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  • Koski, Perttu (Evira, 2013)
    Projektissa tehtiin kartoitus Suomessa tehdystä Gyrodactylus salaris – lohiloisen vastustyöstä. 80-luvun puolivälistä asti on pohjoisia Atlantin lohen jokiamme, Tenoa ja Näätämöä, suojeltu elävän kalan siirtokielloin ja suosituksin tai säädöksin kalastusvälineistön kuivaamisesta tai desinfioinnista. Suomen integroituminen Euroopan unioniin on tuonut lainsäädäntötyöhön kansainvälisen ulottuvuuden: on pitänyt vaikuttaa unionin kalatautilainsäädäntöön niin, että tehokas lohiloisen vastustus on edelleen ollut mahdollista. Ehkäisytyötä on ollut tekemässä suuri joukko paikallisista kalastusluvanmyyjistä keskushallintoviranomaisiin ja tieteelliseen tutkimukseen. Kansainvälinen yhteistyö on luonnollisesti ollut vilkkainta Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueiden naapurimme, Norjan, kanssa. Norjalaisiin arviointeihin ja Tenojoen vesistön sekä Tenon lohen biologian ominaisuuksiin pohjautuen esiselvityksessä todettiin, että valmiussuunnittelussa ei voida tähdätä Teno- tai Näätämöjoen vapauttamiseen lohiloistartunnasta, jos tartunta sinne pääsisi. Sen sijaan täytyisi ilmeisesti pyrkiä pelastamaan lohen geneettinen materiaali eläviin geenipankkeihin. Valmiussuunnittelulla tulisi selvittää, voitaisiinko istutuksilla ja mahdollisesti joitain loisesta puhdistettuja vesistön osia vaelluspoikasten kasvualueina säilyttämällä antaa lohikannalle tekohengitystä. Lohikannan ja lohenkalastuksen mahdollinen palauttaminen edellyttänee nykyistä paremmin lohiloista kestävän lohikannan aikaansaamista. Lohiloistartunnan aiheuttamien näkymien lohduttomuus alleviivaa ehkäisytoimien suurta merkitystä Teno- ja Näätämöjokien lohelle, lohenkalastukselle ja jokialueiden ihmisille. Valmiussuunnitelman teon aloittamista norjalaisten kanssa kuitenkin ehdotetaan, koska katastrofiskenaarion varalta pitäisi myös varautua. Valmiussuunnittelu lohiloisen varalta on Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueella poikkeuksellisen monimutkainen ja laaja eläintautiin varautumistehtävä.
  • Koski, Perttu (Evira, 2013)
    Projektissa tehtiin kartoitus Suomessa tehdystä Gyrodactylus salaris – lohiloisen vastustyöstä. 80-luvun puolivälistä asti on pohjoisia Atlantin lohen jokiamme, Tenoa ja Näätämöä, suojeltu elävän kalan siirtokielloin ja suosituksin tai säädöksin kalastusvälineistön kuivaamisesta tai desinfioinnista. Suomen integroituminen Euroopan unioniin on tuonut lainsäädäntötyöhön kansainvälisen ulottuvuuden: on pitänyt vaikuttaa unionin kalatautilainsäädäntöön niin, että tehokas lohiloisen vastustus on edelleen ollut mahdollista. Ehkäisytyötä on ollut tekemässä suuri joukko paikallisista kalastusluvanmyyjistä keskushallintoviranomaisiin ja tieteelliseen tutkimukseen. Kansainvälinen yhteistyö on luonnollisesti ollut vilkkainta Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueiden naapurimme, Norjan, kanssa. Norjalaisiin arviointeihin ja Tenojoen vesistön sekä Tenon lohen biologian ominaisuuksiin pohjautuen esiselvityksessä todettiin, että valmiussuunnittelussa ei voida tähdätä Teno- tai Näätämöjoen vapauttamiseen lohiloistartunnasta, jos tartunta sinne pääsisi. Sen sijaan täytyisi ilmeisesti pyrkiä pelastamaan lohen geneettinen materiaali eläviin geenipankkeihin. Valmiussuunnittelulla tulisi selvittää, voitaisiinko istutuksilla ja mahdollisesti joitain loisesta puhdistettuja vesistön osia vaelluspoikasten kasvualueina säilyttämällä antaa lohikannalle tekohengitystä. Lohikannan ja lohenkalastuksen mahdollinen palauttaminen edellyttänee nykyistä paremmin lohiloista kestävän lohikannan aikaansaamista. Lohiloistartunnan aiheuttamien näkymien lohduttomuus alleviivaa ehkäisytoimien suurta merkitystä Teno- ja Näätämöjokien lohelle, lohenkalastukselle ja jokialueiden ihmisille. Valmiussuunnitelman teon aloittamista norjalaisten kanssa kuitenkin ehdotetaan, koska katastrofiskenaarion varalta pitäisi myös varautua. Valmiussuunnittelu lohiloisen varalta on Teno- ja Näätämöjokien alueella poikkeuksellisen monimutkainen ja laaja eläintautiin varautumistehtävä.
