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  • Solismaa, Milla; Laaksonen, Sauli; Nylund, Minna; Pitkänen, Elisa; Airakorpi, Riitta; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2008)
    Background: In autumn 2006, Finnish meat inspection data revealed lesions in tendons, muscles and ligaments of bovine hind legs leading to partial condemnation of carcasses. In gross pathological examination at Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Oulu (now Fish and Wildlife Health) Research Unit, Onchocerca sp. (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae) nematodes were detected in lesions. Due to this, a pilot study was made in order to find out what filarioid nematodes do occur in cattle, horses and sheep in Finland. Methods: Ventral skin biopsies from 209 dairy cattle and 42 horses, as well as blood samples from 209 cattle, 146 horses and 193 sheep, were collected from different parts of Finland and examined for microfilariae. Visceral organs and other tissues from 33 cattle with parasitic lesions were studied histopathologically. Results: Onchocerca sp. microfilariae (mf), 240 μm long, range 225–260 μm, 5.4 μm thick, were found in 37% of the skin biopsies of cattle. All blood samples from cattle, horses and sheep and skin biopsies from horses were negative for mf. Ventral skin microfilaria prevalence in cattle was higher in southern Finland than in the North (p = 0.001). Animal age and sampling time was not associated with mf prevalence. The infection was evenly distributed among young and older animals. Macroscopic lesions on tissues included greenish-grey discolouration and often oedema. In most of the lesions, small pale nodules were seen on the fasciae. Histopathologic examination of the samples revealed mild to intense infiltration with eosinophilic granulocytes and multifocal nodular lymphoplasmacytic aggregations were seen. In some samples, there were granulomatotic lesions with central necrotic tissue and cell detritus, surrounded by eosinophilic granulocytes, lympho-, plasma- and histiocytes and some multinucleated giant cells. Around living nematodes no or only weak inflammatory changes were observed. Conclusion: Onchocerca sp. infection in cattle was found to be common in Finland, but the amount of pathological changes leading to condemnation of infected parts is low compared to the mf prevalence. Pronounced pathological changes are distinct but rare and mild changes are difficult to distinguish. No other filarioid nematodes were observed from the animals and it appears that horses and sheep may be free from filarioid nematodes in Finland.
  • Hakkinen, Marjaana (2011)
    The reported incidence of human campylobacteriosis in Finland is higher than in most other European countries. A high annual percentage of sporadic infections is of foreign origin, although a notable proportion of summer infections is domestically acquired. While chickens appear to be a major source of campylobacters for humans in most countries, the prevalence of campylobacters is very low in chicken slaughter batches in Finland. Data on other potential animal reservoirs of human pathogenic campylobacters in Finland are scarce. Consequently, this study aimed to investigate the status of Finnish cattle as a potential source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni for human sporadic campylobacter infections of domestic origin. A survey of the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Finnish cattle studied bovine rectal faecal samples (n=952) and carcass surface samples (n=948) from twelve Finnish slaughterhouses from January to December 2003. The total prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was 31.1%, and in carcass samples 3.5%. Campylobacter jejuni, the most common species, was present in 19.5% of faecal samples and in 3.1% of carcasses. In addition to thermophilic Campylobacter spp., C. hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis was present in bovine samples. The prevalence of campylobacters was higher among beef cattle than among dairy cattle. Using the enrichment method, the number of positive faecal samples was 7.5 times higher than that obtained by direct plating. The predominant serotypes of faecal C. jejuni, determined by serotyping with a set of 25 commercial antisera for heat-stable antigens (Penner), were Pen2 and Pen4-complex, which covered 52% of the samples. Genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI restriction yielded a high diversity of C. jejuni subtypes in cattle. Determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, and oxytetracycline among bovine C. jejuni isolates using a commercial broth microdilution method yielded 9% of isolates resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials examined. No multiresistant isolates were found among the bovine C. jejuni strains. The study of the shedding patterns of Campylobacter spp. among three Finnish dairy cattle herds included the examination of fresh faecal samples and tank milk samples taken five times, as well as samples from drinking troughs taken once during the one-year study. The semiquantitative enrichment method detected C. jejuni in 169 of the 340 faecal samples, mostly at low levels. In addition, C. jejuni was present in one drinking trough sample. The prevalence between herds and sampling occasions varied widely. PFGE, using SmaI as restriction enzyme, identified only a few subtypes in each herd. In two 2 of the herds, two subtypes persisted throughout the sampling. Individual animals presented various shedding patterns during the study. Comparison of C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens and cattle included the design of primers for four new genetic markers selected from completely sequenced C. jejuni genomes 81-176, RM1221 and NCTC 11168, and the PCR examination of domestic human isolates from southern Finland in 1996, 2002 and 2003 (n=309), chicken isolates from 2003, 2006 and 2007 (n=205), and bovine isolates from 2003 (n=131). The results revealed that bovine isolates differed significantly from human and chicken isolates. In particular, the - glutamyl transpeptidase gene was uncommon among bovine isolates. The PFGE genotyping of C. jejuni isolates, using SmaI and KpnI restriction enzymes, included a geographically representative collection of isolates from domestic sporadic human infections, chicken slaughter batches, and cattle faeces and carcasses during the seasonal peak of campylobacteriosis in the summer of 2003. The study determined that 55.4% of human isolates were indistinguishable from those of chickens and cattle. Temporal association between isolates from humans and chickens was possible in 31.4% of human infections. Approximately 19% of the human infections may have been associated with cattle. However, isolates from bovine carcasses and human cases represented different PFGE subtypes. In conclusion, this study suggests that Finnish cattle is a notable reservoir of C. jejuni, the most important Campylobacter sp. in human enteric infections. Although the concentration of these organisms in bovine faeces appeared to be low, excretion can be persistent. The genetic diversity and presence or absence of marker genes support previous suggestions of host-adapted C. jejuni strains, and may indicate variations in virulence between strains from different hosts. In addition to chickens, Finnish cattle appeared to be an important reservoir and possible source of C. jejuni in domestic sporadic human infections. However, sources of campylobacters may differ between rural and urban areas in Finland, and in general, the transmission of C. jejuni of bovine origin probably occurs via other routes than food.
