may have TFAs, but the current situation on the Finnish market was not known. The aim of the second part of the study was to survey the fatty acid profiles of milk-based dairy products (cheeses, vegetable fat ice creams, and vegetable fat cream substitutes) and spreads and shortenings on the market. Products with reduced-fat or modified fat were included. Free fatty acids are produced by lipolysis from fat. They have effect on the flavour of cheeses. Lipolysis can be enhanced by homogenisation. The aim of the third part of the study was to validate chromatographic method for free fatty acid analysis from cheese and to study the effect of homogenisation on free fatty acids in Emmental. The content of free fatty acids was joined to the sensory profile to find out if they have impact on flavour in the pilot Emmental cheeses. This study shows that it is possible to create reduced-fat cheeses with appealing characteristics. The properties influencing liking were slightly different in reduced-fat cheeses than in regular fat cheeses. Generally 4 reduced-fat cheeses were lacking flavour. The liking of reduced-fat cheeses might increase if flavour intensities could be increased. However, it is desirable that flavour intensity is not increased with salt, as this has negative health effects. The second part of the study shows that several milk-based products and spreads on the Finnish market do not contain remarkable amounts of trans fat. In addition, the fatty acid profiles of the cheeses are shown not to be affected by cheese variety or fat reduction. More interestingly, products have variable amounts of essential fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. Accurate identification requires good separation between fatty acid isomers. In this study polar and highly polar columns with 60 m or 100 m length were sufficient for cis/trans separation for nutritional purposes. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MSD gave detailed information on fatty acids in dairy food. Free fatty acids of Emmental cheese were quantitatively analysed by GCMSD without derivatisation. Internal standards were used to correct for the effect of sample treatment. The method was suitable for cheese and for shortand medium-chain fatty acids. These volatile fatty acids contribute to the flavour of cheese. The homogenisation of cheese milk increased the content of free fatty acids and the intensity of taste in trial cheeses. The defects, and on the other hand, the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses were studied. These results contribute to the development of appealing cheeses with reduced-fat content. The survey on fatty acids in dairy-based products gave up-to-date information on products on the market. These results have significance to nutritionists, dieticians, legislators and consumers, as this knowledge was not available before.
  • Gadd, Tuija (Evira, 2013)
    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was diagnosed after clinical symptoms for the first time in 2000 from four rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) farms in Åland and Pyhtää in Finland. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length VHSV glycoprotein (G) and nonvirion (NV) genes of the Finnish VHSV isolates in 2000–2004 revealed that all isolates are closely related and grouped in the genotype Id, which suggests the same origin of infection. Finnish isolates were shown to be closely related to the old freshwater isolates from rainbow trout in Denmark and to one old marine isolate from cod in the Baltic Sea, and located close to the presumed ancestral source. Infection with the VHSV genotype Id has spread since then, and the same genotype had been isolated from rainbow trout farms in three separate locations: Åland in the Baltic Sea, and Uusikaupunki in the Gulf of Bothnia, and Pyhtää in the Gulf of Finland. The majority of isolations have been from Åland, and since 2009 have only been from there. The VHSV genotype Id was isolated from Pyhtää only in 2000 and 2001 and from Uusikaupunki once in 2004 and 2008. The pathogenicity of rainbow trout genotype Id isolates was analysed in infection experiments with rainbow trout fry. The cumulative mortalities induced by waterborne and intraperitoneal challenge were approximately from 13% to 40% and 66 % to 90%, respectively, depending on the size of the rainbow trout fingerlings. The Finnish brackish water VHSV genotype Id isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments but they could represent an intermediate stage of marine isolates evolving towards pathogenicity in rainbow trout. The occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined in the main spawning stocks of wild European river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, in the rivers of Finland from 1999 to 2008. In total, 2621 lampreys as 262 pooled samples were examined virologically during 1999–2008. VHSV was isolated from five lamprey samples from the mouth of the rivers Lestijoki and Kalajoki, which flow into the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea from Finland. The full-length VHSV G gene sequence revealed that the isolates were closely related to the VHSV strains isolated earlier from herring and sprat, Sprattus sprattus (L.), in Gotland and were therefore assigned to VHSV genotype II. The virulence of the lamprey VHSV genotype II isolate was evaluated by an experimental infection trial in rainbow trout fry. No mortality was induced post-infection by either waterborne or intraperitoneal challenge. To clarify the role of wild fish, especially Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras (L.), in the epidemiology of VHSV in brackish waters, Baltic herring with no visible signs of disease were collected from the Archipelago Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and from the Eastern Gulf of Finland. In total 7580 herring as 758 pooled 5 samples and 3 029 wild salmonid broodfish were virologically examined during 2004–2006. VHSV was isolated from 50 pooled herring samples collected from the Archipelago Sea and one pooled sample collected from the Gulf of Bothnia. Further studies based on the full-length VHSV G gene sequence revealed that the Finnish herring isolates were VHSV genotype II, closely related to the VHSV strains isolated earlier from herring and sprat in Gotland. VHSV genotype II isolated from the lamprey and herring is thought to be independent of the VHSV Id epidemic in farmed rainbow trout in Finnish brackish waters. The most varied VHSV strains are found in seawater. This would indicate that the viruses in freshwater originate from the sea. Two fish farms situated in the lake area of Finland have experienced elevated mortalities affecting fry of grayling, Thymallus thymallus, since 2002. These farms are using surface water for the production of juveniles of several fish species. Fourteen pooled samples were positive in virus isolation. Based on full-length G gene and partial RNA polymerase (L) gene sequences and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), the virus was classified as a perch rhabdovirus (PRV). Pairwise comparisons of the G and L gene regions of grayling isolates revealed that all the isolates were very closely related, with almost 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection for the two farms. PRV isolates were closely related to the strain isolated from perch, Perca fluviatilis and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta, caught from the Baltic Sea. The second shortest phylogenetic distances to rhabdoviruses isolated from other countries appeared to be to perch, grayling and pikeperch isolates from France and a pike rhabdovirus isolate from Denmark. This is the first time PRV has caused disease in grayling in Finland.