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  • Nokireki, T.; Huovilainen, A.; Lilley, T.; Kyheröinen, E.-M.; Ek-Kommonen, C.; Sihvonen, L.; Jakava-Viljanen, M. (2013)
    Background: In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results: Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions: These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country.
  • Nevas, M.; Kalenius, S.; Lundén, J. (2013)
    Finnish food business operators' (FBOs) opinions of the food control inspections performed by local authorities were evaluated, using a questionnaire. The production types of FBOs included were slaughterhouses, meat, fish and milk plants, egg-packing plants and storage facilities dealing with foods of animal origin. Based on a total of 459 responses, we noted that the impacts of official controls were considered valuable for food safety, since 78.8% of the respondents saw that the actions taken based on inspections had enhanced the safety of the products. The results also highlighted the importance of inspectors being familiar with the production processes to increase the efficacy of food control. More frequent visits by official inspectors correlated positively with FBOs' conceptions of noncompliances being relevant for food safety. The FBOs saw local inspectors as the most important sources of new information concerning food safety legislation and 89.1% of the respondents confirmed that discussions with local inspectors had helped them understand the food safety risks within their processes. We also noted that the bigger the FBO, the more clearly they seem to perceive the risks associated with their processes (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.127, P = 0.009).
  • Ritvanen, Tiina-kaisa (Evira, 2013)
    Evira Research Reports 4/2013
    Fat is a remarkable source of energy in diet. The majority of dietary fat consists of fatty acids, which have a great influence on health. Much attention in nutritional discussion has focused on the saturation of fatty acids in food. Another group of fatty acids with significance to health is trans fatty acids (TFAs). Trans fatty acids resemble saturated fat in a physiological sense but are shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease even more than saturated fat. Nevertheless, there are differences in the biological activity of different TFA isomers. The analysis of fatty acids has met an increasing demand for more and more precise identification. The correlation between saturated fat and cardiovascular diseases found in earlier decades has changed the nutritional recommendations to reducedfat dairy products. Reduced-fat dairy products are a way of reducing total energy in diet, too. Dairy products may have a modified fatty acid profile if fat sources other than milk are used. Modern methods, with a greater weight on mass spectrometric methods, for fatty acid analysis and the effects of fat on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dairy products are reviewed. Fat reduction changes the properties of cheese. The aim of the first part of the study was to characterise cheeses on the Finnish market and find out specifically the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses. The cheeses in the study were Emmental, Edam and Havarti-type cheeses. Chemical composition, sensory profile and consumer liking were studied. Cheese properties and liking were linked to identify the appealing characteristics of different cheeses. The second part of the study included fatty acid analysis. Dairy products on the market have variable fat sources of vegetable origin. It is known from the literature that hardened vegetable fats may have TFAs, but the current situation on the Finnish market was not known. The aim of the second part of the study was to survey the fatty acid profiles of milk-based dairy products (cheeses, vegetable fat ice creams, and vegetable fat cream substitutes) and spreads and shortenings on the market. Products with reduced-fat or modified fat were included. Free fatty acids are produced by lipolysis from fat. They have effect on the flavour of cheeses. Lipolysis can be enhanced by homogenisation. The aim of the third part of the study was to validate chromatographic method for free fatty acid analysis from cheese and to study the effect of homogenisation on free fatty acids in Emmental. The content of free fatty acids was joined to the sensory profile to find out if they have impact on flavour in the pilot Emmental cheeses. This study shows that it is possible to create reduced-fat cheeses with appealing characteristics. The properties influencing liking were slightly different in reduced-fat cheeses than in regular fat cheeses. Generally 4 reduced-fat cheeses were lacking flavour. The liking of reduced-fat cheeses might increase if flavour intensities could be increased. However, it is desirable that flavour intensity is not increased with salt, as this has negative health effects. The second part of the study shows that several milk-based products and spreads on the Finnish market do not contain remarkable amounts of trans fat. In addition, the fatty acid profiles of the cheeses are shown not to be affected by cheese variety or fat reduction. More interestingly, products have variable amounts of essential fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. Accurate identification requires good separation between fatty acid isomers. In this study polar and highly polar columns with 60 m or 100 m length were sufficient for cis/trans separation for nutritional purposes. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MSD gave detailed information on fatty acids in dairy food. Free fatty acids of Emmental cheese were quantitatively analysed by GCMSD without derivatisation. Internal standards were used to correct for the effect of sample treatment. The method was suitable for cheese and for shortand medium-chain fatty acids. These volatile fatty acids contribute to the flavour of cheese. The homogenisation of cheese milk increased the content of free fatty acids and the intensity of taste in trial cheeses. The defects, and on the other hand, the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses were studied. These results contribute to the development of appealing cheeses with reduced-fat content. The survey on fatty acids in dairy-based products gave up-to-date information on products on the market. These results have significance to nutritionists, dieticians, legislators and consumers, as this knowledge was not available before.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Sahlström, Leena; Kyyrö, Johanna (Evira, 2012)
    Sikojen tautitilannetta seurataan Suomessa lakisääteisesti monen taudin varalta. Tässä selvityksessä olemme arvioineet seurantaohjelmien edustavuutta Aujeszkyn, PRRS- ja TGE -tautien osalta. Näitä tauteja ei tällä hetkellä esiinny Suomessa ja AD:n ja TGE-taudin varalta Suomella onkin EU-lisävakuudet. Tautiseuranta perustuu noin tuhanteen verinäytteeseen vuosittain, jotka otetaan teurastettavista emakoista. Seurantaohjelmat ovat Suomessa toteutuneet suunnitelmien mukaisesti tarkasteltujen vuosien (2008-2009) osalta. Tulosten mukaan seurantaohjelma tunnistaa herkimmin taudeista PRRS:n, epäherkimmin TGE:n. Yksittäisenkin vuoden tulosten perusteella voidaan varmistua siitä, etteivät taudit ole muuttuneet endeemisiksi Suomessa, mutta tautivapauden osoittamiseksi yhden vuoden seurantaohjelman tulokset eivät ole riittäviä. Tautivapauden osoittaminen tehostuu, kun siihen yhdistetään myös niin sanotun passiivisen tautiseurannan havainnot, sekä arvio tautien maahantuloriskistä arviointijaksolla.
  • Lyhs, Ulrike; Ikonen, Ilona; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Raninen, Kaisa; Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Pelkonen, Sinikka (2012)
    Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods: The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results: E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions: Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on the survival of ExPEC as strains from marinated and non-marinated meat products were equally often classified as ExPEC. Poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market may have zoonotic potential.
  • Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi (2012)
    Background: Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods: We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results: Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions: The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the ‘polluter pays’ principle, we need to understand how the costs are currently distributed. The ongoing study contributes towards understanding these issues. The next challenge is to link the costs of preventive biosecurity to the benefits thus acquired.
  • Bagcigil, F.; Taponen, S.; Koort, J.; Bengtsson, B.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S. (2012)
    Background: The blaZ gene encoding penicillin resistance can be located either chromosomally or on plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships and to determine the location of the blaZ gene in S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis in Finland and Sweden. Methods: Seventy-eight β-lactamase positive S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis (34 from Finland and 44 from Sweden) were included in the study. The localization of blaZ gene was determined by Southern blotting. The blaZ genes of the isolates were sequenced and the sequences were translated to beta-lactamase proteins and further grouped as different protein signatures. The isolates and, as control, 33 Swedish and 36 Finnish beta-lactamase negative isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: In 26 out of 34 Finnish isolates (76.5%) and in 25 out of 44 Swedish isolates (56.8%) the blaZ gene was localized on a plasmid. Six different protein signatures were found. One signature was found only in four Swedish isolates, but all other signatures were found both in Finnish and Swedish isolates. The PFGE results revealed a diversity of S. aureus clones. The protein signatures were not clearly associated with certain pulsotypes. Conclusions: The plasmid location of the blaZ gene was not statistically significantly more common in Finland than in Sweden, and hence does not explain the higher proportion of penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis in Finland compared to Sweden.