  • Gadd, Tuija (Evira, 2013)
    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was diagnosed after clinical symptoms for the first time in 2000 from four rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) farms in Åland and Pyhtää in Finland. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length VHSV glycoprotein (G) and nonvirion (NV) genes of the Finnish VHSV isolates in 2000–2004 revealed that all isolates are closely related and grouped in the genotype Id, which suggests the same origin of infection. Finnish isolates were shown to be closely related to the old freshwater isolates from rainbow trout in Denmark and to one old marine isolate from cod in the Baltic Sea, and located close to the presumed ancestral source. Infection with the VHSV genotype Id has spread since then, and the same genotype had been isolated from rainbow trout farms in three separate locations: Åland in the Baltic Sea, and Uusikaupunki in the Gulf of Bothnia, and Pyhtää in the Gulf of Finland. The majority of isolations have been from Åland, and since 2009 have only been from there. The VHSV genotype Id was isolated from Pyhtää only in 2000 and 2001 and from Uusikaupunki once in 2004 and 2008. The pathogenicity of rainbow trout genotype Id isolates was analysed in infection experiments with rainbow trout fry. The cumulative mortalities induced by waterborne and intraperitoneal challenge were approximately from 13% to 40% and 66 % to 90%, respectively, depending on the size of the rainbow trout fingerlings. The Finnish brackish water VHSV genotype Id isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments but they could represent an intermediate stage of marine isolates evolving towards pathogenicity in rainbow trout. The occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined in the main spawning stocks of wild European river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, in the rivers of Finland from 1999 to 2008. In total, 2621 lampreys as 262 pooled samples were examined virologically during 1999–2008. VHSV was isolated from five lamprey samples from the mouth of the rivers Lestijoki and Kalajoki, which flow into the Bothnian Bay of the Baltic Sea from Finland. The full-length VHSV G gene sequence revealed that the isolates were closely related to the VHSV strains isolated earlier from herring and sprat, Sprattus sprattus (L.), in Gotland and were therefore assigned to VHSV genotype II. The virulence of the lamprey VHSV genotype II isolate was evaluated by an experimental infection trial in rainbow trout fry. No mortality was induced post-infection by either waterborne or intraperitoneal challenge. To clarify the role of wild fish, especially Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras (L.), in the epidemiology of VHSV in brackish waters, Baltic herring with no visible signs of disease were collected from the Archipelago Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and from the Eastern Gulf of Finland. In total 7580 herring as 758 pooled 5 samples and 3 029 wild salmonid broodfish were virologically examined during 2004–2006. VHSV was isolated from 50 pooled herring samples collected from the Archipelago Sea and one pooled sample collected from the Gulf of Bothnia. Further studies based on the full-length VHSV G gene sequence revealed that the Finnish herring isolates were VHSV genotype II, closely related to the VHSV strains isolated earlier from herring and sprat in Gotland. VHSV genotype II isolated from the lamprey and herring is thought to be independent of the VHSV Id epidemic in farmed rainbow trout in Finnish brackish waters. The most varied VHSV strains are found in seawater. This would indicate that the viruses in freshwater originate from the sea. Two fish farms situated in the lake area of Finland have experienced elevated mortalities affecting fry of grayling, Thymallus thymallus, since 2002. These farms are using surface water for the production of juveniles of several fish species. Fourteen pooled samples were positive in virus isolation. Based on full-length G gene and partial RNA polymerase (L) gene sequences and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), the virus was classified as a perch rhabdovirus (PRV). Pairwise comparisons of the G and L gene regions of grayling isolates revealed that all the isolates were very closely related, with almost 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection for the two farms. PRV isolates were closely related to the strain isolated from perch, Perca fluviatilis and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta, caught from the Baltic Sea. The second shortest phylogenetic distances to rhabdoviruses isolated from other countries appeared to be to perch, grayling and pikeperch isolates from France and a pike rhabdovirus isolate from Denmark. This is the first time PRV has caused disease in grayling in Finland.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Kartio, Mirja; Rautala, Taneli; Hietaniemi, Veli; Koivisto, Tauno; Rämö, Sari; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri (Evira, 2008)
    Yleisiä suomalaisissa viljoissa esiintyviä homeiden tuottamia Fusarium-toksiineja ovat deoksinivalenoli, zearalenoni, nivalenoli sekä T-2- ja HT-2-toksiinit. Fusarium-toksiineja esiintyy erityisesti kaurassa. EU:ssa on asetettu enimmäispitoisuusrajat deoksinivalenolille ja zearalenonille. T-2- ja HT-2- toksiinien lainsäädäntö on EU:ssa työn alla. Pitkäaikainen altistuminen Fusarium-toksiineille voi aiheuttaa terveydellisiä haittavaikutuksia, kuten immuunijärjestelmän heikkenemistä. Kaikkia pitkäaikaisen altistumisen vaikutuksia ei kuitenkaan toistaiseksi tunneta. Akuuteissa myrkytystapauksissa oireita ovat esimerkiksi pahoinvointi, oksentelu ja vatsakivut. Suomalaisten altistuminen Fusarium-toksiineille arvioitiin Evirassa yhteistyössä Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskuksen ja Kansanterveyslaitoksen kanssa. Saannit ovat alle siedettävän päivittäisen enimmäissaantimäärän lukuun ottamatta T-2- ja HT-2-toksiineja, joita kauran suurkuluttajat voivat teoriassa saada raakaviljasta liikaa. Toksiinipitoisuudet vaihtelevat vuosittain erityisesti satokauden sään perusteella. Lisäksi viljan lajittelulla ja kuorinnalla voidaan vähentää toksiinien määrää merkittävästi. Viljoille asetettuja Fusarium-toksiinien enimmäispitoisuuksia on syytä valvoa jatkuvasti. Valvonnan kohdentamista suositellaan erityisesti kauralle ja kauravalmisteille, joissa esiintyy suurimmat pitoisuudet toksiineja.
