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  • Gindonis, Gindonis.; Taponen, S.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S.; Nykäsenoja, S.; Salmenlinna, S.; Lindholm, L.; Rantala, M. (2013)
    Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions: The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillinresistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.
  • Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J.; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina D.C.; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M. (BioMed Central, 2008)
    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported. Methods: Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002–2004.Results: Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim – sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 – 92.0%) and erythromycin (29.1 – 75.0%) was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales), France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004) and to penicillin from 8.1 – 13.0% (2004) in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower. Conclusion: Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to several antimicrobial agents in different countries. The occurrence of resistance varied distinctly between isolates from healthy and diseased pigs, with the isolates from healthy pigs generally showing a lower level of resistance than those from diseased pigs. The study suggests that the choice of antimicrobials used for the treatment of diseased animals should preferably be based on knowledge of the local pattern of resistance.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Mannio, Jaakko; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Vartiainen, Terttu (Evira, 2008)
    Orgaanisten tinayhdisteiden (OT) pitoisuuksia kotimaisessa meri- ja järvikalassa alettiin tutkia kattavasti, kun Helsingin uuden suursataman rakentamisen yhteydessä vuonna 2005 mitattiin kalasta ja sedimentistä suuria OT-pitoisuuksia. Tutkimuksessa keskityttiin niihin sisävesi- ja merikaloihin, joita suomalaiset pääsääntöisesti käyttävät ravinnokseen. Näytteitä kerättiin sekä kuormitetuilta satama- ja teollisuusalueilta että alueilta, joilla ei ole paikallista kuormitusta. Sisävesillä kalojen OT-pitoisuudet jäivät yleensä alle 10 μg/kg tuorepaino (tp), mutta neljällä paikkakunnalla (Varkaus, Lohja, Jyväskylä ja Tampere) pitoisuudet olivat 19–28 μg/kg. Varkauden Huruslahden sedimentistä mitattiin hankkeen yhteydessä 2–6 cm:n syvyydeltä jopa 35000 μg/kg kuivapaino (kp) pitoisuus. Merialueiden kaloissa OT-pitoisuudet olivat noin 10 kertaa suurempia kuin sisävesillä. Merialueilla, joilla ei ole paikallista kuormitusta, OT-pitoisuudet kaloissa olivat alle 20 μg/kg tp. Kuormitetuilla alueilla pitoisuudet ylittivät 40 μg/kg. Pahasti saastuneilta alueilta löydettiin 150–500 μg/kg pitoisuuksia. Suurimmat OT-pitoisuudet todettiin Helsingin Vanhankaupunginlahden ahvenista (28–528 μg/kg), joilla sekä pituus että paino korreloivat OT-pitoisuuden kanssa. Suuria pitoisuuksia todettiin myös Naantalin satamassa, jossa pitoisuudet kuitenkin pienenivät nopeasti avomerelle siirryttäessä. OT-pitoisuudet vaihtelivat samoilta pyyntialueilta kerättyjen kalalajien välillä. Ahvenesta, lahnasta ja kuhasta, jotka viihtyvät saaristossa ja sisälahdissa, mitattiin keskimäärin suurempia pitoisuuksia kuin silakasta, lohesta ja kilohailista, jotka viihtyvät lähinnä avomerellä.
  • Tryland, Morten; Handeland, Kjell; Bratberg, Anna-Marie; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2006)
  • Suutari, Anniina; Hallikainen, Anja; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli (2012)
    Background: The aim of this study was to determine 17 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and 12 Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in the tissues of Finnish terrestrial herbivore species, semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.), and wild moose (Alces alces), investigate transfer and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in milk of the lactating reindeer hinds, and explore contaminant concentrations in stillborn reindeer calves exposed via placental transfer to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. Methods: Reindeer and moose tissue sampling was focused in Finnish reindeer herding region. Reindeer milk samples were sampled in summer and autumn from reindeer hinds in experimental reindeer station in northern Finland. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS method. The results are reported here as WHOTEQ upper bound concentrations and congener-specific lower bound concentrations. Results: WHO-PCDD/F- and PCB-TEQs in reindeer muscle and liver were generally higher in the calves than in adults. Concentrations in moose calves were lower than in reindeer calves, while in adult reindeer and moose the levels were equal. General PCDD/F congeners in reindeer muscle and liver were 23478-PeCDF, 123678-HxCDD and OCDD. In reindeer milk, the highest PCDD/F detected was OCDD, and it was common also in the moose muscle samples. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected in all studied samples. The most dominating non-ortho-DL-PCB congener was PCB-126 in reindeer muscle, liver and milk. In moose muscle samples PCB-77 was the most abundant congener. Species-, individual- and tissue-specific accumulation of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs may be the result from varying extent and quality of exposure, and to some extent from different metabolic potential. Conclusions: PCDD/Fs showed partly similar profiles in reindeer and moose muscle, reindeer liver and milk samples - indicating equal mode of bioaccumulation. A strong contribution of non-ortho-PCBs to WHO-TEQ was detected, although there were some differences in frequency of particular congeners in these species. Due to the harmonized sampling method the study offers the way to determine and compare the levels of PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs in reindeer and moose tissues and examine the transfer and dynamics of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in northern terrestrial food web.
  • Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J.; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Meunier, Danièle; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Wasyl, Dariusz; Sunde, Marianne; Aarestrup, Frank M. (BioMed Central, 2008)
    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method: Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excelfile templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results: Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales), Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin. More resistance and variation of the resistance levels between countries were observed for Escherichia coli compared to the other bacterial species investigated. Conclusion: In general, isolates from Denmark, England (and Wales), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland showed low frequencies of resistance, whereas many isolates from Belgium, France, Italy, Latvia and Spain were resistant to most antimicrobials tested. In the future, data on the prevalence of resistance should be used to develop guidelines for appropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine.
  • Laakso, Juha; Lavinto, Mikko; Rasikari, Heidi; Karlström, Ulla (2011)
    Kasvinsuojeluaineita käytetään elintarviketuotannossa kasvitautien ehkäisemiseen sekä kasvintuhoojien vaikutusten ajoittamiseen ja kasvun säätelyyn. Käytettyjen tehoaineiden riskinarviointi yksi kerrallaan on tuottanut tärkeää perustietoa, mutta se ei ole antanut selkeää kokonaiskuvaa kuluttajien altistumisesta. Tämän vuoksi asetelmaa tarkasteltiin kokonaisvaltaisesti, ottaen kaikki elintarvikkeista havaitut tehoainejäämät mukaan arvioon kumulatiivisesti. Aikuisten lisäksi mukana on ensi kertaa myös lapsiryhmiä. Ensimmäistä kertaa Suomessa tarkastellaan sekä pitkäaikaista että akuuttia altistusta. Esitetty kumulatiivinen riskinarviointi perustuu vuosina 2002- 2008 kasvinsuojeluainejäämien valvonnassa yhteensä 10 565 elintarvikenäytteestä saatuihin tutkimustuloksiin. Lisäksi riskinarvioinnissa on käytetty Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen ja DIPP-konsortion tuottamia aikuisten ja lasten ruoankulutustietoja (Finravinto 2007 ja DIPP-ravintotutkimukset). Ravinnon välittämälle tehoainejäämien altistukselle on tunnusomaista matala perustaso, jossa esiintyy lyhytaikaisia altistushuippuja. Kun ravinnon välittämä pitkäaikainen altistus kasvinsuojeluaineille on hyväksyttävällä tasolla, ei lyhytaikaisen altistuksen tilanne kaikilta osin ole yhtä hyvä. Kolmivuotiailla lapsilla todennäköisyys aRfD:n ylittymiselle on organofosfaattien ja karbamaattien osalta ollut suurempi kuin 0,1 % eli enemmän kuin yksi tuhannesta, mikä ei vielä vastaa tavoitteita. Ylitykset aiheutuvat tuontituotteista,koska niiden taustalla olevia karbamaatteja ja organofosfaatteja ei enää käytetä Suomessa. Myönteistä kehitystä on tapahtunut, mutta tilannetta on aiheellista edelleen seurata.