  • Perkiömäki, Johanna; Leimi, Anna; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2012)
    Oheisessa selvityksessä on tunnistettu ja kuvattu suomalaisen lehmän ja vuohen raakamaidossa mahdollisesti olevia biologisia vaaroja, joista saattaa aiheutua kuluttajalle terveydellistä haittaa, sekä keinoja riskin vähentämiseksi. Raakamaidon kulutus on ollut Suomessa toistaiseksi vähäistä (n. 1 % maidon ja maitotuotteiden kulutuksesta), mutta käyttäjissä on myös riskiryhmiin kuuluvia kuluttajia. Kuluttajariskiä lisää joissakin kotikeittiössä sovelletut raakamaidon pitkät säilytysajat ja korkeat säilytyslämpötilat. Selvityksen perusteella tärkeimmät biologiset tekijät, jotka voivat aiheuttaa raakamaidon elintarviketurvallisuusriskejä Suomessa, ovat EHEC-, Listeria monocytogenes-, salmonella- ja kampylobakteerit. Ne saattavat aiheuttaa vakavia sairauksia ja jälkitauteja, ja niitä kaikkia on todettu suomalaisissa tuotantoeläimissä, ihmisissä ja navettaympäristössä. Suomalainen elintarviketurvallisuusjärjestelmä ei ota kovin hyvin huomioon raakamaidon tuotannon ja kulutuksen erityisominaisuuksia vaan riskinhallinta perustuu pitkälti hyvien hygieniakäytäntöjen lisäksi maidossa olevia mikrobeja tuhoavaan pastörointiin. Sen vuoksi olisi perusteltua luoda raakamaidon myyntimäärään ja toimintaan suhteutettu yhtenäinen, mahdollisia riskejä ennaltaehkäisevä kansallinen järjestelmä, sekä lisätä raakamaidon kanssa toimivien yritysten ja kuluttajien tietoa hyvistä tuotantotavoista ja turvallisesta käytöstä.
  • Hautaniemi, Maria (Evira, 2012)
    Parapoxviruses (PPVs) are zoonotic viruses which cause contagious pustular skin infections of sheep, goats and cattle worldwide. In addition, they have more recently been shown to infect other animals such as red deer, seals, camels and reindeer. Cases of contagious pustular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer have been reported for many years. This economically important disease occurs typically during winter and is more common in the southern parts of the reindeer herding districts than in the north. The first severe outbreak occurred in the winter 1992-1993, and during the winter of 1999-2000 and in the late winter 2007 outbreaks of the disease were again observed. Usual symptoms include diminished appetite, drooling, fever, and later erosions and ulcerative lesions in the mouth. The aims of this study were to establish specific and rapid detection methods for the causative agent of the disease and characterize the viruses circulating in Finland. The causative agent of reindeer pustular stomatitis was originally considered to be Orf virus (ORFV) of the genus Parapoxvirus. PCR methods amplifying different regions of the PPV genomes were developed to analyse clinical samples obtained from outbreaks of the disease in reindeer and later from viruses isolated from the disease of sheep and cattle in Finland. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the Finnish PPVs, known members of the genus Parapoxvirus and selected members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae were conducted to identify the virus species isolated from reindeer. The results showed that the reindeer PPV from 1999-2000 is most closely related to the cattle PPV Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) whereas the PPV strains from the winter of 1992-1993 outbreak grouped with sheep ORFV strains. Reindeer samples from the 2007 outbreak were identified as both PCPV and ORFV. Analysis of the similarity between genes of reindeer PCPV and ORFV isolates, Finnish sheep ORFV and cattle PCPV isolates indicated that these viruses have been circulating among Finnish reindeer, cattle and sheep at least ten years. Since the initial classification of the viruses causing pustular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer relied solely on the partial sequence analysis of virion core- and EEV envelope phospholipase protein sequences, the genome of PCPV-like reindeer isolate (F00.120R) was sequenced by shotgun sequencing of plasmid sublibraries of cosmids covering the central region of the genome, and by sequencing transposon random insertion libraries of plasmids derived from each end of the genome. The F00.120R and the genomic sequence of a reference strain of PCPV (VR634) were annotated and analyzed in this study. This first characterization of PCPV genomes revealed that F00.120R and VR634 are 135 and 145 kb in length and contain 131 and 134 putative genes, respectively. The organization of their genomes was found to be similar to that of other PPVs and both included 88 predicted genes that are conserved across all sequenced poxviruses. F00.120R was found to have four, possibly fragmented, genes at the left terminus and another near the central region of the genome that are not present in ORFV or Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV; another PPV) genomes. In addition, the F00.120R genome was found to lack six genes seen near the right genome terminus of other PPVs. Comparing the PPV proteomes and whole genome phylogenetic analyses confirmed the classification of PCPV as a separate species within the PPV genus and verified that the virus causing pustular stomatitis in reindeer in 1999-2000 can be classified as PCPV. The observed six gene deletion at the right terminus of the F00.120R genome was further investigated in an attempt to use it in differentiating PCPV and ORFV causing pustular stomatitis in reindeer. The preliminary PCR analyses of wild type virus and early passages of F00.120R implied that the deletion of genes may have arisen during cell culture of the virus. The sequence around the deleted region was determined by sequencing two cloned overlapping PCR fragments from F00.120R wt virus isolated from lesion material. The same region was sequenced from an Italian PCPV field isolate (It1303). Further PCR analyses together with sequence determination showed that a 5431 bp sequence containing genes 116-121 was likely to have been deleted from the F00.120R genome prior to the 7th passage in cell culture. In addition, genes 116-121 were present in It1303 and in other isolates of reindeer and bovine PCPV isolated in Finland during the years 2005-2010. These results indicate that the genome of reindeer PCPV is about 140 kbp in length and has 137 genes instead of previously estimated length of 135 kbp and 131 genes; it contains homologues of all known ORFV genes and this analysis further reinforces the close genetic relationship between PCPV and ORFV.