  • Bagcigil, F.; Taponen, S.; Koort, J.; Bengtsson, B.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S. (2012)
    Background: The blaZ gene encoding penicillin resistance can be located either chromosomally or on plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships and to determine the location of the blaZ gene in S. aureus isolated in bovine mastitis in Finland and Sweden. Methods: Seventy-eight β-lactamase positive S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis (34 from Finland and 44 from Sweden) were included in the study. The localization of blaZ gene was determined by Southern blotting. The blaZ genes of the isolates were sequenced and the sequences were translated to beta-lactamase proteins and further grouped as different protein signatures. The isolates and, as control, 33 Swedish and 36 Finnish beta-lactamase negative isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: In 26 out of 34 Finnish isolates (76.5%) and in 25 out of 44 Swedish isolates (56.8%) the blaZ gene was localized on a plasmid. Six different protein signatures were found. One signature was found only in four Swedish isolates, but all other signatures were found both in Finnish and Swedish isolates. The PFGE results revealed a diversity of S. aureus clones. The protein signatures were not clearly associated with certain pulsotypes. Conclusions: The plasmid location of the blaZ gene was not statistically significantly more common in Finland than in Sweden, and hence does not explain the higher proportion of penicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis in Finland compared to Sweden.
  • Metlin, Artem (Evira, 2008)
    Rabies is a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system of all warmblooded mammals. The rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. This virus has a negative single-stranded RNA genome and the virions are bullet-shaped. Rabies is reported in many countries throughout the world and has been registered in all continents except Australia, where only the bat Lyssaviruses have been found, and in Antarctica where the main vectors of rabies are absent. Russia and most of the bordering countries are affected by rabies. Finland was a rabies-free country from 1959 to 1988, when a sylvatic rabies epidemic appeared with raccoon dogs as the main host and vector of infection. That epidemic was eradicated by the oral vaccination of wild carnivores and the parenteral immunization of dogs and cats; and Finland has been rabies-free since 1991. However, this status is constantly under threat because rabies is endemic in Russia and Estonia. In June 2003, a horse imported to Finland from Estonia was clinically and laboratory diagnosed as rabies positive. The close relationship of the isolated equine virus strain with the current Estonian strains was verified during subsequent molecular epidemiological studies. Because the case was imported, it did not affect Finland’s rabies-free status. Also in 2007 another 2 imported cases of rabies were recorded: one in a human being from Philippines and the other in a dog from India. Five different antigenic variants of the rabies virus were identified among rabies positive field samples from Russia, Finland, and Estonia by using antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Two rabies virus field isolates showed a different reaction pattern that was similar to that of the vaccine strains of the SAD group, which might suggest a new antigen variant or reverted vaccine strain. Nevertheless, the sequence analysis showed that the vaccine strains RV-97 and SAD B19 included in the oral anti-rabies vaccine “Sinrab” (Russia) and “Fuchsoral” (Germany), respectively, differ considerably from all the field strains. Field rabies viruses collected in recent years from different regions of the Russian Federation were chosen on the basis of mAb studies and geographical origin for molecular epidemiological studies to characterize their genetic heterogeneity and to study their molecular epidemiology. In addition to the Russian viruses, archival samples from Estonia and Finland and Russian vaccine strains were also included in this study. Among the field viruses studied, two main phylogenetic groups were found, and designated as the Pan-Eurasian and Caucasian based on their geographical origin. The Pan-Eurasian 7 group including some reference viruses from Europe was further divided into four subgroups. All the vaccine strains were clearly different from the field strains. No recombination between the field and vaccine virus strains was observed. The critical roles of geographical isolation, the limitation of the genetic clustering, and the evolution of the rabies virus were shown during this study. The rabies virus vaccine strain RV-97 is widely used in Russia as a component of the oral anti-rabies vaccine “Sinrab”. To characterize the molecular properties of this strain, entire genome sequencing was conducted. A simple technique was developed to obtain this sequence, including the 3’- and 5’- ends. The entire genome sequence and deduced amino-acid sequences of the major viral proteins were compared with the sequences of other known fixed rabies viruses. The strain RV-97 formed a separate phylogenetic branch and seems to be more related to the group of Japanese strains. The field strains from the Caucasian group seem to be phylogenetically the nearest group to the RV-97 strain. The data shown herein makes it possible to develop molecular methods for distinguishing between the field rabies viruses from the vaccine strains for the rapid recognition of the vaccine strains that are unstable or have reverted back to their pathogenic form. The wide genetic heterogeneity verified in this study indicates that it is important to remain on permanent alert for the appearance of rabies.
  • Metlin, Artem (Evira, 2008)
    Rabies is a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system of all warmblooded mammals. The rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. This virus has a negative single-stranded RNA genome and the virions are bullet-shaped. Rabies is reported in many countries throughout the world and has been registered in all continents except Australia, where only the bat Lyssaviruses have been found, and in Antarctica where the main vectors of rabies are absent. Russia and most of the bordering countries are affected by rabies. Finland was a rabies-free country from 1959 to 1988, when a sylvatic rabies epidemic appeared with raccoon dogs as the main host and vector of infection. That epidemic was eradicated by the oral vaccination of wild carnivores and the parenteral immunization of dogs and cats; and Finland has been rabies-free since 1991. However, this status is constantly under threat because rabies is endemic in Russia and Estonia. In June 2003, a horse imported to Finland from Estonia was clinically and laboratory diagnosed as rabies positive. The close relationship of the isolated equine virus strain with the current Estonian strains was verified during subsequent molecular epidemiological studies. Because the case was imported, it did not affect Finland’s rabies-free status. Also in 2007 another 2 imported cases of rabies were recorded: one in a human being from Philippines and the other in a dog from India. Five different antigenic variants of the rabies virus were identified among rabies positive field samples from Russia, Finland, and Estonia by using antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Two rabies virus field isolates showed a different reaction pattern that was similar to that of the vaccine strains of the SAD group, which might suggest a new antigen variant or reverted vaccine strain. Nevertheless, the sequence analysis showed that the vaccine strains RV-97 and SAD B19 included in the oral anti-rabies vaccine “Sinrab” (Russia) and “Fuchsoral” (Germany), respectively, differ considerably from all the field strains. Field rabies viruses collected in recent years from different regions of the Russian Federation were chosen on the basis of mAb studies and geographical origin for molecular epidemiological studies to characterize their genetic heterogeneity and to study their molecular epidemiology. In addition to the Russian viruses, archival samples from Estonia and Finland and Russian vaccine strains were also included in this study. Among the field viruses studied, two main phylogenetic groups were found, and designated as the Pan-Eurasian and Caucasian based on their geographical origin. The Pan-Eurasian group including some reference viruses from Europe was further divided into four subgroups. All the vaccine strains were clearly different from the field strains. No recombination between the field and vaccine virus strains was observed. The critical roles of geographical isolation, the limitation of the genetic clustering, and the evolution of the rabies virus were shown during this study. The rabies virus vaccine strain RV-97 is widely used in Russia as a component of the oral anti-rabies vaccine “Sinrab”. To characterize the molecular properties of this strain, entire genome sequencing was conducted. A simple technique was developed to obtain this sequence, including the 3’- and 5’- ends. The entire genome sequence and deduced amino-acid sequences of the major viral proteins were compared with the sequences of other known fixed rabies viruses. The strain RV-97 formed a separate phylogenetic branch and seems to be more related to the group of Japanese strains. The field strains from the Caucasian group seem to be phylogenetically the nearest group to the RV-97 strain. The data shown herein makes it possible to develop molecular methods for distinguishing between the field rabies viruses from the vaccine strains for the rapid recognition of the vaccine strains that are unstable or have reverted back to their pathogenic form. The wide genetic heterogeneity verified in this study indicates that it is important to remain on permanent alert for the appearance of rabies.