  • Hautaniemi, Maria (Evira, 2012)
    Parapoxviruses (PPVs) are zoonotic viruses which cause contagious pustular skin infections of sheep, goats and cattle worldwide. In addition, they have more recently been shown to infect other animals such as red deer, seals, camels and reindeer. Cases of contagious pustular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer have been reported for many years. This economically important disease occurs typically during winter and is more common in the southern parts of the reindeer herding districts than in the north. The first severe outbreak occurred in the winter 1992-1993, and during the winter of 1999-2000 and in the late winter 2007 outbreaks of the disease were again observed. Usual symptoms include diminished appetite, drooling, fever, and later erosions and ulcerative lesions in the mouth. The aims of this study were to establish specific and rapid detection methods for the causative agent of the disease and characterize the viruses circulating in Finland. The causative agent of reindeer pustular stomatitis was originally considered to be Orf virus (ORFV) of the genus Parapoxvirus. PCR methods amplifying different regions of the PPV genomes were developed to analyse clinical samples obtained from outbreaks of the disease in reindeer and later from viruses isolated from the disease of sheep and cattle in Finland. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the Finnish PPVs, known members of the genus Parapoxvirus and selected members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae were conducted to identify the virus species isolated from reindeer. The results showed that the reindeer PPV from 1999-2000 is most closely related to the cattle PPV Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) whereas the PPV strains from the winter of 1992-1993 outbreak grouped with sheep ORFV strains. Reindeer samples from the 2007 outbreak were identified as both PCPV and ORFV. Analysis of the similarity between genes of reindeer PCPV and ORFV isolates, Finnish sheep ORFV and cattle PCPV isolates indicated that these viruses have been circulating among Finnish reindeer, cattle and sheep at least ten years. Since the initial classification of the viruses causing pustular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer relied solely on the partial sequence analysis of virion core- and EEV envelope phospholipase protein sequences, the genome of PCPV-like reindeer isolate (F00.120R) was sequenced by shotgun sequencing of plasmid sublibraries of cosmids covering the central region of the genome, and by sequencing transposon random insertion libraries of plasmids derived from each end of the genome. The F00.120R and the genomic sequence of a reference strain of PCPV (VR634) were annotated and analyzed in this study. This first characterization of PCPV genomes revealed that F00.120R and VR634 are 135 and 145 kb in length and contain 131 and 134 putative genes, respectively. The organization of their genomes was found to be similar to that of other PPVs and both included 88 predicted genes that are conserved across all sequenced poxviruses. F00.120R was found to have four, possibly fragmented, genes at the left terminus and another near the central region of the genome that are not present in ORFV or Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV; another PPV) genomes. In addition, the F00.120R genome was found to lack six genes seen near the right genome terminus of other PPVs. Comparing the PPV proteomes and whole genome phylogenetic analyses confirmed the classification of PCPV as a separate species within the PPV genus and verified that the virus causing pustular stomatitis in reindeer in 1999-2000 can be classified as PCPV. The observed six gene deletion at the right terminus of the F00.120R genome was further investigated in an attempt to use it in differentiating PCPV and ORFV causing pustular stomatitis in reindeer. The preliminary PCR analyses of wild type virus and early passages of F00.120R implied that the deletion of genes may have arisen during cell culture of the virus. The sequence around the deleted region was determined by sequencing two cloned overlapping PCR fragments from F00.120R wt virus isolated from lesion material. The same region was sequenced from an Italian PCPV field isolate (It1303). Further PCR analyses together with sequence determination showed that a 5431 bp sequence containing genes 116-121 was likely to have been deleted from the F00.120R genome prior to the 7th passage in cell culture. In addition, genes 116-121 were present in It1303 and in other isolates of reindeer and bovine PCPV isolated in Finland during the years 2005-2010. These results indicate that the genome of reindeer PCPV is about 140 kbp in length and has 137 genes instead of previously estimated length of 135 kbp and 131 genes; it contains homologues of all known ORFV genes and this analysis further reinforces the close genetic relationship between PCPV and ORFV.
  • Ritvanen, Tiina-kaisa (Evira, 2013)
    Fat is a remarkable source of energy in diet. The majority of dietary fat consists of fatty acids, which have a great influence on health. Much attention in nutritional discussion has focused on the saturation of fatty acids in food. Another group of fatty acids with significance to health is trans fatty acids (TFAs). Trans fatty acids resemble saturated fat in a physiological sense but are shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease even more than saturated fat. Nevertheless, there are differences in the biological activity of different TFA isomers. The analysis of fatty acids has met an increasing demand for more and more precise identification. The correlation between saturated fat and cardiovascular diseases found in earlier decades has changed the nutritional recommendations to reducedfat dairy products. Reduced-fat dairy products are a way of reducing total energy in diet, too. Dairy products may have a modified fatty acid profile if fat sources other than milk are used. Modern methods, with a greater weight on mass spectrometric methods, for fatty acid analysis and the effects of fat on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dairy products are reviewed. Fat reduction changes the properties of cheese. The aim of the first part of the study was to characterise cheeses on the Finnish market and find out specifically the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses. The cheeses in the study were Emmental, Edam and Havarti-type cheeses. Chemical composition, sensory profile and consumer liking were studied. Cheese properties and liking were linked to identify the appealing characteristics of different cheeses. The second part of the study included fatty acid analysis. Dairy products on the market have variable fat sources of vegetable origin. It is known from