  • Suutari, Anniina; Hallikainen, Anja; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli (2012)
    Background: The aim of this study was to determine 17 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and 12 Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in the tissues of Finnish terrestrial herbivore species, semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.), and wild moose (Alces alces), investigate transfer and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in milk of the lactating reindeer hinds, and explore contaminant concentrations in stillborn reindeer calves exposed via placental transfer to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. Methods: Reindeer and moose tissue sampling was focused in Finnish reindeer herding region. Reindeer milk samples were sampled in summer and autumn from reindeer hinds in experimental reindeer station in northern Finland. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS method. The results are reported here as WHOTEQ upper bound concentrations and congener-specific lower bound concentrations. Results: WHO-PCDD/F- and PCB-TEQs in reindeer muscle and liver were generally higher in the calves than in adults. Concentrations in moose calves were lower than in reindeer calves, while in adult reindeer and moose the levels were equal. General PCDD/F congeners in reindeer muscle and liver were 23478-PeCDF, 123678-HxCDD and OCDD. In reindeer milk, the highest PCDD/F detected was OCDD, and it was common also in the moose muscle samples. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected in all studied samples. The most dominating non-ortho-DL-PCB congener was PCB-126 in reindeer muscle, liver and milk. In moose muscle samples PCB-77 was the most abundant congener. Species-, individual- and tissue-specific accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs may be the result from varying extent and quality of exposure, and to some extent from different metabolic potential. Conclusions: PCDD/Fs showed partly similar profiles in reindeer and moose muscle, reindeer liver and milk samples - indicating equal mode of bioaccumulation. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected, although there were some differences in frequency of particular congeners in these species. Due to the harmonized sampling method the study offers the way to determine and compare the levels of PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs in reindeer and moose tissues and examine the transfer and dynamics of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in northern terrestrial food web.
  • Oravainen, Jonna; Sahlström, Leena; Lyytikäinen, Tapani (Evira, 2011)
    Afrikkalainen sikarutto on lakisääteisesti vastustettava helposti leviävä sikojen ja villisikojen virustauti, jolla on myös vakavia sosioekonomisia vaikutuksia. Akuutissa tautimuodossa eläimillä esiintyy syömättömyyttä, korkeaa kuumetta, verenpurkaumia iholla, veristä ulostetta sekä mahdollisesti ripulia. Kuolleisuus on lähes 100 % ja tauti johtaa kuolemaan 7-10 vrk tartunnan jälkeen. Tauti ei tartu ihmisiin. Tautia esiintyy sekä kesy- että villisioissa suurimmassa osassa Saharan eteläpuolista Afrikkaa ja Sardiniassa. Vuodesta 2007 lähtien tautia on esiintynyt Kaukasuksen alueella ja vuonna 2011 lähellä Suomen rajaa: Leningradin alueella ja Kuolan niemimaalla. Tässä riskiprofiilissa kartoitetaan reitit ja tapahtumasarjat, jotka voivat johtaa siihen, että afrikkalainen sikarutto tulee Suomeen ensimmäisen kerran. Näistä oleellisimmat ovat: maahantulo infektioalueella matkustaneiden ihmisten mukana, infektoituneen lihan tai lihatuotteen mukana, elävien kesysikojen ja sperman mukana, kontaminoituneiden eläinkuljetusajoneuvojen mukana, kansainvälisen liikenteen ruokajätteen mukana ja Suomeen vaeltavan infektoituneen villisian mukana. Tilatason tautisuojaus sekä tehokas ja kohdennettu tiedottaminen taudin vaaroista ovat avainasemassa, kun halutaan suojata Suomen sikaelinkeinoa afrikkalaiselta sikarutolta.