  • Lindqvist, Nanna; Pelkonen, Sinikka (BioMed Central, 2007)
    Background: Salmonella serovar Infantis is endemic in Finnish food-producing animals since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of the infection in cattle during 1985–2005, to follow the persistence of the feed-related outbreak strain from 1995 in the cattle population, and to analyse the stability of XbaI-banding patterns in individual herds during long-lasting infections. Methods: Salmonella Infantis isolates from 478 cattle herds (n = 588), covering 73% of the subclinically or clinically infected herds, were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI. DNA fragments larger than 125 kb were counted in PFGE types because of high plasmid background. Ribotyping and IS200-typing with BanI-digested DNA were done on 57 selected isolates. Results: The isolates associated with the infection consisted of 51 PFGE types with genetic similarity (F value) between 0.58 and 0.95. From 1985 to 2003, the major type appeared on 68% of the farms. The three most common types, with F values of 0.90 to 0.95, accounted for 80% of the isolates. Only 17% of the isolates had F values below 0.80, and 1% below 0.70. Ribotyping and IS200-typing classified 89% of the analysed isolates into the major ribotype and IS200 type combination, and the rest fell into closely related types. Analysis of successive isolates from 142 herds revealed changes in XbaI-banding patterns in 21% of the herds with two analysed isolates and in 38% of the herds from which three or more isolates were analysed. The feed-related S. Infantis genotype from the 1995 outbreak had disappeared by 1999, at the time when the incidence of bovine salmonella, and S. Infantis in particular, strongly decreased. Conclusion: The study showed how genetic surveillance, as part of salmonella control, provides tools to follow the persistence of particular infections, and to assess the efficacy of control measures. Testing of several isolates from a herd in outbreak investigations is advisable, because minor changes in PFGE banding patterns frequently occur during long-lasting infections.
  • Lavikainen, Tiina; Karlström, Ulla; Bäckman, Christina; Hirvonen, Tero (Evira, 2007)
    Maksa on monipuolinen ruoka-aine, mutta maksansyönnin turvallisuus raskauden aikana on askarruttanut pitkään niin kuluttajia kuin terveydenhuoltoakin. Maksa sisältää runsaasti retinoidimuotoista A-vitamiinia, joka suurina annoksina voi lisätä sikiövaurioiden ja keskenmenon riskiä. Lisäksi maksa voi sisältää runsaasti kadmiumia ja lyijyä, joilla voi olla haitallinen vaikutus sikiöön. Tämän vuoksi odottaville äideille suositellaan, että maksan syöntiä vältetään koko raskauden ajan. Maksaruokien käytön todellisista riskeistä raskauden aikana ei ole ollut tutkittua tietoa, ja syöntirajoituksen tarpeellisuudesta keskustellaan toistuvasti. Tämän vuoksi Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Evirassa on tehty riskinarviointi hedelmällisessä iässä olevien suomalaisnaisten altistumisesta retinoideille maksaruokien välityksellä. Arvioinnissa tarkasteltiin riskiä suositukset ylittävälle retinoidien saannille, mikäli maksaruuat, tai vain jotkin niistä, säilyisivät osana raskauden ajan ruokavaliota. Työssä arvioitiin myös muiden kuin syöntirajoituksiin perustuvien toimenpiteiden vaikutusta retinoidien saantiin. Lisäksi arvioitiin maksaruokien kautta tapahtuvaa kadmium- ja lyijyaltistusta. Arvioinnin pohjana käytettiin maksaruokien kulutustietoja (Finravinto 2002 -tutkimus, KTL), maksaruokien reseptitietoja sekä tuoreita tietoja maksojen retinoidi-, kadmium- ja lyijypitoisuuksista. Arvioinnin välineeksi rakennettiin altistusta kuvaava matemaattinen simulaatiomalli. Altistusta arvioitiin pitkäaikaissaantina (keskimääräinen päivittäinen saanti), ja retinoidien osalta myös altistuksena kerta-annoksesta. Mallin tuloksia verrattiin olemassa oleviin saantisuosituksiin ja saannin ylärajoihin. Riskinarvioinnissa päädyttiin seuraaviin johtopäätöksiin: 1. Maksaruokien käyttö voi altistaa suuremmille retinoidiannoksille kuin mitä pidetään turvallisena raskauden aikana. Liikasaannin riski näyttäisi kuitenkin koskevan lähinnä pääruokana syötäviä maksaruokia, kuten maksalaatikkoa, jauhemaksapihviä ja maksakastiketta. Kohtuullinen maksamakkaran tai maksapasteijan syönti raskauden aikana ei näyttäisi altistavan sellaisille retinoidiannoksille, joiden voidaan katsoa lisäävän sikiövaurioiden riskiä. 2. Tehokkain keino retinoidien liikasaannin riskin vähentämiseksi on välttää etenkin pääruokina käytettyjen maksaruokien syöntiä raskauden aikana. Muiden tarkasteltujen skenaarioiden vaikuttavuus oli selvästi heikompi. Emakonmaksan elintarvikekäytön lopettamisella olisi vain vähäinen vaikutus retinoidien saantiin. Vastaavasti maksojen retinoidipitoisuuksien pitäisi vähentyä noin neljännekseen, jotta vaikutus vastaisi osittaisen syöntirajoituksen (ei pääruokana syötäviä maksaruokia) tehokkuutta. 