the literature that hardened vegetable fats may have TFAs, but the current situation on the Finnish market was not known. The aim of the second part of the study was to survey the fatty acid profiles of milk-based dairy products (cheeses, vegetable fat ice creams, and vegetable fat cream substitutes) and spreads and shortenings on the market. Products with reduced-fat or modified fat were included. Free fatty acids are produced by lipolysis from fat. They have effect on the flavour of cheeses. Lipolysis can be enhanced by homogenisation. The aim of the third part of the study was to validate chromatographic method for free fatty acid analysis from cheese and to study the effect of homogenisation on free fatty acids in Emmental. The content of free fatty acids was joined to the sensory profile to find out if they have impact on flavour in the pilot Emmental cheeses. This study shows that it is possible to create reduced-fat cheeses with appealing characteristics. The properties influencing liking were slightly different in reduced-fat cheeses than in regular fat cheeses. Generally 4 reduced-fat cheeses were lacking flavour. The liking of reduced-fat cheeses might increase if flavour intensities could be increased. However, it is desirable that flavour intensity is not increased with salt, as this has negative health effects. The second part of the study shows that several milk-based products and spreads on the Finnish market do not contain remarkable amounts of trans fat. In addition, the fatty acid profiles of the cheeses are shown not to be affected by cheese variety or fat reduction. More interestingly, products have variable amounts of essential fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. Accurate identification requires good separation between fatty acid isomers. In this study polar and highly polar columns with 60 m or 100 m length were sufficient for cis/trans separation for nutritional purposes. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MSD gave detailed information on fatty acids in dairy food. Free fatty acids of Emmental cheese were quantitatively analysed by GCMSD without derivatisation. Internal standards were used to correct for the effect of sample treatment. The method was suitable for cheese and for shortand medium-chain fatty acids. These volatile fatty acids contribute to the flavour of cheese. The homogenisation of cheese milk increased the content of free fatty acids and the intensity of taste in trial cheeses. The defects, and on the other hand, the appealing characteristics of reduced-fat cheeses were studied. These results contribute to the development of appealing cheeses with reduced-fat content. The survey on fatty acids in dairy-based products gave up-to-date information on products on the market. These results have significance to nutritionists, dieticians, legislators and consumers, as this knowledge was not available before.
  • Laine, Taina M.; Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Yliaho, Maija; Anttila, Marjukka (BioMed Central, 2008)
    Background: Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a significant gastrointestinal disease in pigs. It is considered a multifactorial disease associated with proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of affected pigs. The aim of this study was to analyse risk factors related to the occurrence of PWD on Finnish piglet producing farms. Methods: The data of a follow-up study of 73 conventional piglet producing farms was used in the case-control study. The selection of the 41 PWD case and 28 control farms was based on the use of antimicrobials for treating diarrhoea in weaned pigs and the answers related to the occurrence of diarrhoea after weaning in the questionnaire. Four intermediate farms were excluded from the statistical analysis. Altogether 39 factors related to herd characteristics, weaner pig management and pig health were studied. The median number of sows was 59.0 (IQR = 44.0; 74.5) and 52.5 (IQR = 36.8; 61.5) on the case and the control farms, respectively. The significances of the univariable associations between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable were tested, and in the multivariate analysis quasibinomial generalized linear models were applied. Results: An increased risk of PWD was associated with the regimen of twice a day feeding and feed restriction after weaning (P = 0.02; compared to feeding three or more meals a day or the use of ad libitum feeding) and with a higher number of sows on the farm (P = 0.02; risk increasing with increasing number of sows). Automatic temperature control was associated with a decreased risk of PWD (P = 0.03; compared to manual temperature control). Conclusion: Twice a day feeding of newly-weaned pigs should be avoided if the amount of feed given is restricted. Variation in ambient temperature should be minimized in housing of newlyweaned pigs and this can be achieved by using automatic temperature control. With increasing number of sows in the herds the risk of PWD increases and more attention should be paid to prevention of post-weaning diarrhoea.
  • Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Nuotio, Lasse; Rikula, Ulla; Sihvonen, Liisa (Evira, 2009)
    Naudan virusripuli, BVD, on endeeminen ja prevalentti tauti Pohjois-Amerikan (Yhdysvallat ja Kanada) alueella. Suomessa BVD:n esiintyminen on saatu rajattua kansainvälisesti katsoen erittäin alhaiselle tasolle. Tämä kuvaileva riskinarviointi noudattaa Maailman eläintautijärjestön (OIE) ohjeiden mukaista jaottelua tuontiriskin arvioinnissa. 1. Vaaran tunnistus: Nautaeläinten keinosiemennys on eräs tunnettu BVD -viruksen (BVDV) tartuntareitti. Pohjois-Amerikasta maahan tuotavan sperman mahdollisesti sisältämää BVDV kontaminaatiota on pidettävä vaaratekijänä Suomen hyvän BVD -tilanteen kannalta. 2. Leviämisarvio: Pohjois-Amerikasta tuotavien sperma-annosten joukossa voi vuosittain olla joitakin BVDV:n kontaminoimia annoksia. Näihin annoksiin liittyy vähäinen, mutta ei täysin olematon riski BVDV - tartunnan leviämisestä suomalaiseen nautakarjaan. 3. Altistumisen arviointi: Kontaminoitujen tuontispermaerien oletetaan voivan aiheuttaa tartunnan ainakin puolessa altistuneista emistä. BVDV -tartunnan saaminen tätä kautta on vuositasolla harvinainen, mutta todennäköisyydeltään ei täysin olematon tapahtuma. 4. Seurausten arviointi: Pysyvästi infektoituneen (PI) vasikan syntymisen odotusarvona voidaan laskelman mukaan pitää yhtä PI vasikkaa / 4 – 8 vuotta. Gamma jakauman avulla mallinnetuista tapahtumien välisistä ajanjaksoista 90% on alle 11,2 ja vastaavasti alle 25,0 vuotta. 5. Riskin kokonaisarviointi: PI-vasikan syntyminen Pohjois-Amerikasta peräisin olevan sperman tuonnin seurauksena on varsin harvinainen tapahtuma. Tapahtuman potentiaalisten seurausten kannalta arvioitua taajuutta ei voi pitää täysin merkityksettömänä.