  • Laakso, Juha; Lavinto, Mikko; Rasikari, Heidi; Karlström, Ulla (2011)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 3/2010
    Kasvinsuojeluaineita käytetään elintarviketuotannossa kasvitautien ehkäisemiseen sekä kasvintuhoojien vaikutusten ajoittamiseen ja kasvun säätelyyn. Käytettyjen tehoaineiden riskinarviointi yksi kerrallaan on tuottanut tärkeää perustietoa, mutta se ei ole antanut selkeää kokonaiskuvaa kuluttajien altistumisesta. Tämän vuoksi asetelmaa tarkasteltiin kokonaisvaltaisesti, ottaen kaikki elintarvikkeista havaitut tehoainejäämät mukaan arvioon kumulatiivisesti. Aikuisten lisäksi mukana on ensi kertaa myös lapsiryhmiä. Ensimmäistä kertaa Suomessa tarkastellaan sekä pitkäaikaista että akuuttia altistusta. Esitetty kumulatiivinen riskinarviointi perustuu vuosina 2002- 2008 kasvinsuojeluainejäämien valvonnassa yhteensä 10 565 elintarvikenäytteestä saatuihin tutkimustuloksiin. Lisäksi riskinarvioinnissa on käytetty Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen ja DIPP-konsortion tuottamia aikuisten ja lasten ruoankulutustietoja (Finravinto 2007 ja DIPP-ravintotutkimukset). Ravinnon välittämälle tehoainejäämien altistukselle on tunnusomaista matala perustaso, jossa esiintyy lyhytaikaisia altistushuippuja. Kun ravinnon välittämä pitkäaikainen altistus kasvinsuojeluaineille on hyväksyttävällä tasolla, ei lyhytaikaisen altistuksen tilanne kaikilta osin ole yhtä hyvä. Kolmivuotiailla lapsilla todennäköisyys aRfD:n ylittymiselle on organofosfaattien ja karbamaattien osalta ollut suurempi kuin 0,1 % eli enemmän kuin yksi tuhannesta, mikä ei vielä vastaa tavoitteita. Ylitykset aiheutuvat tuontituotteista,koska niiden taustalla olevia karbamaatteja ja organofosfaatteja ei enää käytetä Suomessa. Myönteistä kehitystä on tapahtunut, mutta tilannetta on aiheellista edelleen seurata.
  • Hakkinen, Marjaana (2011)
    Evira Research Reports 2/2010
    The reported incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Finland is higher than in most other European countries. A high annual percentage of sporadic infections is of foreign origin, although a notable proportion of summer infections is domestically acquired. While chickens appear to be a major source of campylobacters for humans in most countries, the prevalence of campylobacters is very low in chicken slaughter batches in Finland. Data on other potential animal reservoirs of human pathogenic campylobacters in Finland are scarce. Consequently, this study aimed to investigate the status of Finnish cattle as a potential source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni for human sporadic campylobacter infections of domestic origin. A survey of the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Finnish cattle studied bovine rectal faecal samples (n=952) and carcass surface samples (n=948) from twelve Finnish slaughterhouses from January to December 2003. The total prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was 31.1%, and in carcass samples 3.5%. Campylobacter jejuni, the most common species, was present in 19.5% of faecal samples and in 3.1% of carcasses. In addition to thermophilic Campylobacter spp., C. hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis was present in bovine samples. The prevalence of campylobacters was higher among beef cattle than among dairy cattle. Using the enrichment method, the number of positive faecal samples was 7.5 times higher than that obtained by direct plating. The predominant serotypes of faecal C. jejuni, determined by serotyping with a set of 25 commercial antisera for heat-stable antigens (Penner), were Pen2 and Pen4-complex, which covered 52% of the samples. Genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI restriction yielded a high diversity of C. jejuni subtypes in cattle. Determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, and oxytetracycline among bovine C. jejuni isolates using a commercial broth microdilution method yielded 9% of isolates resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials examined. No multiresistant isolates were found among the bovine C. jejuni strains. The study of the shedding patterns of Campylobacter spp. among three Finnish dairy cattle herds included the examination of fresh faecal samples and tank milk samples taken five times, as well as samples from drinking troughs taken once during the one-year study. The semiquantitative enrichment method detected C. jejuni in 169 of the 340 faecal samples, mostly at low levels. In addition, C. jejuni was present in one drinking trough sample. The prevalence between herds and sampling occasions varied widely. PFGE, using SmaI as restriction enzyme, identified only a few subtypes in each herd. In two 2 of the herds, two subtypes persisted throughout the sampling. Individual animals presented various shedding patterns during the study. Comparison of C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens and cattle included the design of primers for four new genetic markers selected from completely sequenced C. jejuni genomes 81-176, RM1221 and NCTC 11168, and the PCR examination of domestic human isolates from southern Finland in 1996, 2002 and 2003 (n=309), chicken isolates from 2003, 2006 and 2007 (n=205), and bovine isolates from 2003 (n=131). The results revealed that bovine isolates differed significantly from human and chicken isolates. In particular, the - glutamyl transpeptidase gene was uncommon among bovine isolates. The PFGE genotyping of C. jejuni isolates, using SmaI and KpnI restriction enzymes, included a geographically representative collection of isolates from domestic sporadic human infections, chicken slaughter batches, and cattle faeces and carcasses during the seasonal peak of campylobacteriosis in the summer of 2003. The study determined that 55.4% of human isolates were indistinguishable from those of chickens and cattle. Temporal association between isolates from humans and chickens was possible in 31.4% of human infections. Approximately 19% of the human infections may have been associated with cattle. However, isolates from bovine carcasses and human cases represented different PFGE subtypes. In conclusion, this study suggests that Finnish cattle is a notable reservoir of C. jejuni, the most important Campylobacter sp. in human enteric infections. Although the concentration of these organisms in bovine faeces appeared to be low, excretion can be persistent. The genetic diversity and presence or absence of marker genes support previous suggestions of host-adapted C. jejuni strains, and may indicate variations in virulence between strains from different hosts. In addition to chickens, Finnish cattle appeared to be an important reservoir and possible source of C. jejuni in domestic sporadic human infections. However, sources of campylobacters may differ between rural and urban areas in Finland, and in general, the transmission of C. jejuni of bovine origin probably occurs via other routes than food.
  • Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki (Evira, 2011)
    Evira Research Reports 3/2011
    Campylobacter, mainly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are worldwide recognized as a major cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis (World Health Organization 2010). Epidemiological studies have shown handling or eating of poultry to be significant risk factors for human infections. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry meat production cycle. In summer 1999, every broiler flock from all three major Finnish poultry slaughterhouses was studied during a five month period. Caecal samples were taken in the slaughterhouses from five birds per flock. A total of 1 132 broiler flocks were tested and 33 (2.9%) of those were Campylobacter-positive. Thirty-one isolates were identified as C. jejuni and two isolates were C. coli. The isolates were serotyped for heat-stable antigens (HS) and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serotypes found were HS 6,7, 12 and 4-complex. Using a combination of SmaI and KpnI patterns, 18 different PFGE types were identified. Thirty-five Finnish C. jejuni strains with five SmaI/SacII PFGE types selected among human and chicken isolates from 1997 and 1998 were used for comparison of their PFGE patterns, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns, HaeIII ribotypes, and HS serotypes. The discriminatory power of PFGE, AFLP and ribotyping with HaeIII were shown to be at the same level for this selected set of strains, and these methods assigned the strains into the same groups. The PFGE and AFLP patterns within a genotype were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. An HS serotype was distributed among different genotypes, and different serotypes were identified within one genotype. From one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms (together 12 flocks) and from 11 stages at the slaughterhouse a total of 456 samples were collected during one and the half year. For the detection of Campylobacter both conventional culture and a PCR method were used. No Campylobacter were detected in either of the samples from the turkey parent flock or from the hatchery samples using the culture method. Instead PCR detected DNA of Campylobacter in five faecal samples from the turkey parent flock and in one fluff and an eggshell sample. Six out of 12 commercial turkey flocks were found negative at the farm level but only two of those were negative at slaughter. Campylobacter-positive samples within the flock at slaughter were detected between 0% and 94%, with evisceration and chilling water being the most critical stages for contamination. All of a total of 121 Campylobacter isolates were shown to be C. jejuni using a multiplex PCR assay. PFGE analysis of all isolates with KpnI restriction enzyme resulted in 11 PFGE types (I-XI) and flaA-SVR typing yielded nine flaA-SVR alleles. Three Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks were colonized by a limited number of Campylobacter genotypes both at the farm and slaughter level.In conclusion, in our first study in 1999 a low prevalence of Campylobacter in Finnish broiler flocks was detected and it has remained at a low level during the study period until the present. In the turkey meat production, we found that flocks which were negative at the farm became contaminated with Campylobacter at the slaughter process. These results suggest that proper and efficient cleaning and disinfection of slaughter and processing premises are needed to avoid cross-contamination. Prevention of colonization at the farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of Campylobacter-positive poultry meat in Finland. In Finland, with a persistent low level of Campylobacter-positive flocks, it could be speculated that the use of logistic slaughtering, according to Campylobacter status at farm, might have be advantageous in reducing Campylobacter contamination of retail poultry products. However, the significance of the domestic poultry meat for human campylobacteriosis in Finland should be evaluated.