3. Kun A-vitamiinin saantia tarkastellaan ravitsemuksellisesta näkökulmasta, maksansyönti auttaa saantisuositusten täyttymisessä. Maksa sisältää A-vitamiinin lisäksi myös monia muita tärkeitä hivenaineita ja vitamiineja, kuten foolihappoa ja rautaa. Maksansyönnillä saavutettavat ravitsemukselliset hyödyt voitaneen kuitenkin korvata runsaasti kasviksia ja kohtuullisesti lihaa sisältävällä monipuolisella ruokavaliolla, jolloin retinoidien liikasaannin riskiä ei ole. 4. Maksaa syövillä naisilla kadmiumin ja lyijyn saanti maksaruokien välityksellä on melko vähäistä verrattuna altistukseen muista ravintolähteistä. Maksan sisältämä rauta saattaa vähentää kadmiumin ja lyijyn imeytymistä maksaruuista.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Koponen, Jani; Mannio, Jaakko; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Jääskeläinen, Timo; Kiviranta, Hannu (Evira, 2011)
    EU-KALAT II hankkeessa tuotettiin tietoa Itämeren kalojen ja kotimaisten järvikalojen sekä kasvatettujen kalojen PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-pitoisuuksista eri ikäisissä ja kokoisissa kaloissa sekä lajeittain että alueittain. Hankkeessa tutkittiin myös perfluorattuja yhdisteitä (PFC) ja organotina (OT)-yhdisteitä sekä lihaksesta että maksasta. Tutkimuksesta saatiin uutta tietoa kalojen haitallisten aineiden pitoisuuksista riskinhallintaa varten. Vuoden 2009 tuloksia verrattiin aikaisempiin tuloksiin vuosilta 2002-2003. Itämeren ja muun kotimaisen kalan PCDD/F- ja PCB-pitoisuuksista nousevat esiin samat kalalajit, joiden on aiemminkin todettu keräävän näitä ympäristömyrkkyjä. Silakka, lohi ja meritaimen sekä nahkiainen ja tässä hankkeessa lisäksi kampela Kotkan alueelta ylittävät PCDD/F- ja PCB-yhdisteille asetetut enimmäispitoisuusrajat. Itämeren kaloista, kilohailin, muikun, ahvenen, hauen, kuhan, mateen ja turskan dioksiinien mediaanipitoisuudet eivät yllä edes puoleen sallitusta enimmäispitoisuudesta, joka on 4 pg/g tuorepainoa. Kun verrataan vuoden 2002-2003 pitoisuuksia vuoden 2009 PCDD/F- ja PCB- sekä PBDE-yhdisteiden pitoisuuksiin, ovat lohen ja silakan keskimääräiset pitoisuudet pienentyneet. Avomerialueiden OT-pitoisuudet lihaksessa olivat noin kolmanneksen pienemmät kuin vuonna 2005–2007 pyydetyissä näytteissä. Pahimpia Itämeren ympäristömyrkkyjä ovat edelleen dioksiinit ja dioksiininkaltaiset PCB-yhdisteet. PBDE- ja PFOS- ja OTpitoisuudet ovat pieniä muutamaa poikkeusta lukuun ottamatta. Useista kalalajeista suurimmat haitta-aineiden pitoisuudet todettiin seuraavilta alueilta: Selkämereltä Porin edusta ja Turun ja Kotkan pyyntialueet sekä kaikkein pahimpana Helsingin Vanhankaupunginlahti, jossa sekä OT- että PFOS-pitoisuudet antavat aihetta suositella kulutuksen rajoittamista, ainakin isojen ahventen osalta.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Vehmas, Tuija; Vennerström, Pia (Evira, 2007)
    Kalojen VHS-tauti on vain kalojen välillä leviävä tauti, joka vaikeuttaa kalanviljelyä Suomessa. Tauti aiheuttaa suurta kuolleisuutta erityisesti kirjolohilla mutta tauti voi tarttua myös lukuisiin muihin kalalajeihin. Suomessa VHS-tautia löydettiin ensin 2000-luvun alussa ahvenanmaalaisilta kalanviljelylaitoksilta sekä Pyhtäältä ja myöhemmin Uudenkaupungin-Rauman-Pyhärannan alueelta. Tällä tutkimuksella selvitettiin ja kuvattiin kalanviljelyyn liittyviä toiminnallisia yhteyksiä vuonna 2005, joiden voisi odottaa edistävän VHS-taudin sisämaahan leviämistä. Lisäksi arvioitiin vaikutuksia, joita voisi olla taudin leviämisestä sisämaahan. Tarkastelun kohteina olivat erityisesti Ahvenanmaan ja Lounais-Suomen merialueen toiminnalliset yhteydet sisämaan kalanviljelyn ja kalanviljelyyn liittyvän toiminnan kanssa. Ahvenanmaa on VHS-rajoitusalue kun taas Lounais-Suomen merialue on pääasiassa vapaa VHS-taudista. Ahvenanmaan ja maantieteellisesti laajemman Lounais-Suomen merialueen toiminta on rakenteeltaan erilaista. Lounais-Suomessa yksiköt ovat pienempiä, perkaustoimintaa harjoittaa useampi yritys, perkaus- ja fileointijätteen käsittely on monimuotoisempaa kuin Ahvenanmaan rajoitusalueella. Ahvenanmaalla kasvatettua kalaa perataan ympäri vuoden kuin taas Lounais-Suomen merialueella perkaaminen on ajallisesti eriytyneempää. Ahvenanmaalta yhteyksiä sisämaahan muodostuu vain välillisesti: silloin kun sisämaan kasvatuslaitoksista tuodaan poikasia Ahvenanmaalle kasvatettavaksi. Sisämaasta tarkasteltaville alueille poikasia toimittaa ruokakalankasvatukseen noin 20 kalanviljelylaitosta. Auton kontaminoituminen VHS-viruksella kaloja purettaessa vaikuttaa epätodennäköiseltä. Koska kuljetuksia on määrällisesti vähän (alle 100 kappaletta vuodessa), kuljetusautot käyvät desinfioinnissa jokaisen kuljetetun erän jälkeen ja sisämaan laitoksissa harjoitetaan lisäksi taudinsuojaustoimia, taudin