  • Suominen, Kimmo; Rosengren, Heidi; Sahlström, Leena (Evira, 2009)
    REE-tuotteet ovat vähittäiskaupan raakoja entisiä eläinperäisiä elintarvikkeita, jotka päiväyksen vanhenemisen tai jonkin muun syyn vuoksi poistetaan myynnistä. Tässä selvityksessä tarkastellaan tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat mahdollisuuteen, että sikarutto, suu- ja sorkkatauti tai korkeapatogeeninen lintuinfl uenssa leviävät tuotantoeläimiin REE-tuotteiden tai niistä biokaasutai kompostointilaitoksilla valmistettujen lannoitevalmisteiden välityksellä. Suomessa ei tällä hetkellä esiinny suu- ja sorkkatautia, sikaruttoa tai korkeapatogeenistä lintuinfl uenssaa. Suomeen on vuosina 2005–2007 tuotu tuoretta lihaa maista, joissa näitä tauteja on esiintynyt. Jos tartuntaa eläimessä tai virusta lihassa ei havaita ajoissa, saattaa virusta sisältävää lihaa päätyä markkinoille. Tällöin REE-tuotteet voivat sisältää eläintautiviruksia. Suomessa oli 31.12.2008 kolme eläinsivutuoteasetuksen (EU) No 1774/2002 mukaista biokaasulaitosta ja yksi kompostointilaitos sekä kolme jätteenpolttolaitosta. Näissä laitoksissa REE-tuotteiden hävittäminen on mahdollista. Näiden laitosten käsittelyjen katsotaan tuhoavan sikarutto-, suu- ja sorkkatauti- ja korkeapatogeenisen lintuinfl uenssaviruksen käsiteltävistä tuotteista. Suomessa on mahdollista käsitellä REE-tuotteita maa- ja metsätalousministeriön ja sosiaali- ja terveysministeriön esittämän käytännön mukaisesti 31.7.2011 saakka myös ns. kansallisin kriteerein tai pelkän ympäristölainsäädännön hyväksytyissä biokaasu- tai kompostointilaitoksissa sekä viedä REE-tuotteita ympäristölainsäädännön mukaisesti hyväksytyille kaatopaikoille. Tällaisten laitosten käsittelyvaatimukset (partikkelikoko, lämpötila) ovat lievempiä kuin eläinsivutuoteasetuksen mukaisten laitosten vaatimukset, eivätkä kansallisin kriteerein tai pelkän ympäristölainsäädännön perusteella hyväksyttyjen laitosten prosessit välttämättä riitä tuhoamaan kyseisiä eläintautiviruksia. Eläinsivutuoteasetuksen ja kansallisin kriteerein hyväksyttyjen biokaasu- ja kompostointilaitosten lopputuotteita voi käyttää lannoitevalmisteina. Jos jokin riskinhallintaketjun osa ei toimi ja REE-tuotteiden käsittelymenetelmät ovat riittämättömiä, saattaa muodostua reittejä, jotka mahdollistavat tuotantoeläinten altistumisen sikarutto-, suu- ja sorkkatauti- ja korkeapatogeeniselle lintuinfl uenssaviruksille esimerkiksi luonnonvaraisten eläinten tai saastuneen lannoitevalmisteen tai veden välityksellä.