  • Nokireki, T.; Laine, T.; London, L.; Ikonen, N.; Huovilainen, A. (2013)
    Background: Swine influenza is an infectious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus. We investigated the time of entry of swine influenza into the Finnish pig population. We also describe the molecular detection of two types of influenza A (H1N1) viruses in porcine samples submitted in 2009 and 2010. This retrospective study was based on three categories of samples: blood samples collected for disease monitoring from pigs at major slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2009; blood samples from pigs in farms with a special health status taken in 2008 and 2009; and diagnostic blood samples from pigs in farms with clinical signs of respiratory disease in 2008 and 2009. The blood samples were tested for influenza A antibodies with an antibody ELISA. Positive samples were further analyzed for H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Diagnostic samples for virus detection were subjected to influenza A M-gene-specific real-time RT-PCR and to pandemic influenza A H1N1-specific real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCRs designed for this purpose, and the PCR products were sequenced and sequences analyzed phylogenetically. Results: In the blood samples from pigs in special health class farms producing replacement animals and in diagnostic blood samples, the first serologically positive samples originated from the period July–August 2008. In samples collected for disease monitoring, < 0.1%, 0% and 16% were positive for antibodies against influenza A H1N1 in the HI test in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Swine influenza A virus of avian-like H1N1 was first detected in diagnostic samples in February 2009. In 2009 and 2010, the avian-like H1N1 virus was detected on 12 and two farms, respectively. The pandemic H1N1 virus (A(H1N1) pdm09) was detected on one pig farm in 2009 and on two farms in 2010. Conclusions: Based on our study, swine influenza of avian-like H1N1 virus was introduced into the Finnish pig population in 2008 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. The source of avian-like H1N1 infection could not be determined. Cases of pandemic H1N1 in pigs coincided with the period when the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was spread in humans in Finland.
  • Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka (2014)
  • Rintala, Eeva-Maria; Ekholm, Päivi; Koivisto, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (2014)
  • Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (Evira, 2007)
    Lead and cadmium are toxic elements, which are a natural part of earth crust. They are taken up from the soil and transferred upwards in the plant and animal food chain. Cadmium is widely distributed throughout the natural environment with human activities having an important role in its dispersion into the biosphere. The natural sources of cadmium are volcanic eruptions and old granite rocks, which are an important geochemical source. Anthropogenic sources of cadmium are related mainly to mining, fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. Leaded gasoline has been most important source of atmospheric lead. However, most countries have now prohibited the use of leaded gasoline. This action has greatly reduced emissions of lead into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources of lead other than traffic are typically fossil fuel combustion, non-ferrous metal production and iron and steel production. Zinc and copper are important constituents in a number of different enzyme functions in man and animals. Zinc and copper reach the environment via industrial releases involving production and refining of metals. In 1997 emissions of heavy metal particulates were only a third of their values in the early 1990s due to the installation of sulphur removal systems. In this study lead, cadmium, copper and zinc levels in Finnish game animals (moose, hares) and farmed game animal (reindeer) were studied during twenty years period. About 500 moose were collected between 1980 and 1999 from south western, southern, central and south eastern Finland. About the same number of Mountain and European hare samples were collected during the period 1980 and 1993 from south western, southern, south eastern and northern Finland. About 300 reindeer were collected in 1990–1992 from southern, eastern, western and northern Lapland. After these initial projects, it was decided to collect moose and reindeer samples every year as part of national residue control program; fifteen moose and ten reindeer per year. In this residue control program, also cattle samples have been collected regularly; muscle, liver and kidney from 30 animals in every year. The lead and cadmium levels in muscle tissue has decreased in all studied animals during the monitoring years being now near to the limit of quantification; 0.01 mg/kg w.w. for lead and 0.001 mg/kg w.w for cadmium. Also the lead levels in liver and kidney samples have