leviäminen tätä kautta ei vaikuta kovin todennäköiseltä. Ahvenanmaalta on mannersuomeen myös muunlaisia yhteyksiä: sieltä kuljetetaan perkaus -ja fileointijätteitä turkistarhauksessa käytettyjen rehujen raaka-aineeksi, sekä perattua kalaa kulutukseen ja jatkojalostukseen. Nämä yhteydet eivät kuitenkaan kohdistu sisävesistöjen kalankasvatusalueille vaan Pohjanmaalle, Lounais- ja Etelä-Suomeen. Perkaamattoman ja elävän kalan kuljettaminen pois Ahvenanmaalta taas on vastaavasti kielletty. Peratun kalan, fileointi- ja perkausjätteen kuljetukset kulkevat samoja reittejä kuin poikasten kuljetukset Ahvenanmaalle. Poikaskuljetusautojen ja reitin varrella olevien muutamien kalankasvatuslaitosten epäsuora kontaminoituminen tätä kautta vaikuttaa myös epätodennäköiseltä. Jos tauti kuitenkin pääsisi huomaamatta Lounais-Suomeen, taudin päätyminen sisävesistöihin olisi todennäköisempää, koska Lounais-Suomi ei ole rajoitusaluetta ja alueen kalankasvatuksessa voidaan toimia vapaammin. Jos tauti leviäisi sisämaahan, se voisi pahimmillaan jo yksittäisessä tautitapauksessa vaikuttaa kalaistutuksiin. Samat laitokset, jotka toimittavat poikaisia Ahvenanmaalle ja Lounais-Suomeen, kasvattavat myös muita kalalajeja istutustarkoituksiin. Erityisen haavoittuvia voisivat olla erilaisten taimenkantojen istutukset: jopa kolmannes istutuksista voisi estyä yksittäisestä sisävesistöjen VHS-tautitapauksesta. Ahvenanmaalle ja Lounais-Suomeen poikasia toimittavat laitokset ovat pääasiassa erillään muista kalanviljelylaitoksista eikä yksittäisen tautilöydöksen rajoitusalueelle kuitenkaan joutuisi juuri muita kalanviljelylaitoksia. Välillisesti vaikutukset voisivat olla merkittäviä, koska poikasten vienti ulkomaille saattaisi estyä.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Hallikainen, Anja; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi; Savela, Kirsti (Evira, 2013)
    Nitraattia esiintyy luonnostaan monissa kasviksissa ja talousvedessä. Osa syödystä nitraatista muuttuu elimistössä nitriitiksi. Nitraattia ja nitriittiä käytetään myös elintarvikelisäaineina, koska ne hillitsevät haitallisten mikrobien kasvua. Toisaalta niiden suuren saannin katsotaan aiheuttavan terveyshaittoja. Esitetty probabilistinen riskinarviointi perustuu vuosina 2004 – 2012 tutkittuihin valvonta- ja tutkimusprojektinäytteisiin sekä kirjallisuustietoihin. Lisäksi käytettiin Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitokselta saatuja Finravinto 2007- ja DIPP-ravintotutkimuksen tuottamia aikuisten ja lasten ruoankulutustietoja. Nitraattialtistus lisäainelähteistä on vähäistä. Valtaosa nitraattialtistuksesta saadaan luontaisista lähteistä: vihanneksista, hedelmistä ja vedestä. Kasvisten käsittely ja hyvä viljelykäytäntö vähentävät saantia. Paljon nitraattia sisältävien kasvisten suurkuluttajien altistus voi ylittää nitraatin hyväksyttävän päivittäissaannin (ADI). Nitriittialtistus elintarvikkeista ja talousvedestä voi ylittää ADI-arvon noin 14 %:lla 3-vuotiaista ja 11 %:lla 6-vuotiaista suomalaislapsista. Suurin altistuslähde ovat ruokamakkarat. Toisaalta jos nitriittipitoisuuksia alennettaisiin nykytasosta, hygieniavaatimuksia ja kylmäketjuhallintaa olisi tehostettava.
  • Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi (2012)
    Background: Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods: We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results: Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions: The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the ‘polluter pays’ principle, we need to understand how the costs are currently distributed. The ongoing study contributes towards understanding these issues. The next challenge is to link the costs of preventive biosecurity to the benefits thus acquired.
  • Elintrviketurvallisuusvirasto Evira; Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö (Evira, 2010)
    Eläinlääkäreille tarkoitettu suositus MRSA-tartunnan torjunnasta ja ehkäisystä eläimille on tehty Suomen oloja varten. Vastaavia suosituksia on tehty myös muissa maissa, joissa eläimillä esiintyy MRSA:ta selvästi enemmän kuin Suomessa. Meillä eläinten MRSA-tartunnat ovat olleet viime aikoihin saakka harvinaisia. Eläinlääkäreillä on sen vuoksi vain vähän kokemusta tartuntojen toteamisesta, niiden torjunnasta sekä muista toimenpiteistä. Tämän suosituksen tarkoituksena on antaa eläinlääkäreille ja muille asiasta kiinnostuneille lisää tietoa MRSA:sta eläimillä sekä ohjeita eläimen MRSA-tartunnan varalta. Suosituksen on tehnyt Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Evira yhdessä maa- ja metsätalousministeriön asettaman pysyvän mikrobilääketyöryhmän kanssa. Suositukset pohjautuvat vuonna 2010 saatavissa olleeseen tietoon. Uutta tutkimustietoa eläimillä esiintyvästä MRSA:sta julkaistaan kuitenkin jatkuvasti, joten tätä suositusta tullaan päivittämään säännöllisesti.