  • Nevas, M.; Kalenius, S.; Lundén, J. (2013)
    Finnish food business operators' (FBOs) opinions of the food control inspections performed by local authorities were evaluated, using a questionnaire. The production types of FBOs included were slaughterhouses, meat, fish and milk plants, egg-packing plants and storage facilities dealing with foods of animal origin. Based on a total of 459 responses, we noted that the impacts of official controls were considered valuable for food safety, since 78.8% of the respondents saw that the actions taken based on inspections had enhanced the safety of the products. The results also highlighted the importance of inspectors being familiar with the production processes to increase the efficacy of food control. More frequent visits by official inspectors correlated positively with FBOs' conceptions of noncompliances being relevant for food safety. The FBOs saw local inspectors as the most important sources of new information concerning food safety legislation and 89.1% of the respondents confirmed that discussions with local inspectors had helped them understand the food safety risks within their processes. We also noted that the bigger the FBO, the more clearly they seem to perceive the risks associated with their processes (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.127, P = 0.009).
  • Dillard, Kati J.; Saari, Seppo A.M.; Anttila, Marjukka (BioMed Central, 2007)
    Background: Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation: Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion: The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice.
  • Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Hirvonen, Tero; Bäckman, Christina; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi (Evira, 2008)
    Maksa sisältää runsaasti A-vitamiinia ja monia muita ravintoaineita. Vaikka maksa on monipuolinen ruoka-aine, sen käytössä on myös haittansa. A-vitamiini esiintyy maksassa retinoidimuodossa, mikä voi jatkuvina suurina annoksina aiheuttaa myrkytyksen. Liiallisen A-vitamiinin saannin ehkäisemiseksi maksaruokia ei vuodesta 1990 lähtien ole suositeltu alle 1-vuotiaille. Leikki-ikäisten lasten maksaruokien (jauhemaksa- ja maksapihvi, maksakastike, maksalaatikko), maksamakkaran ja –pasteijan käyttöä on neuvottu rajoittamaan pariin kertaan kuukaudessa. Suositusten tarpeellisuuden arvioimiseksi Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto Evirassa tehtiin riskinarviointi suomalaislasten A-vitamiinin saannista maksaruokien välityksellä. Riskinarvioinnin tavoitteena oli arvioida 1-, 3- ja 6-vuotiaiden lasten altistumista maksaruokien retinoidimuotoiselle A-vitamiinille sekä samalla selvittää, tuleeko lasten maksaruokien käyttöä edelleen rajoittaa. Riskinarvioinnissa käytettiin maksaruokien kulutustietoja (DIPP-ravintotutkimus) sekä resepti- ja retinoidipitoisuustietoja. Monte Carlo -simulaatiolla arvioitiin A-vitamiinin ja retinoidien saantia maksaruoista sekä ilman maksaruokien käyttöä. Altistusta arvioitiin pitkäaikaissaantina sekä altistuksena kerta-annoksesta. Simulointituloksia verrattiin saantisuosituksiin ja saannin ylärajoihin. Simulointimallin avulla arvioitiin myös maksaruokien turvallista annoskokoa ja syöntitiheyttä. Riskinarvioinnissa tehtiin seuraavat johtopäätökset: 1. Vaikka maksansyönti auttaa joitain lapsia A-vitamiinin saantisuositusten täyttymisessä, se voi altistaa toisia lapsia liian suurille retinoidipitoisuuksille. 2. Todellisten maksansyöjien osuus on hyvin todennäköisesti suurempi kuin kolmen päivän ruoankäyttötietojen perusteella voidaan olettaa. 3. Tarkasteltaessa maksaruokien pitkäaikaiskäytön turvallisuutta todetaan, että annoskoon lisäksi syöntitiheydellä on keskeinen merkitys. Yksivuotias voi turvallisesti syödä maksamakkaraa tai –pasteijaa ja kolme- ja kuusivuotias kaikkia maksaruokia, kunhan syöntitiheys ei ole liian suuri. Turvallinen annoskoko ja syöntitiheys riippuvat lapsen iästä ja maksaruuasta. Yleisesti maksamakkaraa ja –pasteijaa voi käyttää useammin kuin maksalaatikkoa, maksakastiketta tai maksapihvejä.