decreased during the monitoring period but the moose cadmium levels have increased. The zinc levels had also increased in moose samples but there were no significant correlation with increasing cadmium and zinc levels. The lead levels in liver and kidney in moose varied in 1999 from 0.04 to 0.07 mg/kg w.w. and 0.05-0.07 mg/kg w.w. The corresponding values for cadmium are 0.71-1.28 mg/kg w.w. and 4.95- 6.18 mg/kg w.w. The cadmium and lead levels in Mountain hares are higher than in European hares and the kidney cadmium levels in Mountain hares are statistically significantly higher than the kidney cadmium levels in moose. The lead levels in liver and kidney samples in both adult and calves of reindeer have been invariably below the recommended maximum level in the EU (0.5 mg/kg). However, the kidney cadmium level exceeds the maximum level (1.0 mg/kg) in almost all adult reindeer samples and also in some calves. The meat of Finnish moose, reindeer and hares does not contain residues of cadmium and lead and therefore consumers can be assured that consumption of the meat is not a health risk. The consumption of the organs of the animals studied may represent a health risk for human. However, the levels are far from the toxic levels to the animals themselves.
  • Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta (Evira, 2007)
    Lead and cadmium are toxic elements, which are a natural part of earth crust. They are taken up from the soil and transferred upwards in the plant and animal food chain. Cadmium is widely distributed throughout the natural environment with human activities having an important role in its dispersion into the biosphere. The natural sources of cadmium are volcanic eruptions and old granite rocks, which are an important geochemical source. Anthropogenic sources of cadmium are related mainly to mining, fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. Leaded gasoline has been most important source of atmospheric lead. However, most countries have now prohibited the use of leaded gasoline. This action has greatly reduced emissions of lead into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources of lead other than traffic are typically fossil fuel combustion, non-ferrous metal production and iron and steel production. Zinc and copper are important constituents in a number of different enzyme functions in man and animals. Zinc and copper reach the environment via industrial releases involving production and refining of metals. In 1997 emissions of heavy metal particulates were only a third of their values in the early 1990s due to the installation of sulphur removal systems. In this study lead, cadmium, copper and zinc levels in Finnish game animals (moose, hares) and farmed game animal (reindeer) were studied during twenty years period. About 500 moose were collected between 1980 and 1999 from south western, southern, central and south eastern Finland. About the same number of Mountain and European hare samples were collected during the period 1980 and 1993 from south western, southern, south eastern and northern Finland. About 300 reindeer were collected in 1990–1992 from southern, eastern, western and northern Lapland. After these initial projects, it was decided to collect moose and reindeer samples every year as part of national residue control program; fifteen moose and ten reindeer per year. In this residue control program, also cattle samples have been collected regularly; muscle, liver and kidney from 30 animals in every year. The lead and cadmium levels in muscle tissue has decreased in all studied animals during the monitoring years being now near to the limit of quantification; 0.01 mg/kg w.w. for lead and 0.001 mg/kg w.w for cadmium. Also the lead levels in liver and kidney samples have decreased during the monitoring period but the moose cadmium levels have increased. The zinc levels had also increased in moose samples but there were no significant 5 correlation with increasing cadmium and zinc levels. The lead levels in liver and kidney in moose varied in 1999 from 0.04 to 0.07 mg/kg w.w. and 0.05-0.07 mg/kg w.w. The corresponding values for cadmium are 0.71-1.28 mg/kg w.w. and 4.95- 6.18 mg/kg w.w. The cadmium and lead levels in Mountain hares are higher than in European hares and the kidney cadmium levels in Mountain hares are statistically significantly higher than the kidney cadmium levels in moose. The lead levels in liver and kidney samples in both adult and calves of reindeer have been invariably below the recommended maximum level in the EU (0.5 mg/kg). However, the kidney cadmium level exceeds the maximum level (1.0 mg/kg) in almost all adult reindeer samples and also in some calves. The meat of Finnish moose, reindeer and hares does not contain residues of cadmium and lead and therefore consumers can be assured that consumption of the meat is not a health risk. The consumption of the organs of the animals studied may represent a health risk for human. However, the levels are far from the toxic levels to the animals themselves.