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Koponen, Jani; Mannio, Jaakko; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Jääskeläinen, Timo; Kiviranta, Hannu (Evira, 2011)
    EU-KALAT II hankkeessa tuotettiin tietoa Itämeren kalojen ja kotimaisten järvikalojen sekä kasvatettujen kalojen PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-pitoisuuksista eri ikäisissä ja kokoisissa kaloissa sekä lajeittain että alueittain. Hankkeessa tutkittiin myös perfluorattuja yhdisteitä (PFC) ja organotina (OT)-yhdisteitä sekä lihaksesta että maksasta. Tutkimuksesta saatiin uutta tietoa kalojen haitallisten aineiden pitoisuuksista riskinhallintaa varten. Vuoden 2009 tuloksia verrattiin aikaisempiin tuloksiin vuosilta 2002-2003. Itämeren ja muun kotimaisen kalan PCDD/F- ja PCB-pitoisuuksista nousevat esiin samat kalalajit, joiden on aiemminkin todettu keräävän näitä ympäristömyrkkyjä. Silakka, lohi ja meritaimen sekä nahkiainen ja tässä hankkeessa lisäksi kampela Kotkan alueelta ylittävät PCDD/F- ja PCB-yhdisteille asetetut enimmäispitoisuusrajat. Itämeren kaloista, kilohailin, muikun, ahvenen, hauen, kuhan, mateen ja turskan dioksiinien mediaanipitoisuudet eivät yllä edes puoleen sallitusta enimmäispitoisuudesta, joka on 4 pg/g tuorepainoa. Kun verrataan vuoden 2002-2003 pitoisuuksia vuoden 2009 PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-yhdisteiden pitoisuuksiin, ovat lohen ja silakan keskimääräiset pitoisuudet pienentyneet. Avomerialueiden OT-pitoisuudet lihaksessa olivat noin kolmanneksen pienemmät kuin vuonna 2005–2007 pyydetyissä näytteissä. Pahimpia Itämeren ympäristömyrkkyjä ovat edelleen dioksiinit ja dioksiininkaltaiset PCB-yhdisteet. PBDE- ja PFOS- ja OTpitoisuudet ovat pieniä muutamaa poikkeusta lukuun ottamatta. Useista kalalajeista suurimmat haitta-aineiden pitoisuudet todettiin seuraavilta alueilta: Selkämereltä Porin edusta ja Turun ja Kotkan pyyntialueet sekä kaikkein pahimpana Helsingin Vanhankaupunginlahti, jossa sekä OT- että PFOS-pitoisuudet antavat aihetta suositella kulutuksen rajoittamista, ainakin isojen ahventen osalta.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Niemi, Jarkko; Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Lehtonen, Heikki (Evira, 2011)
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral epizootic disease of cloven-footed animals, which is controlled both by domestic and EU legislation. FMD has not been found in Finland since 1959. The aim of this risk assessment was, by using Monte Carlo simulations, to assess how FMD would spread, the economic consequences of an outbreak and the feasibility of emergency vaccination in case of an outbreak in Finland. The study was based on data from the Finnish cattle and swine production sectors from 2006. If FMD was introduced to a Finnish pig or cattle farm, it would in most cases spread to four other farms and the disease would be brought under control after 5 weeks. In one-third of the cases, the disease would remain a sporadic case and would not spread at all from the first infected farm. Even a larger outbreak would remain relatively small and short. In the worst case scenario, FMD virus would spread to 29 farms before the disease was eradicated. The mean economic consequences of a sporadic outbreak would be €23 million. In the worst case scenario, the economic losses would be more than €38 million. Emergency vaccination is not a feasible option according to this study, because the current EU measures are able to stop the spread of disease and because vaccination can incur considerable extra costs due to prolonged export distortions.
  • Ariel, Ellen; Holopainen, Riikka; Olesen, Niels Jörgen; Tapiovaara, Hannele (Springer, 2010)
    Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immunofluoresent antibody tests (IFAT) using both homologous and heterologous antisera and their amplification in PCR using primers targeting five genomic regions. The corresponding PCR fragments were sequenced, and the sequences obtained were used in phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the pathogenicity to rainbow trout under experimental challenge conditions was investigated. The viruses were serologically and genetically closely related to highly pathogenic ranaviruses such as European catfish iridovirus (ECV), European sheatfish iridovirus (ESV) and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15 C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate.
  • Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Maurella, Cristiana; Nöremark, Maria; Ingravalle, Francesco; Thorgeirsdottir, Stefania; Orge, Leonor; Poizat, Renaud; Hautaniemi, Maria; Liam, Barry; Calavas, Didier; Ru, Giuseppe; Hopp, Petter (BioMedcentral, 2010)
    Background: During the last decade, active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been intensive in Europe. In many countries this has led to the detection of cases of atypical scrapie which, unlike classical scrapie, might not be contagious. EU legislation requires, that following detection of a scrapie case, control measures including further testing take place in affected flocks, including the culling of genotype susceptible to classical scrapie. This might result in the detection of additional cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of additional cases in flocks affected by atypical scrapie using surveillance data collected in Europe in order to ascertain whether atypical scrapie, is contagious. Results: Questionnaires were used to collect, at national level, the results of active surveillance and testing associated with flock outbreaks in 12 European countries. The mean prevalence of atypical scrapie was 5.5 (5.0-6.0) cases per ten thousand in abattoir surveillance and 8.1 (7.3-9.0) cases per ten thousand in fallen stock. By using meta-analysis, on 11 out of the 12 countries, we found that the probability of detecting additional cases of atypical scrapie in positive flocks was similar to the probability observed in animals slaughtered for human consumption (odds ratio, OR = 1.07, CI95%: 0.70-1.63) or among fallen stock (OR = 0.78, CI95%: 0.51-1.2). In contrast, when comparing the two scrapie types, the probability of detecting additional cases in classical scrapie positive flocks was significantly higher than the probability of detecting additional cases in atypical scrapie positive flocks (OR = 32.4, CI95%: 20.7-50.7). Conclusions: These results suggest that atypical scrapie is not contagious or has a very low transmissibility under natural conditions compared with classical scrapie. Furthermore this study stressed the importance of standardised data collection to make good use of the analyses undertaken by European countries in their efforts to control atypical and classical scrapie.
  • Hallanvuo, Saija; Johansson, Tuula (Evira, 2010)
    Opas sisältää perustietoa Suomen kannalta merkittävistä elintarvikkeisiin liittyvistä taudinaiheuttajista: bakteereista, viruksista, loisista ja prioneista. Oppaassa on kuvattu aiheuttajakohtaisesti terveydellisiä haittavaikutuksia, esiintymistä ihmisissä, eläimissä, elintarvikkeissa ja ympäristössä, raportoituja epidemioita Suomesta ja ulkomailta, ruokamyrkytykseen johtaneita tekijöitä ja valvontaa. Valvontaa tarkastellaan elintarvikkeen koko elinkaaren ajalta ja pyritään osoittamaan ne "pellolta pöytään" -ketjun riskikohdat, joissa saastuminen ja mikrobien lisääntyminen yleensä tapahtuu. Valvontatoimenpiteisiin ryhdyttäessä on kuitenkin aina tarkistettava ajantasainen lainsäädäntö. Opas on päivitetty versio EVI-EELA julkaisusta 1/2003 (Opas elintarvikkeiden ja talousveden mikrobiologista vaaroista).
  • Elintrviketurvallisuusvirasto Evira; Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö (Evira, 2010)
    Eläinlääkäreille tarkoitettu suositus MRSA-tartunnan torjunnasta ja ehkäisystä eläimille on tehty Suomen oloja varten. Vastaavia suosituksia on tehty myös muissa maissa, joissa eläimillä esiintyy MRSA:ta selvästi enemmän kuin Suomessa. Meillä eläinten MRSA-tartunnat ovat olleet viime aikoihin saakka harvinaisia. Eläinlääkäreillä on sen vuoksi vain vähän kokemusta tartuntojen toteamisesta, niiden torjunnasta sekä muista toimenpiteistä. Tämän suosituksen tarkoituksena on antaa eläinlääkäreille ja muille asiasta kiinnostuneille lisää tietoa MRSA:sta eläimillä sekä ohjeita eläimen MRSA-tartunnan varalta. Suosituksen on tehnyt Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Evira yhdessä maa- ja metsätalousministeriön asettaman pysyvän mikrobilääketyöryhmän kanssa. Suositukset pohjautuvat vuonna 2010 saatavissa olleeseen tietoon. Uutta tutkimustietoa eläimillä esiintyvästä MRSA:sta julkaistaan kuitenkin jatkuvasti, joten tätä suositusta tullaan päivittämään säännöllisesti.