  • Perkiömäki, Johanna; Leimi, Anna; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2012)
    Oheisessa selvityksessä on tunnistettu ja kuvattu suomalaisen lehmän ja vuohen raakamaidossa mahdollisesti olevia biologisia vaaroja, joista saattaa aiheutua kuluttajalle terveydellistä haittaa, sekä keinoja riskin vähentämiseksi. Raakamaidon kulutus on ollut Suomessa toistaiseksi vähäistä (n. 1 % maidon ja maitotuotteiden kulutuksesta), mutta käyttäjissä on myös riskiryhmiin kuuluvia kuluttajia. Kuluttajariskiä lisää joissakin kotikeittiössä sovelletut raakamaidon pitkät säilytysajat ja korkeat säilytyslämpötilat. Selvityksen perusteella tärkeimmät biologiset tekijät, jotka voivat aiheuttaa raakamaidon elintarviketurvallisuusriskejä Suomessa, ovat EHEC-, Listeria monocytogenes-, salmonella- ja kampylobakteerit. Ne saattavat aiheuttaa vakavia sairauksia ja jälkitauteja, ja niitä kaikkia on todettu suomalaisissa tuotantoeläimissä, ihmisissä ja navettaympäristössä. Suomalainen elintarviketurvallisuusjärjestelmä ei ota kovin hyvin huomioon raakamaidon tuotannon ja kulutuksen erityisominaisuuksia vaan riskinhallinta perustuu pitkälti hyvien hygieniakäytäntöjen lisäksi maidossa olevia mikrobeja tuhoavaan pastörointiin. Sen vuoksi olisi perusteltua luoda raakamaidon myyntimäärään ja toimintaan suhteutettu yhtenäinen, mahdollisia riskejä ennaltaehkäisevä kansallinen järjestelmä, sekä lisätä raakamaidon kanssa toimivien yritysten ja kuluttajien tietoa hyvistä tuotantotavoista ja turvallisesta käytöstä.
  • Koski, Perttu (Evira, 2013)
    Projektissa tehtiin kartoitus Suomessa tehdystä Gyrodactylus salaris – lohiloisen vastustyöstä. 80-luvun puolivälistä asti on pohjoisia Atlantin lohen jokiamme, Tenoa ja Näätämöä, suojeltu elävän kalan siirtokielloin ja suosituksin tai säädöksin kalastusvälineistön kuivaamisesta tai desinfioinnista. Suomen integroituminen Euroopan unioniin on tuonut lainsäädäntötyöhön kansainvälisen ulottuvuuden: on pitänyt vaikuttaa unionin kalatautilainsäädäntöön niin, että tehokas lohiloisen vastustus on edelleen ollut mahdollista. Ehkäisytyötä on ollut tekemässä suuri joukko paikallisista kalastusluvanmyyjistä keskushallintoviranomaisiin ja tieteelliseen tutkimukseen. Kansainvälinen yhteistyö on luonnollisesti ollut vilkkainta Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueiden naapurimme, Norjan, kanssa. Norjalaisiin arviointeihin ja Tenojoen vesistön sekä Tenon lohen biologian ominaisuuksiin pohjautuen esiselvityksessä todettiin, että valmiussuunnittelussa ei voida tähdätä Teno- tai Näätämöjoen vapauttamiseen lohiloistartunnasta, jos tartunta sinne pääsisi. Sen sijaan täytyisi ilmeisesti pyrkiä pelastamaan lohen geneettinen materiaali eläviin geenipankkeihin. Valmiussuunnittelulla tulisi selvittää, voitaisiinko istutuksilla ja mahdollisesti joitain loisesta puhdistettuja vesistön osia vaelluspoikasten kasvualueina säilyttämällä antaa lohikannalle tekohengitystä. Lohikannan ja lohenkalastuksen mahdollinen palauttaminen edellyttänee nykyistä paremmin lohiloista kestävän lohikannan aikaansaamista. Lohiloistartunnan aiheuttamien näkymien lohduttomuus alleviivaa ehkäisytoimien suurta merkitystä Teno- ja Näätämöjokien lohelle, lohenkalastukselle ja jokialueiden ihmisille. Valmiussuunnitelman teon aloittamista norjalaisten kanssa kuitenkin ehdotetaan, koska katastrofiskenaarion varalta pitäisi myös varautua. Valmiussuunnittelu lohiloisen varalta on Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueella poikkeuksellisen monimutkainen ja laaja eläintautiin varautumistehtävä.