  • Nilssen, Arne C.; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2008)
    About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae), some of them nearly fullgrown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces), and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host.
  • Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Maurella, Cristiana; Nöremark, Maria; Ingravalle, Francesco; Thorgeirsdottir, Stefania; Orge, Leonor; Poizat, Renaud; Hautaniemi, Maria; Liam, Barry; Calavas, Didier; Ru, Giuseppe; Hopp, Petter (BioMedcentral, 2010)
    Background: During the last decade, active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been intensive in Europe. In many countries this has led to the detection of cases of atypical scrapie which, unlike classical scrapie, might not be contagious. EU legislation requires, that following detection of a scrapie case, control measures including further testing take place in affected flocks, including the culling of genotype susceptible to classical scrapie. This might result in the detection of additional cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of additional cases in flocks affected by atypical scrapie using surveillance data collected in Europe in order to ascertain whether atypical scrapie, is contagious. Results: Questionnaires were used to collect, at national level, the results of active surveillance and testing associated with flock outbreaks in 12 European countries. The mean prevalence of atypical scrapie was 5.5 (5.0-6.0) cases per ten thousand in abattoir surveillance and 8.1 (7.3-9.0) cases per ten thousand in fallen stock. By using meta-analysis, on 11 out of the 12 countries, we found that the probability of detecting additional cases of atypical scrapie in positive flocks was similar to the probability observed in animals slaughtered for human consumption (odds ratio, OR = 1.07, CI95%: 0.70-1.63) or among fallen stock (OR = 0.78, CI95%: 0.51-1.2). In contrast, when comparing the two scrapie types, the probability of detecting additional cases in classical scrapie positive flocks was significantly higher than the probability of detecting additional cases in atypical scrapie positive flocks (OR = 32.4, CI95%: 20.7-50.7). Conclusions: These results suggest that atypical scrapie is not contagious or has a very low transmissibility under natural conditions compared with classical scrapie. Furthermore this study stressed the importance of standardised data collection to make good use of the analyses undertaken by European countries in their efforts to control atypical and classical scrapie.
  • Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Niemi, Jarkko; Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Lehtonen, Heikki (Evira, 2011)
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral epizootic disease of cloven-footed animals, which is controlled both by domestic and EU legislation. FMD has not been found in Finland since 1959. The aim of this risk assessment was, by using Monte Carlo simulations, to assess how FMD would spread, the economic consequences of an outbreak and the feasibility of emergency vaccination in case of an outbreak in Finland. The study was based on data from the Finnish cattle and swine production sectors from 2006. If FMD was introduced to a Finnish pig or cattle farm, it would in most cases spread to four other farms and the disease would be brought under control after 5 weeks. In one-third of the cases, the disease would remain a sporadic case and would not spread at all from the first infected farm. Even a larger outbreak would remain relatively small and short. In the worst case scenario, FMD virus would spread to 29 farms before the disease was eradicated. The mean economic consequences of a sporadic outbreak would be €23 million. In the worst case scenario, the economic losses would be more than €38 million. Emergency vaccination is not a feasible option according to this study, because the current EU measures are able to stop the spread of disease and because vaccination can incur considerable extra costs due to prolonged export distortions.
  • Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli (Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board, 2010)
    Range expansion of ectoparasites can cause parasites to attack new host species. In these cases it is important for the parasite to be able to adapt to the new environment and to reproduce on the host. For the host, it is crucial to hinder successfully the development of long-lasting parasitic relationship. The deer ked ( Lipoptena cervi) is a novel ectoparasite for northern cervids. We investigated of the deer ked can use the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) as a host and, if it can, wether antiparsitic treatment against this parasite would be available. Three groups of reindeer were monitored: two groups of 6 reindeerr were infected with 300 flies per each individual; a control group comprised 6 animals. One of the infected groups was treated with subcutaneous ivermectin. At the end of the experiment the infextation rate of the infected animals was low. The reindeer in the non-treated group had both live and dead deer keds and also a single pupa while the ivermectin-treated reindeer had only dead deer keds. As some deer keds survided and reproduced, thedeer ked can potentially use the reindeer as a host but antiparasitic treatment may be effective agains this parasite.
  • Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís (2014)
  • Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn (BioMed Central, 2009)
    Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods: During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Results: Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion: This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Kortet, Raine; Kuusela, Jussi; Oksanen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2009)
    Background: Recent studies have revealed expansion by an array of Filarioid nematodes' into the northern boreal region of Finland. The vector-borne nematode, Setaria tundra, caused a serious disease outbreak in the Finnish reindeer population in 2003–05. The main aim of this study was to understand the outbreak dynamics and the rapid expansion of S. tundra in the sub arctic. We describe the vectors of S. tundra, and its development in vectors, for the first time. Finally we discuss the results in the context of the host-parasite ecology of S. tundra in Finland Results: Development of S. tundra to the infective stage occurs in mosquitoes, (genera Aedes and Anopheles). We consider Aedes spp. the most important vectors. The prevalence of S. tundra naturally infected mosquitoes from Finland varied from 0.5 to 2.5%. The rate of development in mosquitoes was temperature-dependent. Infective larvae were present approximately 14 days after a blood meal in mosquitoes maintained at room temperature (mean 21 C), but did not develop in mosquitoes maintained outside for 22 days at a mean temperature of 14.1 C. The third-stage (infective) larvae were elongated (mean length 1411 m (SD 207), and width 28 m (SD 2)). The anterior end was blunt, and bore two liplike structures, the posterior end slight tapering with a prominent terminal papilla. Infective larvae were distributed anteriorly in the insect's body, the highest abundance being 70 larvae in one mosquito. A questionnaire survey revealed that the peak activity of Culicidae in the reindeer herding areas of Finland was from the middle of June to the end of July and that warm summer weather was associated with reindeer flocking behaviour on mosquito-rich wetlands. Conclusion: In the present work, S. tundra vectors and larval development were identified and described for the first time. Aedes spp. mosquitoes likely serve as the most important and competent vectors for S. tundra in Finland. Warm summers apparently promote transmission and genesis of disease outbreaks by favouring the development of S. tundra in its mosquito vectors, by improving the development and longevity of mosquitoes, and finally by forcing the reindeer to flock on mosquito rich wetlands. Thus we predict that global climate change has the potential to promote the further emergence of Filarioid nematodes and the disease caused by them in subarctic regions.
  • Pitkälä, Anna; Virtanen, Terhi; Joutsen, Suvi; Leimi, Anna; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2009)
    Yersinioosi on Yersinia enterocolitica- tai Y. pseudotuberculosis -bakteereiden aiheuttama suolistoinfektio. Sen pääoireet ovat kuume, vatsakivut, ripuli ja oksentelu, jotka kestävät tavallisesti 1-3 viikkoa. Oireet voivat muistuttaa umpilisäkkeen tulehdusta ja johtaa turhaan umpilisäkkeen poistoon. Tauti voi aiheuttaa vuosia kestäviä jälkitauteja. Suomessa raportoidaan vuosittain 500-700 yersiniatartuntaa. Y. enterocolitica aiheuttaa yleensä yksittäisiä infektioita; viimeisten 10 vuoden aikana on todettu yksi epidemia. Y. pseudotuberculosis on aiheuttanut yhdeksän epidemiaa, mikä on kansainvälisestikin poikkeuksellista. Sianlihaa pidetään Y. enterocolitican tärkeimpänä tartunnanlähteenä ihmiselle. Y. pseudotuberculosis -epidemioissa kasvikset, erityisesti porkkanat on todettu epidemioiden lähteeksi. Suomalainen sika toimii Y. enterocolitican varastona. Tähän asti on arveltu, että valtaosa yersiniatapauksista olisi kotimaisia, mutta luultavasti tartuntojen kotimaisuusaste on oletettua alhaisempi. Enteropatogeenisista yersinioista tarvittaisiin lisää tietoa riskinarviointia varten, jotta riskinhallinta voitaisiin kohdentaa oikein. Ensin tarvitaan kuitenkin toimivia analyysimenetelmiä, jotta riskielintarvikkeita ja tartuntateitä voidaan selvittää.