  • Lindqvist, Nanna (Evira, 2008)
    Salmonellosis is one of the most significant zoonoses worldwide and also in Finland. The major serovars causing infections in humans are Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Salmonella Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 1 and Salmonella Infantis are considered endemic in Finland. These serovars have frequently caused outbreaks among humans, the source of which is often detected. For the sporadic cases they usually remain unknown. Salmonella Agona was not frequently encountered in Finland until a small outbreak among cattle farms occurred in 1994-1995. S. Agona became the third most common Salmonella serovar in cattle in Finland in 1995. The two more common serovars were S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium DT1. Bacterial typing methods are used for outbreak investigations and for surveillance, where the data can be used for risk assessment calculations in addition to the future prevention of outbreaks. In particular the identification of factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of infection in endemic situations, estimations of the effect of animal reservoirs on human cases, and the identification of other risk factors for human infections are among the important reasons for typing. Salmonella Infantis became more common in cattle in the 1980s, after it spread in the broiler chicken production in Finland in 1971. Subsequently it caused outbreaks among broilers and humans in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s, S. Infantis became the predominant serovar among cattle in Finland. In 1995, a feedborne outbreak of S. Infantis in cattle occurred. We were able to identify the feedstuff-related genotype by XbaI-PFGE methodology. It belonged to the major endemic type, pf1, but differed from it by having a plasmid visible as an intensive band of 60 kb in XbaI-PFGE (plasmid subtype pf1/39). Farms infected with the feedstuff-related genotype pf1/39 or the related genotypes pf1/43, pf1/44, pf1/45, or pf1/46 containing the same 60 kb plasmid were also identified. The stability of the feedstuff-related genotype was followed on selected farms. The plasmid was stable on the farms during the follow-up period. The feedstuff-related genotype did not persist in the cattle population. Moreover, there was a general decline in bovine salmonella infections from 1997 onwards. The genetic diversity of the S. Infantis isolates taken from Finnish cattle was also assessed: the S. Infantis infection in cattle was highly clonal as 99 per cent of the isolates had XbaI-PFGE profiles clonally related to each other. The major genotype pf1 was predominant both at the starting year of our analysis in 1985 and as the infection seemed to fade out in 2003. Traditionally, only one isolate per farm is stored in the national collection. However, an infection may have existed subclinically for a long time in a herd until the first Salmonella isolates were obtained. In our analysis of successive isolates from the same herds, we frequently detected minor changes in banding patterns during long-lasting infections in individual herds. The sampling and testing of several isolates from a herd in outbreak investigations is therefore advisable. There is a trend towards less genetic diversity of the S. Infantis infection among domestic isolates from humans and poultry. Up to eight different ribo/IS200-types were detected in the 1980s isolates, whereas in the 1990s only two different ribo/IS200-types (1A, 1B) were seen. In cattle, 89 per cent of the analysed isolates possessed the ribo/IS200-type 1A, although four different ribo/IS200-types were recorded in the 1980s isolates, and two ribo/IS200-types in the 2000s isolates. The ribo/IS200-types and the most common XbaI-PFGE profiles determined amongst the analysed cattle isolates could also be detected among domestic isolates from poultry and humans. After the outbreak in cattle in the years 1994-1995, isolates of S. Agona taken from the 1984 to 1999 period were characterized by PFGE using XbaI, BlnI, SpeI, and NotI enzymes. Two outbreakrelated genotypes, which were not detected in the earlier isolates of S. Agona, were identified. Another small possibly genetically related outbreak among cattle farms occurred in 1997. In 1999, a large outbreak of S. Agona of domestic origin involving more than 50 human cases occurred. Despite epidemiological investigations carried out by the local authorities, the source of the outbreak remained unknown. Based on our typing data, this outbreak was unrelated to the cattle farm outbreaks, though it did occur in the same region of Finland. The outbreak profile for the 1999 outbreak could not be found in any of the other isolates. As no recent foreign isolates were available, a foreign source of the human infection cannot be disregarded. Salmonella Typhimurium DT1 has become the most common S. Typhimurium phage type among cattle farms in Finland, and has been detected annually since 1980. Domestic and foreign isolates of S. Typhimurium DT1 from 1981 to 1999 were characterised. Furthermore, two clusters formed by the effects of the combination of the XbaI-, BlnI-, and SpeI-PFGE profiles, IS200-profiles and possession of the serovar-specific virulence plasmid were analysed. The major cluster had no virulence plasmid and included the most common XbaI-PFGE profile 10 and IS200-profile D, typical of our endemic infection. The results of XbaI-, BlnI-, and SpeI-PFGE gave 54 different combination profiles, which can be applied in the analysis of outbreaks. In contrast, molecular subtyping by XbaI-PFGE alone is not discriminatory enough in analysing our endemic infection. The source of sporadic human infections is unknown in most cases, and molecular typing did not reveal any clear infection source. The most common XbaI-PFGE profile 10 was also seen in hedgehogs and wild birds. They might act as important reservoirs, maintaining a minimum baseline level of S. Typhimurium DT1 in the environment and consequently be possible sources of human infections
  • Lindqvist, Nanna (Evira, 2008)
    Salmonellosis is one of the most significant zoonoses worldwide and also in Finland. The major serovars causing infections in humans are Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Salmonella Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 1 and Salmonella Infantis are considered endemic in Finland. These serovars have frequently caused outbreaks among humans, the source of which is often detected. For the sporadic cases they usually remain unknown. Salmonella Agona was not frequently encountered in Finland until a small outbreak among cattle farms occurred in 1994-1995. S. Agona became the third most common Salmonella serovar in cattle in Finland in 1995. The two more common serovars were S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium DT1. Bacterial typing methods are used for outbreak investigations and for surveillance, where the data can be used for risk assessment calculations in addition to the future prevention of outbreaks. In particular the identification of factors that contribute to the persistence and spread of infection in endemic situations, estimations of the effect of animal reservoirs on human cases, and the identification of other risk factors for human infections are among the important reasons for typing. Salmonella Infantis became more common in cattle in the 1980s, after it spread in the broiler chicken production in Finland in 1971. Subsequently it caused outbreaks among broilers and humans in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s, S. Infantis became the predominant serovar among cattle in Finland. In 1995, a feedborne outbreak of S. Infantis in cattle occurred. We were able to identify the feedstuff-related genotype by XbaI-PFGE methodology. It