  • Koski, Perttu (Evira, 2013)
    Projektissa tehtiin kartoitus Suomessa tehdystä Gyrodactylus salaris – lohiloisen vastustyöstä. 80-luvun puolivälistä asti on pohjoisia Atlantin lohen jokiamme, Tenoa ja Näätämöä, suojeltu elävän kalan siirtokielloin ja suosituksin tai säädöksin kalastusvälineistön kuivaamisesta tai desinfioinnista. Suomen integroituminen Euroopan unioniin on tuonut lainsäädäntötyöhön kansainvälisen ulottuvuuden: on pitänyt vaikuttaa unionin kalatautilainsäädäntöön niin, että tehokas lohiloisen vastustus on edelleen ollut mahdollista. Ehkäisytyötä on ollut tekemässä suuri joukko paikallisista kalastusluvanmyyjistä keskushallintoviranomaisiin ja tieteelliseen tutkimukseen. Kansainvälinen yhteistyö on luonnollisesti ollut vilkkainta Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueiden naapurimme, Norjan, kanssa. Norjalaisiin arviointeihin ja Tenojoen vesistön sekä Tenon lohen biologian ominaisuuksiin pohjautuen esiselvityksessä todettiin, että valmiussuunnittelussa ei voida tähdätä Teno- tai Näätämöjoen vapauttamiseen lohiloistartunnasta, jos tartunta sinne pääsisi. Sen sijaan täytyisi ilmeisesti pyrkiä pelastamaan lohen geneettinen materiaali eläviin geenipankkeihin. Valmiussuunnittelulla tulisi selvittää, voitaisiinko istutuksilla ja mahdollisesti joitain loisesta puhdistettuja vesistön osia vaelluspoikasten kasvualueina säilyttämällä antaa lohikannalle tekohengitystä. Lohikannan ja lohenkalastuksen mahdollinen palauttaminen edellyttänee nykyistä paremmin lohiloista kestävän lohikannan aikaansaamista. Lohiloistartunnan aiheuttamien näkymien lohduttomuus alleviivaa ehkäisytoimien suurta merkitystä Teno- ja Näätämöjokien lohelle, lohenkalastukselle ja jokialueiden ihmisille. Valmiussuunnitelman teon aloittamista norjalaisten kanssa kuitenkin ehdotetaan, koska katastrofiskenaarion varalta pitäisi myös varautua. Valmiussuunnittelu lohiloisen varalta on Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueella poikkeuksellisen monimutkainen ja laaja eläintautiin varautumistehtävä.
  • Nokireki, T.; Laine, T.; London, L.; Ikonen, N.; Huovilainen, A. (2013)
    Background: Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results: In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1) pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland.
  • Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (Evira, 2007)
    Lead and cadmium are toxic elements, which are a natural part of earth crust. They are taken up from the soil and transferred upwards in the plant and animal food chain. Cadmium is widely distributed throughout the natural environment with human activities having an important role in its dispersion into the biosphere. The natural sources of cadmium are volcanic eruptions and old granite rocks, which are an important geochemical source. Anthropogenic sources of cadmium are related mainly to mining, fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. Leaded gasoline has been most important source of atmospheric lead. However, most countries have now prohibited the use of leaded gasoline. This action has greatly reduced emissions of lead into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources of lead other than traffic are typically fossil fuel combustion, non-ferrous metal production and iron and steel production. Zinc and copper are important constituents in a number of different enzyme functions in man and animals. Zinc and copper reach the environment via industrial releases involving production and refining of metals. In 1997 emissions of heavy metal particulates were only a third of their values in the early 1990s due to the installation of sulphur removal systems. In this study lead, cadmium, copper and zinc levels in Finnish game animals (moose, hares) and farmed game animal (reindeer) were studied during twenty years period. About 500 moose were collected between 1980 and 1999 from south western, southern, central and south eastern Finland. About the same number of Mountain and European hare samples were collected during the period 1980 and 1993 from south western, southern, south eastern and northern Finland. About 300 reindeer were collected in 1990–1992 from southern, eastern, western and northern Lapland. After these initial projects, it was decided to collect moose and reindeer samples every year as part of national residue control program; fifteen moose and ten reindeer per year. In this residue control program, also cattle samples have been collected regularly; muscle, liver and kidney from 30 animals in every year. The lead and cadmium levels in muscle tissue has decreased in all studied animals during the monitoring years being now near to the limit of quantification; 0.01 mg/kg w.w. for lead and 0.001 mg/kg w.w for cadmium. Also the lead levels in liver and kidney samples have decreased during the monitoring period but the moose cadmium levels have increased. The zinc levels had also increased in moose samples but there were no significant correlation with increasing cadmium and zinc levels. The lead levels in liver and kidney in moose varied in 1999 from 0.04 to 0.07 mg/kg w.w. and 0.05-0.07 mg/kg w.w. The corresponding values for cadmium are 0.71-1.28 mg/kg w.w. and 4.95- 6.18 mg/kg w.w. The cadmium and lead levels in Mountain hares are higher than in European hares and the kidney cadmium levels in Mountain hares are statistically significantly higher than the kidney cadmium levels in moose. The lead levels in liver and kidney samples in both adult and calves of reindeer have been invariably below the recommended maximum level in the EU (0.5 mg/kg). However, the kidney cadmium level exceeds the maximum level (1.0 mg/kg) in almost all adult reindeer samples and also in some calves. The meat of Finnish moose, reindeer and hares does not contain residues of cadmium and lead and therefore consumers can be assured that consumption of the meat is not a health risk. The consumption of the organs of the animals studied may represent a health risk for human. However, the levels are far from the toxic levels to the animals themselves.