belonged to the major endemic type, pf1, but differed from it by having a plasmid visible as an intensive band of 60 kb in XbaI-PFGE (plasmid subtype pf1/39). Farms infected with the feedstuff-related genotype pf1/39 or the related genotypes pf1/43, pf1/44, pf1/45, or pf1/46 containing the same 60 kb plasmid were also identified. The stability of the feedstuff-related genotype was followed on selected farms. The plasmid was stable on the farms during the follow-up period. The feedstuff-related genotype did not persist in the cattle population. Moreover, there was a general decline in bovine salmonella infections from 1997 onwards. The genetic diversity of the S. Infantis isolates taken from Finnish cattle was also assessed: the S. Infantis infection in cattle was highly clonal as 99 per cent of the isolates had XbaI-PFGE profiles clonally related to each other. The major genotype pf1 was predominant both at the starting year of our analysis in 1985 and as the infection seemed to fade out in 2003. Traditionally, only one isolate per farm is stored in the national collection. However, an infection may have existed subclinically for a long time in a herd until the first Salmonella isolates were obtained. In our analysis of successive isolates from the same herds, we frequently detected minor changes in banding patterns during long-lasting infections in individual herds. The sampling and testing of several isolates from a herd in outbreak investigations is therefore advisable. There is a trend towards less genetic diversity of the S. Infantis infection among domestic isolates from humans and poultry. Up to eight different ribo/IS200-types were detected in the 1980s isolates, whereas in the 1990s only two different ribo/IS200-types (1A, 1B) were seen. In cattle, 89 per cent of the analysed isolates possessed the ribo/IS200-type 1A, although four different ribo/IS200-types were recorded in the 1980s isolates, and two ribo/IS200-types in the 2000s isolates. The ribo/IS200-types and the most common XbaI-PFGE profiles determined amongst the analysed cattle isolates could also be detected among domestic isolates from poultry and humans. After the outbreak in cattle in the years 1994-1995, isolates of S. Agona taken from the 1984 to 1999 period were characterized by PFGE using XbaI, BlnI, SpeI, and NotI enzymes. Two outbreakrelated genotypes, which were not detected in the earlier isolates of S. Agona, were identified. Another small possibly genetically related outbreak among cattle farms occurred in 1997. In 1999, a large outbreak of S. Agona of domestic origin involving more than 50 human cases occurred. Despite epidemiological investigations carried out by the local authorities, the source of the outbreak remained unknown. Based on our typing data, this outbreak was unrelated to the cattle farm outbreaks, though it did occur in the same region of Finland. The outbreak profile for the 1999 outbreak could not be found in any of the other isolates. As no recent foreign isolates were available, a foreign source of the human infection cannot be disregarded. Salmonella Typhimurium DT1 has become the most common S. Typhimurium phage type among cattle farms in Finland, and has been detected annually since 1980. Domestic and foreign isolates of S. Typhimurium DT1 from 1981 to 1999 were characterised. Furthermore, two clusters formed by the effects of the combination of the XbaI-, BlnI-, and SpeI-PFGE profiles, IS200-profiles and possession of the serovar-specific virulence plasmid were analysed. The major cluster had no virulence plasmid and included the most common XbaI-PFGE profile 10 and IS200-profile D,typical of our endemic infection. The results of XbaI-, BlnI-, and SpeI-PFGE gave 54 different combination profiles, which can be applied in the analysis of outbreaks. In contrast, molecular subtyping by XbaI-PFGE alone is not discriminatory enough in analysing our endemic infection. The source of sporadic human infections is unknown in most cases, and molecular typing did not reveal any clear infection source. The most common XbaI-PFGE profile 10 was also seen in hedgehogs and wild birds. They might act as important reservoirs, maintaining a minimum baseline level of S. Typhimurium DT1 in the environment and consequently be possible sources of human infections.
  • Gindonis, Gindonis.; Taponen, S.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S.; Nykäsenoja, S.; Salmenlinna, S.; Lindholm, L.; Rantala, M. (2013)
    Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions: The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillinresistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.
  • Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J.; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina D.C.; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M. (BioMed Central, 2008)
    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported. Methods: Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002–2004.Results: Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim – sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 – 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 – 75.0%) was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales), France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004) and to penicillin from 8.1 – 13.0% (2004) in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower. Conclusion: Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to several antimicrobial agents in different countries. The occurrence of resistance varied distinctly between isolates from healthy and diseased pigs, with the isolates from healthy pigs generally showing a lower level of resistance than those from diseased pigs. The study suggests that the choice of antimicrobials used for the treatment of diseased animals should preferably be based on knowledge of the local pattern of resistance.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Mannio, Jaakko; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Vartiainen, Terttu (Evira, 2008)
    Orgaanisten tinayhdisteiden (OT) pitoisuuksia kotimaisessa meri- ja järvikalassa alettiin tutkia kattavasti, kun Helsingin uuden suursataman rakentamisen yhteydessä vuonna 2005 mitattiin kalasta ja sedimentistä suuria OT-pitoisuuksia. Tutkimuksessa keskityttiin niihin sisävesi- ja merikaloihin, joita suomalaiset pääsääntöisesti käyttävät ravinnokseen. Näytteitä kerättiin sekä kuormitetuilta satama- ja teollisuusalueilta että alueilta, joilla ei ole paikallista kuormitusta. Sisävesillä kalojen OT-pitoisuudet jäivät yleensä alle 10 μg/kg tuorepaino (tp), mutta neljällä paikkakunnalla (Varkaus, Lohja, Jyväskylä ja Tampere) pitoisuudet olivat 19–28 μg/kg. Varkauden Huruslahden sedimentistä mitattiin hankkeen yhteydessä 2–6 cm:n syvyydeltä jopa 35000 μg/kg kuivapaino (kp) pitoisuus. Merialueiden kaloissa OT-pitoisuudet olivat noin 10 kertaa suurempia kuin sisävesillä. Merialueilla, joilla ei ole paikallista kuormitusta, OT-pitoisuudet kaloissa olivat alle 20 μg/kg tp. Kuormitetuilla alueilla pitoisuudet ylittivät 40 μg/kg. Pahasti saastuneilta alueilta löydettiin 150–500 μg/kg pitoisuuksia. Suurimmat OT-pitoisuudet todettiin Helsingin Vanhankaupunginlahden ahvenista (28–528 μg/kg), joilla sekä pituus että paino korreloivat OT-pitoisuuden kanssa. Suuria pitoisuuksia todettiin myös Naantalin satamassa, jossa pitoisuudet kuitenkin pienenivät nopeasti avomerelle siirryttäessä. OT-pitoisuudet vaihtelivat samoilta pyyntialueilta kerättyjen kalalajien välillä. Ahvenesta, lahnasta ja kuhasta, jotka viihtyvät saaristossa ja sisälahdissa, mitattiin keskimäärin suurempia pitoisuuksia kuin silakasta, lohesta ja kilohailista, jotka viihtyvät lähinnä avomerellä.
  • Tryland, Morten; Handeland, Kjell; Bratberg, Anna-Marie; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2006)